Unit is nucleotides.2What are the scientific discoveries

Unit 5 Exam Review Guide:  DNA, Protein SynthesisName:Daniel KoganChapter 12Period:5Exam Date:Friday Jan. 26How to study for your Biology ExamReview class materials:Notes – go back through notes.  Highlight important words, reread your summaries, and quiz yourself by answering your Cornell questions.  You can also re-watch the lectures in Edpuzzle.Class Work and Activities – Go through each handout and each activity in Canvas.  Look for important concepts, vocabulary, and look for connections between the activities and your notes.Quizlet.com Vocab – go through the lists and learn all the words.  Look back through notes and class activities to see the words used in context.Textbook – go through the chapters in the textbook and look for examples, important words, concepts, etc.Complete this review guide:It is worth 50 points.You can either type your answers and submit on Canvas or print this out and turn in your review on paper (be sure to add in more space to write your answers).  You may use bullet points or complete sentences.This review guide is due on the day of the exam.Create a 3″x5″ index card to use on exam. It must be handwritten.  Chapter 121What type of macromolecule is DNA?  What is its monomer?DNA is a nucleic acid. And DNA’s monomer is nucleotides.2What are the scientific discoveries that led to Watson and Crick’s model of DNA?Which are the three molecules?  What are the four bases?  Ratio?Nitrogenous base (A, T, C, or G), deoxyribose (sugar), phosphate. The four bases are A, T, C, and G. The ratio is 1:1; 1A:1T and 1G:1C. What are the percentages of bases?If A is 10% then T is also 10% leaving 80% which will leave 40% for G and C. This is because A=T and G=C.What forms the rungs of the ladder?  The backbone?The nitrogenous bases for the rungs of the ladder. The backbone of DNA is the phosphate/sugar backbone.Which bases go together?  What holds them together?  How many?A goes with T and G goes with C. Hydrogen bonds hold them together. A=T and G=C.What is important about the two strands that make up the helix?They run opposite of each other. 5 prime to 3 prime and 3 prime to 5 prime.3Draw and explain the process of DNA replication.  Describe how the new molecules relate to the original molecule and which enzymes are involved.  Include the terms (with the definition in context) replicated and unreplicated.A DNA molecule separate into two strands. Afterward they produce two other complementary strands. These two new strands must follow the base pairing rules of A=T and G=C. Replicated means to make a replica copy. Unreplicated means not replicated or copied.4Describe the relationship between DNA, histones, nucleosomes, chromatin, and chromosomes.  Draw and label a diagram.DNA is Deoxyribonucleic acid carries instructions for the living organism’s growth. Histones are protein molecules where DNA is tightly coiled up. Chromatin is DNA wound up around chromatin. A nucleosome is the structure of an organism’s DNA. Chromosomes are structures that have genetic information. This information is passed from one generation to the next. The chromosomes are in the nucleus.5Draw a model of a chromosome.  Label and explain:What are introns and exons?  What are chromatids and sister chromatids?  A chromosome is a structure that is in the nucleus that has information which is given from one generation of the cell, to the next.An intron is an intervening sequence of DNA. An exon is an expressed sequence of DNA.6Explain three ways in which DNA and RNA differ.DNA’s sugar is deoxyribose, where as RNA’s sugar is ribose. Also, DNA’s nucleotides base is thymine, whereas RNA nucleotides base is uracil. Finally, RNA is a single stranded nucleic acid, whereas DNA is a double stranded nucleic acid. 7List and describe the three types of RNA.The three types of RNA are mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA. mRNA is messenger RNA which carry the instructions for the structure of the amino acid in proteins. tRNA or transfer RNA transfers all amino acids to the ribosome. Proteins are made on ribosomes, which are made up of several proteins and rRNA or ribosomal RNA.8Describe the process of transcription.  Be sure to include where it takes place, what you start with and what you end with, and which molecules are involved.RNA polymerase combines with DNA which separates the DNA strands. The RNA polymerase takes one of the DNA strands and uses it as a template. From this template, nucleotides are made into a strand of RNA.9Why is it necessary for a copy of DNA to be made in the nucleus by the mRNA?10Describe the process of translation.  Be sure to include where it takes place, what you start with and what you end with, and which molecules are involved.Ribosome in the cytoplasm synthesize proteins after transcription of the DNA to the RNA in the cell’s nucleus.11How is the genetic code read?The genetic code consists of three letters. The first letter is wither A, U, C, or G, the second is also either A, U, C, or G, and the same goes for the third letter. The combination of the specific three letters will give you an amino acid.12What amino acids do the following codons code for?UGCCysteineCCCProlineAGGArginineGCAAlanine13Describe the difference between codons and anticodons.  Include where each is found and used in the process of protein synthesis.A codon is three nucleotide sequence that codes for an amino acid on mRNA. Anticodons are a group of three bases of a tRNA molecule that are complementary to an mRNA codon.  14What is made during protein synthesis?  Why is this important?Ribonucleic acid is made during protein synthesis. This is important because without the process of protein synthesis, our cells would not receive the information they need to work properly.15What is a mutation and how do they occur?A mutation is a change of genetic material and it occurs if the wrong the base pairs are wrong, meaning that A=C or T=G.16What is the difference between a gene mutation and a chromosomal mutation?In a gene, a gene mutation is when there is a change in the nucleotide sequence. In a chromosome, a chromosome mutation is a change in several genes.17Name two types of mutations.  What do they have in common?  How are they different?  Give an     example of each. 18What would be the difference in effect between a substitution error and an insertion error?In a substitution error, the wrong bases are matched. In an insertion error, an extra base is added in.19Are all mutations bad for the individual?  Please explain.Many mutations are neutral, however there are also harmful ones such as gene mutations and chromosome mutations. 19What is the Central Dogma of DNA?DNA-RNA-Proteins.


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