What all human beings in terms of

is human security? Why human security is now popular than state security?
Although the state remains constant a central power of security, it is not
sufficient situation for human well-beings. If so, when is human security
originated? It started originally in the early 1990s. With regard to connection
with the immediate post- Cold War period, the definition of human security was
demonstrated in the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), Human
Development Report in 1994. (CHS, 2003)

human security approach widens the scope of security analysis and policy from
territorial security to the people’s security which means people are safe from
traditional (military) and non-traditional security (diseases) challenges.
Therefore, it can be defined as “protecting the vital core of all human lives
that upgrade human freedoms and human fulfillment and creating political,
social, environmental, economic, military and cultural systems that together
give people the building blocks of survival, livelihood and dignity.” (CHS, 2003)

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the contemporary world, oppression is heading to overweight violations of human
rights based on many conditions, i.e incident conflicts, genocide, war crimes,
crimes against humanity, displacement, movements of refugees and migrants
crisis or massive scales, etc.  In these
situations, people who are violated human rights will not be felt safety.  Most liberalists say that people will be
secure through universal human rights. Since we are human beings, we all have
to enjoy our own freedom without binding any force.  So, human rights are important to be secure
for all human beings in terms of economic security, food security, health
security, environmental security, personal security, community security and
political security.  The Universal
Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) instruments are all meant to make human
beings secure in freedom, in dignity, with equality, through the protection of
their basic human rights.

migrant workers issues in Thailand represent one of the worst issues that
failed in human securities whereas UDHR described all basic human rights. Although
realizing human rights lies at the core of protecting and empowering people,
this issue contradicts with Article 23 in UDHR. Concerning with the migrant
issues, I will highlight about Myanmar where workers experience violations of
the right to work equally and the right to return of equal pay for equal
work.  Mostly Myanmar migrant workers are
employed as manual labor and domestic workers, particularly in fishing, fish
processing, construction, agriculture, animal rearing, restaurant/food services
and tourism abroad. The case has highlighted that over two million Myanmar
migrant workers to Thailand are got the poor treatment. (Mathieson,
These workers are abused by killings, beatings, human trafficking and
mistreatment of workers in the offshore fishing industry and even in the
tourism sector. (Mathieson, 2014)

this case, to what extent human security is not secure for those migrant
workers. Although United Nations consider Universal Declaration of Human Rights
as necessary for all countries to be secure, this case highlights the lack of
human security and lack of fulfillment of human needs in UDHR. Moreover, there is
no economic security in those workers. They are violated human rights and they
are not secured but there is no one who takes responsibility for them. So, UDHR
is not well effective in order to protect human security.

rights violations continue to be reported in different countries including
armed conflicts. All of them are connected with ethnic, religious or cultural
lies.  Mostly, conflicts destroy places
like schools, families or communities. During an armed conflict, women and
children are usually suffered a lot. They lost nutritious food, enough health
care, a decent education, shelter and even a family. Overall, 43 out of every
100 women suffered by the internal armed conflict have been victims of
different forms of violence based on their gender1.
Usually, women and children are more suffered than men during an armed conflict
especially in sexual violence. After being violated, women are dismissed by the
community or family. They even got trauma in their mind. They are even regarded
as ‘damaged goods’ by the surroundings.

so, where is the human security for that suffering women? Who has the
responsibility to protect? Because of the suffering of women and children in
many conflicted areas of the world, the council proclaims the Declaration on
the Protection of Women and Children in Emergency and Armed Conflict with six
articles. However, it is not seen to take effective and enough action on that case.
They didn’t get any concepts related what is human right and what is human
security. So, this convention fails to promote human security for all women and
children suffered in armed conflicts. Unless human rights are significantly fulfilled,
human security cannot be well enhanced to all human beings.

a conclusion, we have to accept that these two conventions have weak points
because they are just declarations and they are not legally binding.  So, if these declarations are going to change
into laws and countries are ratified to what they need, there won’t be
unnecessary consequences. Moreover, these laws could take legal action and
protection over people who are suffered unlawfully. People must be protected by
means of human security while facing sudden and profound reversals in economic
and social life. If not only the necessary conventions but also States respect universal
human rights, people will be secure from both traditional and non-traditional
securities challenges in terms of human security approach.

Susan Mckay, The Effects of Armed Conflict on Girls and Women


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