War is acommon thing on the African continent. Conflicts have occurred in Africa suchas religious conflicts, civil wars, ethnic conflicts, opposition-governmentconflicts, and other domestic wars.
As a result of the war, the African regionis very vulnerable to experience the instability of the region and eventuallycause a prolonged impact such as the emergence of a prolonged crisis both ineconomic, social, and political (www.journal.unair.
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ac.id).One of the countries in the Africancontinent that is in conflict is the CAR. This was evident during theadministration of President François Bozizé in 2003 to March. Since Bozizé ledthe CAR, there has been resistance from some of the rebel forces. The rebellioncontinues because of the economic and political weaknesses in the CARgovernment. At that time the CAR’s internal condition was very worrying.Extreme poverty, government institutions, and economic development that bothhave no power at all make the CAR population less supportive of the government.
The anti-Bozizé northern population CAR considers Bozizé failed to upholddemocratic commitments, delayed economic reforms and delayed the implementationof promised politics. It was then that made the rebel group take activeresistance against the government (www.usip.org).After 6 months after the fall of FrancoisBozize, the CAR condition worsened, as it later found out that the SélékaRebels are a Muslim Group that has committed gross human rights violations inthis predominantly Christian country. This is where the conflict develops andextends from what was originally only a government-opposition conflict, thenwidened and transitioned into a Christian-Muslim conflict. On that basis,eventually, Christian groups formed a militia of resistance who calledthemselves as Anti-Balaka.
As a result of this, there was a battle between thetwo. Bloodshed is inevitable. Therefore, the attention of the internationalcommunity, such as the UN, especially the UNSC. The UNSC’s involvement in thisconflict can be seen in the formation of a peacekeeping force called MINUSCA (Hermawati, 2016: 212).Based on the statement above, the conflictin the CAR is a conflict that is motivated by the dissatisfaction of oppositiongroups against the government.
As a result of this, the UNSC must carry out itsduties and functions in dealing with instability in the CAR. When MINUSCAserved as a Peacekeeping Force in the CAR, a lot of inhumane cases occurred andone of them was sexual harassment. Victims of sexual harassment are civilians,women, and minors. This certainly destroys the image of MINUSCA as thePeacekeeping Force because MINUSCA is the troop in charge of maintaining statestability and protecting civilians who are in the midst of armed conflict.However, in its implementation, MINUSCA actually performs immoral acts thatviolate human rights.The mission of the UN peacekeeping forceis multidimensional in that its duties and functions are not only to safeguardand monitor the peace process in the mission area, but UN peacekeepers alsoparticipate in the peace process, and it must be carried out in accordance withthe provisions of International Law (Ambarwaty and Rina Rusman, 2009: 72).
In the context of a country experiencingextreme conflict, the main and most important goal of a formal peacekeepingoperation or mandate of UNSC is to protect the civilian population.Peacekeeping forces have been sent to protect the people, but they are abusingpower. It is a form of treason based on trust. The mistakes committed by thesetroops have made a disastrous impact on the UN and the loss of world confidencein UN peacekeeping forces.
Therefore, the authors conclude that the role ofMINUSCA as a Peacekeeping Force in CAR in 2013-2015 does not work as expected.MINUSCA commits sexual exploitation of women and children. As a result of this,they have to suffer physical and mental trauma as victims of human rightsviolations. This is what UNSC fears about the international distrust of thepeacekeeping force formed by it.