ETC traces TTS history since the period of the mythical “Yellow Emperor, Hung did (Jiao, 2005). According to Jiao, “ETC is old enough but is not something out of date, and it still has the power Of getting rid Of troubles Of our modern society’. Much of today’s ETC was founded on The Kneeing or The Yellow Emperors Canon of Internal Medicine, one of the oldest Chinese medical texts which is presented in a question and answer manner. As the Chinese nation evolved throughout different dynasties to the contemporary era, so did the theory and practice of ETC. As western biomedicine began to gain leverage in
China, mainly due to the Opium wars, the advancements in ETC was greatly affected. Skepticism on the modalities often grew, and even ethnic Chinese people started questioning whether or not ETC really caters to the medical problems experienced by the Chinese people. In an interview to Dry. Philip Ion Tan-Agate (2015), a practitioner of ETC from the Philippine General Hospital who is also the head of acupuncture services at the Medical City and a lecturer at the university of the Philippines College of Medicine, at his clinic at the Faculty of Medical Arts Building of PUGH, the foundation of the People’s
Republic of China, under the leadership of Mao Sedona and the Chinese Communist Party, and paved the way for the formalization of the training for ETC as well as the legal recognition of ETC as a legitimate medical practice. Prior to the foundation of ETC schools, knowledge of ETC was passed mainly through oral tradition, apprenticeship, and from family-to-family. Before its standardization, practice and training in ETC varied even in different regions of China. According to Dry. Tan-Agate, the Chinese government then “eliminated the superstitious aspects (of ETC) and turned it into a standardized college course”.
At the moment, the term “Traditional Chinese Medicine”, in the World Health Organization (WHO) definition, refers to the type of medical training given in ETC schools in China. As of the moment, around 40% of healthcare delivered in China is in the form of ETC and is regulated by State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine, under the Chinese Ministry of Health. Dry. Tan-Agate has stated that in China, a degree in ETC is equivalent to what is a medical doctor (MO) degree in other countries. Today’s ETC practitioners in China are recognized professionals, and seen on the same level as those who practice Western biomedicine.
As Dry. Tan-Agate has mentioned, ETC training varies in every country, unlike training for western biomedicine where the model of training is almost the same in every country. For example, in the Philippines, one can be a certified ETC practitioner provided that he/she completes the requirements. In Japan, only Meds can prescribe herbs but not all acupuncturists are required to be Meds. Most states in the United States of America require a licenser exam for ETC practitioners, however the titles vary in every state. On the other hand, in China, where the practice originates, one has to be a Doctor of Oriental
Medicine before he/she could practice ETC. Some of the top universities in China which offer training in ETC include the Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Guanos University of Chinese Medicine, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Changed University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, and the Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine (Line, 2012). Philosophical Foundations of Traditional Chinese Medicine Traditional Chinese Medicine traces its origin way back three thousand years, and for the whole of its existence, cosmic elements have always been a part of its understanding. Concepts and terms related in the traditional
Chinese view of the universe are used to describe the vast phenomena of health and disease. The human body and its functions are considered to be a part of the grand cosmic order, therefore all forces that circulate the universe are believed to be responsible for man’s health condition. Moreover, China’s most ancient school of thought, Taoism, is the root of Traditional Chinese Medicine’s philosophical foundation. Explanations and descriptions are always symbolic in nature. Chinese medical theory rests on the premise that all life forms in the universe are videlicet by an important life-force or energy called IQ.
IQ, which means “breath” and “air, is transferable, for example, IQ can be derived from food and drinks through digestion, then transported to the body. Another is the IQ from the air accessed through breathing. When these two IQ meet in the blood stream, they combine to form the human-IQ which then circulates the body as a vital energy. This explains the emphasis given by Taoist philosophy in the importance of proper diet and breathing exercises in a person’s health and life longevity. In sum, the balance, quality and quantity of IQ determines a humans state of health and well-being.
The Yin and Yang concepts are considered to be of importance, not only in Taoist philosophy but also in the understanding of traditional Chinese medicine. The reactions and balance between Yin and Yang are believed to be responsible in the interplay Of the universe. Yin is considered to be the negative, passive force while Yang is the positive, active force. As mutually dependent forces, a balance between yin and yang is regarded as the ideal state of health. In addition, Yin governs the internal, lower and front parts of the body while Yang controls the external, upper and back portions.
Aside from the concepts of IQ, yin and yang, traditional Chinese Medicine is also rooted on the symbolism of the five elements, Wood, Fire, Earth, Metal and Water, in the activities of the universe. Each force is responsible or takes part in the generative and subjugating influence on another force. In the context of Traditional Chinese Medicine, the Five Elements come into play when each vital organ are believed to belong in one of them. Therefore, understanding the interactions and influences of the Five Elements are important in comprehending the functions and relationships of each vital organs from one another. Reid, 1993) popular Modalities of Traditional Chinese Medicine Acupuncture The practice Of acupuncture rests on the theory Of meridians. It States that the blood and IQ circulate the body through a system of channels connecting the internal organs with the external tissues. By selecting essential points in the body surface through needling, the circulation of blood and IQ can be regulated or normalized leading to treatment of the disease. The practitioner selects the occupants along the meridian associated with the health problem of the patient.
Institutions (m Institutions is a ETC modality which uses heat directly placed (direct) or questioned close (indirect) to the skin to arouse the immune system for therapy (Eastern Currents, n. D. ). Institutions takes its name from Max from the dried Muggers (Artemisia argali). In direct institutions, a small amount of Max, which is shaped like a cone, is positioned on top of the skin’s acupuncture point and then ignited either to burn completely or extinguished just before the flames can touch the skin and removed immediately (Acupuncture Today, n. . ). Indirect institutions is more popular because there are less risks of scaring, scalding, and burns, as opposed to direct institutions. In indirect institutions, the practitioner “lights one end of a Max stick, roughly the shape and size of a cigar, and holds it close to the area being treated for several minutes until the area turns red”. Another way by which institutions is through using acupuncture with the Max. In that method, the acupuncture, laced with a wrap of Max, is inserted into an occupation and then, the Max is lit afterwards.
After the necessary effects have been reached, the Max part is extinguished and then the needles are removed. Herbal Therapy/Herbalist Another major form of Traditional Chinese Medicine is herbal therapy. Over 6000 medical substances are listed in the Chinese pharmacopoeia and 600 different herbs classified in two dimensions. The first dimension contains the energy characteristic of the herb while the second comprises the taste property of the herb. The combinations of these energy and taste properties of the herb determine its capacity to balance the interplay between the yin and yang forces. CATCH, n. D TU An TU nary literally translated as “push and grasp” which involves a distinct style of massage aimed at treating injuries, muscle and joint problems, and internal disorders (Academy of Chinese Culture and Health Sciences, n. . ). According to Eastern Currents (n. D. ), TU an is “designed to help to promote circulation and relieve pain, this category of physical therapy includes acupressure, massage, stretching and manipulation”. It is a manual manipulative therapy in ETC which is based on the “principles of yin-yang, the five elements, and a meridian view of the body (Dooryard’s, 2007).
Free-flow of IQ is stimulated by manipulating joints, soft tissues, and viscera. IQ Gong (51″) Also known as “chi gung” or cultivating energy, IQ gong is a self-care practice used in conjunction with other ETC modalities, including the aforementioned Eastern Currents, n. D. ). Most of what is known as IQ gong is practiced by the patients themselves on a regular basis. IQ gong is based on two fundamental principles: the breath, as the IQ is directed by the lungs, and the thought, because ETC practitioners believe that energy goes where the thought goes. Medical IQ gong can refer to two different things: 1 . Tales which is practiced by the individual and is directed towards self-care and; 2. A style executed on others by a trained ETC practitioner, where he/she directs energy using the practitioner’s hands over the patient’s body. Misconceptions of ETC Traditional Chinese Medicine in the Philippines Historical records would show that Chinese and Filipinos have been engaging in trade even in the pre-colonial era. Chinese people have been migrating to the Philippines and one Of the things that they brought with them was the Traditional Chinese Medicine. On the advent of sass, ETC started to become popular with other countries.
By 1893, a conference in the Philippines was convened by the World Health Organization to formally incorporate the ETC into primary health care (Schroeder, 2002). According to Dry. Jaime Galvan Tan, DOD physicians began the formal training for acupuncture in China for as early as 1 sass. Finally, the Department of Health established the Traditional Medicine Unit around 1993. In 1 997, the Philippine Institute for Traditional and Complementary Health Care (PITCH) was established under the RA 8423 or the Traditional and Alternative Medicine Act of 1997.
PITCH is a DOD affiliated corporation that aims to provide health care serve;ices through traditional and alternative medicine, services, products and technology. Moreover, PITCH together with DOD have been training health professionals to provide alternative medicine o the people the in the countryside (WHO, 2010). A few of the popular modalities of Traditional Chinese Medicine in the Philippines is herbalist, TU an, Going and acupuncture. Among these examples, the most popular Ones are acupuncture and herbalist, with acupuncture receiving the most attention from both the public and the government (through the PITCH).
These two modalities are sometimes combined together in order to effectively treat a patient. As explained by Dry. Tan-Agate, acupuncture is the use and manipulation of needles while the institutions is the burning of certain herbs to provide heat that will stimulate he flow of chi and blood. According to Dry. Tan-Agate, acupuncture, being the most popular ETC modality, is the only modality actually recognized under Philippine laws; herbalist and TU an, although practiced in the country, is neither regulated nor officially recognized by the government.
In status quo, PITCH has provided standards, based on the number Of hours of training, weather one is an MD or not, etc. , on becoming a certified practitioner of the said modality adapted from the standards set by the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine of the People’s Republic of China. However, like most of the counties who have welcomed the Traditional Chinese Medicine, Philippines does not have a regulatory framework governing the practice. Dry. Tan-Agate mentioned that a certificate issued by PITCH to an acupuncturist is not at par with a professional license issued by the Professional Regulatory Commission (PR).
Meaning that although certifications are issued, these cannot guarantee accountability towards dubious ETC practices and malpractice in ETC. Filipinos, Filipino-Chinese and ETC Influence of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Modern Medicine The following information was based on an interview done with Professor Runoff Guessers of the Department of Social Sciences in the University of the Philippines Manila in order to gain a clear and brief view on how the Traditional Chinese Medicine influenced Medicine in the present times.
The western nations such as the United States of America and Britain, and even the Middle East are indebted to China for some of their medical breakthroughs and discoveries which originally came from China which they just innovated and improved. Before the modern anesthesia was used to perform surgery, that kind of ethnology was not yet possible, but China was able to use a method which had the same effects of anesthesia. They used leaves, made it into a drug and combine it with alcohol to further increase the potency of the drug. This would knock out the patient and be able to perform surgery.
It was also their “Chime” that influenced the surfacing of Chemistry. Lack of technology before did not stop the Chinese from being able to use Medicine. They were very cunning when it comes to how they would be able to CUre people. Nowadays, the Western medicine uses drugs such as morphine in order to block the afferent and efferent nervous system, the Chinese also came up of a way to do this and this was through the use of Acupuncture. Another that the Traditional Chinese Medicine was able to introduce was the immunization of diseases. An example of this is the vaccination of the small pox.
In western medicine, they get the pathogenic microorganism in order for the ability of the disease to lessen or weaken. As for the Chinese, they would put a handkerchief on a sick person and put it, again, on another person. If they are healthy, they won’t get sick. This is how they were able to make immunization. The western medicine focuses on being curative. China on the other hand focuses on its concept of equality and balance, since it is a preventive kind of declined. While the west only keeps looking for ways to cure people, the Chinese wants a healthy lifestyle wherein they want the people to not become sick anymore, thus preventive.
The same goes with the Filipinos, just like the Chinese, Filipinos first define what is healthy before what is sick. Spain was also influenced by the Chinese usage of “Tallapoosa”, a herbal plant with many medical uses, and when the Spaniards came to the Philippines, they were able to introduce it to the Filipinos. Another way that enabled the west from getting knowledge about the Traditional Chinese Medicine is when he Arabs borrowed the Arrived knowledge from the Indians and also borrowed from the Chinese, after which was transferred to the western world.
In regards to how traditional Chinese Medicine is differentiated or different from the Western Medicine, it would be hard to classify them. This is because they have a different way of treatment; they can’t have the same treatment. You would need statistical data and clinical test first. Furthermore, China did not recognize the western medicine even if it was able to further advance. They still heavily relied on their own Traditional Medicine. China had the policy of isolation wherein they did not want to get influenced by other foreign concepts and works.
Then during the period of communism there were only a few doctors, but they had their “barefoot” doctors who were farmers that were able to learn the basics of medical training. Traditional Chinese Medicine was able to spread and many owe it to the Chinese Medicine for they were one of the first to discover preventive measures to diseases. They were able to find out and make use of the medical principle of immunity and allergy of just being the same. The influence to other countries ND nations were strong and was able to spread due to the Chinese Community being everywhere.
In the west they have their China towns and even the Philippines has its own China town near the center of the government during the Spanish period. As for China’s neighbors, Korea and Japan mostly based their institutions and concepts from the Chinese, making a huge impact on their culture. Ginseng was from China and it was them who discovered the many medical purposes of it. China also had the basis for diagnosis and was able to find the 44 types of common diseases such as tuberculosis, etc. Preventive medicine was originally from China and it is rabble that even anesthesia originated from China.