When Nicolaus Copernicuscame along, that was the first time that the Ptolemaic system was seriouslychallenged.
“In any case, in DeRevolutionibus, Copernicus did argue successfully that, rather than the sunrevolving around the earth (the geocentrictheory), the earth revolved around the sun (the heliocentric theory)” (Hergenhahn & Henley 100). Copernicus’sargument was later on then seen as going against the church, he was willing topresent his work despite what the outcome maybe. After Copernicus was Giordano Bruno,”Giordano Bruno (1548-1600) was a former Dominican priest who developed aninterest in the ancient philosophy of Hermetism” (Hergenhahn & Henley 100).He died for finding an interest in the theories that Copernicus had presented.
Henot only died for believing in Copernicus theories but also because he believedthat it had restored what the ancient gods had believed in. After Copernicus’stheories it took a while for someone else to challenge what he presented, andthe next person to do so was Johannes Kepler first started out wanting to becomea Lutheran minister, but was unable to stick with their doctrine, therefore, switchingover to astronomy and math. Kepler was a combination of both Copernicus and Bruno.”… like Copernicus, was a Platonist seeking the simple mathematical harmonythat describes the universe.
Second, like Bruno, Kepler saw the sun as amystical force and, as such, he was attracted to the greater dignity given tothe sun in the Copernican system” (Hergenhahn & Henley 102). Kepler alsocontributed to the theories of vision, he believed that vision was theprojection of exact copies of objects or images into the sensory receptors, buthe also questioned the positons of images reflecting into the retinas. The last personwas Galileo, “Galileo viewed the universe as a perfect machine whose workingscould be understood only in mathematical terms…” (Hergenhahn & Henley 102).Galileo was the creator of the telescope he wanted to see the moons and thestars and that’s what he did, although at that time he was not liked for itbecause it want against the churches doctrine.
Copernicus, Bruno, Kepler, andGalileo all are important to today’s society because they all contributed towhat we know as the visuals of the moon and the stars. Without their wonderingwe may have never know what gave us light and what was happening outside of theearth. Galileo especially helped us because creating the telescope helped us todiscover what was on the outside of the planet that we lived on. Although,these things are interesting to us it was a sin in the Church world at thattime they felt it went against what they had known and it was made up heresies.
References:Hergenhahn, B. R., and Tracy B. Henley.
Anintroduction to the history of psychology. Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2014.