Vanshika MandhaniaPorterEnglish II PreAP – 129 January 2018Fahrenheit 451 Allusions ResearchAllusion/Type: Juan Ramon Jimenez/LiteraryQuote: “If they give you ruled paper; write the other way” (Bradbury xvii).Explanation: In English literature, Juan Ramon Jimenez, was a prolific Spanish poet who was correlated with most renowned artists of his time. He has come to be regarded as one of the finest of Spain’s literary figures. He had received a Nobel prize in Literature. He had become genuinely outspoken in politics and wrote down his ideas in his book, Cancion (“Juan Ramon Jimenez”). Allusion/Type: Jonathan Swift Gulliver’s Travels/LiteraryQuote: “”We burned copies of Dante and Swift and Marcus Aurelius.”… It is computed that eleven thousand persons have at several times suffered death rather than submit to break eggs at the smaller end… “I want you to meet Jonathan Swift, the author of that evil political book, Gulliver’s Travels!…”” (Bradbury 65, 144).Explanation: The book, Gulliver’s Travel, by Jonathan Swift, is a satirical novel, divided into four parts, which was published 1726 anonymously.The book describe Lemuel Gulliver’s voyages on the islands of Lilliput, Brobdingnag, Laputa, Glubbdubdrib, and Houyhnhnms. It was an ostensible journey across the sea made by a surgeon and a sea captain (“Gulliver’s Travel”). Allusion/Type: Matthew Arnold, Dover Beach/LiteraryQuote: “”What’s the title, dear?” “Dover Beach.” His mouth was numb. “Now read in a nice clear voice and go slow” (Bradbury 96).Explanation: A widely celebrated poem, by Matthew Arnold. The 39 lines focuses on the decline of religious faith in the modern world. And it proposes attachment as it’s successor (“Dover Beach”). Allusion/Type: William Blake/LiteraryQuote: “Burning Bright” (Bradbury 107).Explanation: William Blake, as a boy, wrote poetry. One of his famous poetry was The Tyger, which Bradbury alluded to in Fahrenheit 451. The poem was published alongside with his other collection in his Songs of Innocence and of Experience. The tiger symbolizes implacable primal power in the Songs of Experience (“The Tyger”).Allusion/Type: Hugh Latimer/HistoryQuote: “”She said, `Master Ridley.’ She said some crazy thing when we came in the door. `Play the man,’ she said, `Master Ridley.’ Something, something, something.” ” `We shall this day light such a candle, by God’s grace, in England, as I trust shall never be put out,”‘ said Beatty. Stoneman glanced over at the Captain, as did Montag, startled. Beatty rubbed his chin. “A man named Latimer said that to a man named Nicholas Ridley, as they were being burnt alive at Oxford, for heresy, on October 16, 1555″” (Bradbury 37). Explanation: Hugh Latimer was the bishop of Worcester and the most influential preacher of the early Reformation. He had a disputation over the bachelor of divinity degree in 1524 was considered to be an attack on Melanchthon’s teachings. And therefore, he eventually became a member of Cambridge reformers who came under the influence of Luther and Erasmus. He was also eventually charged of heresy and burnt at stake alongside with Nathan Ridley (Gunderson). Allusion/Type: Nicholas Ridley/HistoryQuote: “”She said, `Master Ridley.’ She said some crazy thing when we came in the door. `Play the man,’ she said, `Master Ridley.’ Something, something, something.” ” `We shall this day light such a candle, by God’s grace, in England, as I trust shall never be put out,”‘ said Beatty. Stoneman glanced over at the Captain, as did Montag, startled. Beatty rubbed his chin. “A man named Latimer said that to a man named Nicholas Ridley, as they were being burnt alive at Oxford, for heresy, on October 16, 1555″” (Bradbury 37).Explanation: Nathan Ridley was the bishop of Rochester and London and prominent English reformer. After getting his arts degree at Cambridge, he went for further study at Sorbonne and at Louvain. After his journey back to Cambridge, he signed against the decree of papal supremacy. He was tried for heresy, and when found guilty, he was burnt at stake along with Hugh Latimer (Gunderson).Allusion/Type: Benjamin Franklin/HistoryQuote: “”Established, 1790, to burn English-influenced books in the Colonies. First Fireman: Benjamin Franklin”” (Bradbury 32).Explanation: Benjamin Franklin was a distinguished scientist, humanist, diplomat and one of America’s greatest writers. He was also a leader in American Revolution and one of the founding fathers of United States of America. He is considered an epitome of American Enlightenment (“Franklin, Benjamin”). Allusion/Type: Tower of Babel/BiblicalQuote: “”You know the law,” said Beatty. “Where’s your common sense? None of those books agree with each other. You’ve been locked up here for years with a regular damned Tower of Babel. Snap out of it! The people in those books never lived. Come on now!”” (Bradbury 35).Explanation: Tower of Babel is one of the most famous myths of the Old Testaments. It is frequently regarded as a lesson of humility, or being modest before god. The story is when some people were trying to plan a city where they envisioned a massive tower in the middle which reaches up to heaven to gain recognition as people and stay together. But when God, upon seeing them, concluded that their motive was to gain power, he made them speak different languages. Unable to understand and cooperate with each other, the people scattered, leaving the remains to be known as Babel. The image of Babel is used to indicate confusion and failure to communicate (“Babel, Tower of”). Allusion/Type: Old and New Testaments/BiblicalQuote: “In the hall Mildred’s face was suffused with excitement. “Well, the ladies are coming over!” Montag showed her a book. “This is the Old and New Testament, and-“” (Bradbury 72).Explanation: The christian Bible is made up of two parts: The Old and New Testaments. The Old Testament is similar to the Jewish Bible, but the books are arranged and numbered differently. The New Testament was created after Jesus’ death to spread the his word (“Bible”). Allusion/Type: Book of Job/BiblicalQuote: “”Here.” Far away across town in the night, the faintest whisper of a turned page. “The Book of Job”… “For these were the hands that had acted on their own, no part of him, here was where the conscience first manifested itself to snatch books, dart off with job and Ruth and Willie Shakespeare, and now, in the firehouse, these hands seemed gloved with blood…”” (Bradbury 89, 102).Explanation: The Book of Job is a Hebrew scripture and is counted along with the classics of world Literature. The book is based on underserved suffering. It is name after it’s protagonist, Job. In the book he is trying to understand the cause of his sufferings that surround him (“The Book of Job”). Allusion/Type: Book of Ecclesiastes/BiblicalQuote: “”Nothing. I thought I had part of the Book of Ecclesiastes and maybe a little of Revelation, but I haven’t even that now”… “Yes, yes, part of the Ecclesiastes and Revelation. Part of that book, part of it, quick now, quick, before it gets away, before the shock wears off, before the wind dies. Book of Ecclesiastes” (Bradbury 144, 153).Explanation: The Book of Ecclesiastes is a Hebrew book and the title and traditions correlate with King Solomon. The book is often described as sage’s notebook about random observations of life. The phrase “vanity of vanities! All is vanity,” sums up the theme of the book, but doesn’t impart the various experiments skeptical Qohelet applies onto life. He tests material things, toil, wealth, and wisdom, none giving him the meaning of life (“Biblical literature”). Allusion/Type: Book of Revelation/BiblicalQuote: “”Nothing. I thought I had part of the Book of Ecclesiastes and maybe a little of Revelation, but I haven’t even that now” … “Yes, yes, part of the Ecclesiastes and Revelation. Part of that book, part of it, quick now, quick, before it gets away, before the shock wears off, before the wind dies. Book of Ecclesiastes” (Bradbury 144, 158).Explanation: The book of Revelation is the last book of the New Testament and is also called Revelation to John, or Apocalypse of John. The book is professed to be written by an individual, John, who calls himself “the servant” of Jesus. The book is divided into two main parts: the first part is moral admonitions and the second part, visions, allegories and symbols. The bok deals with contemporary crisis in faith because of Roman persecution and Christian are, therefore, encouraged and unwavering faith in hope that God will punish their enemies (“Revelation to John”). Allusion/Type: Salamanders/MythologyQuote: “But he knew his mouth had only moved to say hello, and then when she seemed hypnotized by the salamander on his arm and the phoenix-disc on his chest, he spoke again” (Bradbury 4).Explanation: In myths, salamanders are considered to have supernatural abilities. They could withstand fire miraculously in different traditions in the world (Knipe). Allusion/Type: The legend of Phoenix/MythologyQuote: “But he knew his mouth had only moved to say hello, and then when she seemed hypnotized by the salamander on his arm and the phoenix-disc on his chest, he spoke again… Granger looked into the fire. “Phoenix.” “What?” “There was a silly damn bird called a Phoenix back before Christ: every few hundred years he built a pyre and burned himself up…. And it looks like we’re doing the same thing, over and over, but we’ve got one damn thing the Phoenix never had” (Bradbury 4, 156).Explanation: The legend of Phoenix describes the story of a mythological bird, called Phoenix, who, upon getting old, makes himself a attracting nest and burns the nest along with himself. From the pyre, miraculously, a new phoenix was created, which after embalming itself in it’s father’s ashes, flew to Heliopolis and deposited them onto altar of the Sun god, Ra. The bird is usually connected with rebirth and new beginnings (“Phoenix”). Allusion/Type: Icarus and Daedalus/MythologyQuote: “Old Montag wanted to fly near the sun and now that he’s burnt his damn wings, he wonders why” (Bradbury 107).Explanation: In Greek mythology, Daedalus, a very clever architect and inventor, and his son Icarus who were imprisoned in a far off island. After escaping the prison, Daedalus decided to make wings with feather and wax and upon finishing the final product, he warned his son to fly between the extremes. But Icarus ignored the warning and flew closer to the son and when the wax melted, I fell down into the sea and drowned (“Daedalus”).