us arising through the production of extended –

us mirabilis (P. mirabilis) is a motile gramnegativebacterium belonging to the familyEnterobacteriaceae. It is indole negative,chloramphenicol and ampicillin sensitive (1), (2).Members of the Enterobacteriaceae, are all oxidasenegative, actively motile, non-spore forming, non-capsulatedand a recognized by their ability to cause disease (3).

The organism occurs widely in man, animals and in theenvironment and can be readily recovered from sewage, soil,garden vegetables and many other materials (2).P. mirabilis is the species most commonly recovered fromhumans, especially from urinary and wound infections andaccounts for 90% of all infections caused by the Proteusspecies (3).Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the mostcommon infectious diseases, and nearly 10% of people willexperience a UTI during their life time.

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The infections may besymptomatic or asymptomatic, and types of infection canresult in serious sequelae if left untreated (4).Although several different microorganisms can causeUTIs, including fungi and viruses, bacteria are the majorcausative organisms and are responsible for more than 95% ofUTI cases (4).P. mirabilis is a common cause of hospital acquired UTIsand it can also cause infection in nonhospitalized patients,especially those with staghorn (struvite) calculi, structuralurinary tract abnormalities or an indwelling catheter (1).Like many members of the family Enterobacteriaceae,Proteus species can harbor numerous plasmid – and integron -mediated antimicrobial resistance determinants (5).

The increase in the number of resistant and multiresistant(resistant to two and more antimicrobials) strains of bacteria isa major concern of health officials worldwide. Recently,bacterial resistance arising through the production of extended– spectrum beta – lactamases (ESBLs) has been recognized asa worldwide therapeutic problem (6). The mechanisms of thisresistance are often complex, and include production of ?-lactamases, unr

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