With the United States while some researchers

With varying opinions on political polarization, partisan conflict, and the importance of both in the modern society of today, numerous scholars have documented the rising partisan polarization among citizens and politicians in the United States while some researchers say that the problem is over exaggerated and is a myth (Fiorina, Abrams, and Pope, 2005; McCarty, Poole, and Rosenthal, 2005). Fiorina et al. (2016) argue that the American population is not more ideologically polarized today than a generation ago, unless it was already polarized a generation ago but no one noticed. Moreover, the authors believe that if the red-blue polarization was as deep as “many claim,” then there won’t be such differing voting patterns that indicate the same voters voting differently when the parties offer different candidates who emphasize different issues and positions (_). Similarly, in their 2005 study, Fiorina et al. (2005) note the lack of significant increase in the measured polarization of the voting population matched to the congressional polarization, concluding that the polarization in Congress is not spread into the everyday lives of Americans. In contrast, Abramowitz and Saunders (2005) argue that the American public is less moderate than we know and has become even less so in recent years. Likewise, Jensen et al. (2012) find that political debate is not confined to legislatures but is instead generated by private citizens. In their study of dynamics of political language and its impact on political polarization, using data from 130 years of partisan speech in and outside of Congress Jensen et al. (2012) argue that polarization of political discussion is a very strong negative predictor of legislative efficiency; the results suggest that ideological polarization outside of Congress does indeed get in congressional behavior when the public is truly at ideological “loggerheads.” Thus, many researches do indeed find U.S. politics unusually polarized in the last 30 years after conducting a quantitative study of congressional polarization based on roll-call votes (McC). Thus, as often noted by the media, policymaking has become very difficult, resulting in a nation bitterly divided and expanding the effect of voting along the party lines has significantly (Brewer, 2005). Not only the number of issues where partisan conflict is present has increased, but also the relationships of partisanship and ideology has strengthened, influencing the public’s opinions and votes on important social, racial, economics, and religious matters (Taylor, 2006).


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