Torah 220 years) – by E. Hornung,

Torah transitional period in the history of ancient Egypt ( 1715 – c. 1554 BC.. , the XIII-the XVI Dynasty) – the dark time of internal instability, poverty and dynasties of foreign conquest. Quite eloquent surviving to us the royal lists, retained the names of the pharaohs of that time – their more than two hundred. Such an abundance of reigning persons testifies that the throne became a toy in the hands of warring courtiers. At times, people of non-aristocratic origin are also kings – first of all these are commanders who emerged during the confusion.

Period dating options:

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1785 – 1580 years. BC. e. – (205 years old) – according to E. Bikerman
1794/1793 – 1550 years. BC. e. – (243/244 years) – according to J. von Bekerat
1759 – approx. 1630 years. BC. e. – (about 220 years) – by E. Hornung, R. Krauss and D. Warburton
Ruling dynasties: XIII (Thebes), XIV (Xoix), XV (Hyksos), XVI (Hyksos), XVII (Thebes) dynasty.

Scarab of Apophis I
Scarab with the name of the king of Hyksos Apopi I. Second Transition period

After the fall of the XIII dynasty, Egypt breaks up into independent nomas. Pretenduyuschaya for the title of the general Egyptian, XIV dynasty, established in Xois , in fact controls only part of the Delta.

Around 1675 BC. e. Egypt is invaded by the Hyksos, which in the middle of the 18th century BC created the e. a vast tribal alliance in the territory of Palestine and northern Arabia, and subject it to a terrible rout. They capture the Delta and make their capital the fortress of Avaris in its eastern part. their success was promoted by the fact that they, unlike the Egyptians, used horses in military affairs.

Hyksos chiefs take the title of Pharaoh (XV-XVI dynasty). However, they can not achieve real subordination of the entire Nile valley, under their authority, in fact, there is only Lower Egypt. Although part of the Upper Egyptian Nomarchs recognizes the rule of Hyksos, this dependence remains rather formal, and it is limited to paying tribute.

In the south of Upper Egypt, an independent Theban principality is formed. Only at the beginning of the XVII century BC. e. Hyksos Pharaoh Huan managed to establish control over the whole of Upper Egypt. But after his death, Thebes regained their independence, and the Theban rulers proclaim themselves pharaohs (the 17th dynasty). The last of its representatives, Kamos, subordinates the other upper Egyptian nomas and, despite the resistance of the nobility, begins with the support of ordinary soldiers the struggle for the expulsion of the Hyksos. He makes a successful trip to the Delta and forces them to retreat to Avaris.

The decisive turning point in the war with strangers is achieved by the brother and heir of Kamos Ahmose I: he wins several victories and captures after three years of siege Avaris. The exile of the Hyksos ends with the capture of the fortress of Sharuchen in southern Palestine of approx. 1554 BC. e.

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