Tourism is one of the fastest growingindustries in the world and is influencing in different features of human´slife such as environment, economy and culture. With the development in an area,the more impacts can be perceived and cancreate two different perspectives of tourism, be criticized or be praised (Milmanand Pizam, 1988; Ap and Crompton, 1993; Deery et al., 2012). As a consequence, mass tourism has become animportant subject to study due to itsimpacts on destinations. This model of tourism wasdeveloped between the 1950s and 1960s when some destinations become a popular place for avacation, especially the” sun and sand” all-inclusiveholiday’s packages(Martinez-Garcia, Raya & Majó,2017).
As a result of this new modelof tourism, many destinations, especially in the Mediterranean coast, became verypopular for tourists, as a consequence ofthe high demand a huge development processto accommodate the tourist begun. Consequently,the development of tourism infrastructuressuch as big hotel resorts, restaurants, bars and leisure facilities cannot be achieved without costs(Sharpley,2014; Wall & Mathieson,2006).Therefore, therapid development of tourism provokeddifferent levels of impacts on destinations environmentand economy, however, there is a large quantity ofliterature focus on the socio-cultural impacts due to the importance of theinteraction between tourist and host communities(Sharpley,2014).Therelationship between visitor and host is a key point on the success of adestination. The development of any tourism area is highly influenced by the community, and the balance between residents and touristsis a significant factor in tourist satisfaction,for that reason, it is vital for thesuccess of the tourism industry (Andriotis and Vaughan,2003). As is mentioned before the relationshipbetween host and guest is a important key in any touristic destination, toachieve this balance the first step is to understand both positive and negativesocio-cultural impacts of mass tourism.positive and negative impacts examples.http://www.
- Thesis Statement
- Structure and Outline
- Voice and Grammar
ijsrp.org/research-paper-0315/ijsrp-p3942.pdf Theoretical frameworkIn recent years, mass tourism has become an important issue for many destinations, where the high affluence oftourist has created a negative perception of tourism on locals and theircommunities (Choi & Murray,2010; Easterling, 2004; Nunkoo, Smith,2013; Sharpley,2014; Zhang, Fan, Tse & King,2016).Therefore,there is a large number of studiesrelated to these socio-cultural impactsand to the attitudes of host communities towards tourism. Different theoreticalmodels and approaches have been used tocarry these studies, the Social Exchange Theory(SET) and the Tourism Area LifeCycle(TALC) model have been the most common theoretical models used insocio-cultural research (Butler,1980; Easterling,2004; Nunkoo et al.,2013; Sharpley,2014).
Furthermore, these theoretical models are anextension of the Irritation Index proposed by Doxey in 1975, where it isexplained the hosts-tourists interaction in four stages, from euphoria to apathy,irritation and finally antagonism(Doxey,1975). Following this theory,Butler(1980) proposed the Tourism Area Life Cycle (TALC), where it is describedthat tourism areas go through six different stages, exploration, involvement, development, consolidation and stagnation, where at this stage the destinationcan fall into a decline or rejuvenation(Butler,1980). Figure 1. Irritation Index(Doxey,1975) and Tourism Area Life Cycle (Butler,1980).
Moreover, Ap (1992) implement theSocial Exchange Theory in tourism. This theory is based on the relationshipbetween residents and tourist where host communities expect benefits in returnfor the resources provided for tourism, hopingto maximized personal satisfaction(Lee, Capella, Taylor, Luo, & Gabler,2014). Indeed, if the exchange of resources is high, the perception of theresidents will be perceived as a positive impact, whereas, if it is low,tourism impact will be viewed as negative(Rockey ,2012).Figure2.
Social Exchange Process (Ap,1992). whyare they important? how applies to destinations? includecarraying capacity 2.1Overtourism and turismofobiasocialmovement 2.3Venice example2.4Posible solutions to overtourism 2.4 Research Questions, what I want to find? Howmass tourism is affecting local communities ?Whatcould be done to manage the high afluence of tourist?Whythe problem still remain?Whatare the feeling of locals towards visitors? · Milman, A. and Pizam, A. 1988.
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