Title

Title;
Combating vitality issues in Tharparkar
Need For Project;
Tharparkar is a deserted area in Sindh Pakistan .Its the only fertile desert in the world. According to a recent survey population of Tharpakar is 1,649,661.Its headquarter is in Mithi. From recent decades Tharparkar is facing many problems regarding mortality rates, health and finance.
Some main problems are highlitghted here.
Increasing Mortality rates in mothers and infants is a major issue in Tharparkar. About 1,340 children had become victim of death due to many reasons like severe malnutrition, lack of health facilities&infrastructure,comparatively low rainfall in the area.
Malnutrition and avitaminosis in mother and children playing a part in increase in mortality rates and unhealthy livelihood due to lack of basic health facilities which is the right of every human being by birth.Shortage of skilled health staff and fragile socio-political situation also leads to these prroblems.
Another major issue here is agricultural failure which is due to absence of proper irrigation system and low rainfall. As a consequence deprived communities have been failed in purchasing power which brings solution to all vitality issues people suffering here because main source of income is agriculture here.
Livestock deaths in Tharparkar is increasing day by day due to lack of basic vaccination and other health facilities. Their loss is playing a huge economical and health loss in people of Thar.
Objective
• High mortality rate have to be controlled by providing basic health facilities to pregnant women and their new borns.
• Malnutrition have to be overcome by the efforts of Government and local communities.
• Agricultural stability have to be achieved by proper irrigation systems as that area is fertile , with combined efforts of government and people its fertility can be fruitfull.
• We have to combat increasing number of livestock deaths which are source of many natural gifts from ALLAH regarding human health and income.

Plane of work (Methodology)
Maternal health
There should be a rule for delaying early marriages of young girls. Early marriages are a big cause for unexceptional increase in the mortality rate among mother and child both. Young girls are deprived of nutrition and proper health care how can they give birth to a healthy one? So an act should be passed by government to delay early marrriages. Educated girls are more likely to stand for their right so education system should be improved specially for girls. A girl should be a woman first and then conceive her own child and should celebrate it not fear of it. During pregnancy mother needs extra nutrition. Supplements should be a part of their diet. They must be given antenatal, post-natal and neo-natal care.
Care should be provided for all newborns, emphasize on breastfeeding within first two hours of birth. Infectious danger should be avoided and temperature for newborns should be established properly. Did’nt try to give bath to newborn within first 24 hours. There should be an integrated system for avoiding multiple births which causes congenital abnormalities. Proper infrastructure should be developed by government for basic health facilities.
Malnutrition is very common among children of Tharparkar .Appropriate and aggressive steps are needed to overcome this problem. Accurate nutritional assessment is critical for managing malnutrition. Standard weight and height measurements may be inaccurate in malnourished children, as they can be confounded by fluid overload, ascites and body weight alone may underestimate the incidence of malnutrition in children. Linear growth is a more sensitive parameter, but stunting and growth deceleration do not occur until late in growth failure.
Proper supplementation would be a great step for fighting with malnutrition,
Deworming will also help in this war as many intestinal worm didn’t allow many nutrients to be absorbed by body and malnutrition results.
Agricultural improvement needs following techniques, forecast of rain, methods of cultivation, seed quality, financial support ,market, electricity ,export program storage facilities NGOs support, water facilities proper irrigation system awareness of education roads village organization time to time research .Low rainfall effects agriculture badly. Trees should be planted for increasing rainfall
Thousands of goats and sheep died in an outbreak of the contagious disease ‘peste des petits ruminants’ (PPR) – called ‘kata’ or ‘Mata’ locally – across Tharparkar district last year.vaccinating young animals in the area over 15 to 20 days will eradicate the disease from the area forever. Other related diseases would also be covered, According to livestock department officials, Tharparkar’s goats produce 300,000 liters of milk per day. “If the government helps the people of Thar in managing their livestock, they will be economically sound within a few years.
Expected outcome
By maintaining maternal and infant health both of them will get a bright future regarding their health and education. Overcoming malnutrition will also help in getting good health for mother and infant both.
Developments in agriculture will promote the growth of crops ,staple food(wheat) as agriculture is the occupation of almost 88% people they will get benefit from it socially. Agricultural developments will not only meet their food needs but also increase their income and it will affect their life style positively. Planting trees not only will help in increasing rainfall it will also made their environment pleasant. And overcoming livestock death people will get benefits from livestock properly like milk, meat, transport and many others.

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Possible Beneficiaries

• First of all local community will be beneficial from these solutions.
• Local government will get benefit in getting vote from people in elections.
• Thar is biggest part of Pakistan it will nourish more and more benefit to Pakistan socially. It has biggest mines of charcoal in Pakistan. When people will be able to fight vitality issues they will work more on coal and Pakistan will be benefited ultimately.
• It will have a positive effect on relationships of Pakistan with other countries.

References

https://tribune.com.pk/story/830300/combatting-disease-tharparkars-livestock-to-be-vaccinated/

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/46444660_Farming_Management_in_Pakistan_Suggested_Techniques
https://www.gainhealth.org/knowledge-centre/five-ways-can-help-end-malnutrition-3/
https://mail.google.com/mail/u/0/#inbox?projector=1

Title: Closedown of Excellent International Academy
Research About: A business school that provided mainly to students from India shut down.
Case Scenario: Excellent international Academy offered the New Zealand certificate in foundation study and career preparation, General English and IELTS preparation course (level 3), New Zealand diploma in business (level 5) and New Zealand diploma in business in (level 6). EIA has recently been subject to quality assurance activity by NZQA that identified serious concern in relation to educational performance and compliance with NZQA rules. This has resulted in NZQA cancelling EIA’s registration as a private training establishment (PTE) (The PIE News 2018).

Excellent International Academy in Auckland, was deregistered on January 26 after the NZ Qualifications Authority (NZQA) found “concerns about the provider’s English language proficiency testing and compliance with assessment and moderation requirements in relation to the NZ Diploma in Business. About 15 staff have lost their jobs and NZQA has advised the academy’s 145 students from Asia, South America and Saudi Arabia to apply for places at other schools (The PIE News 2018).

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Ethical Issues: The Academy was established in 2003 as an English school by the directors of Auckland Paul and Ingrid Goodenough, and in 2010 was sold to Chinese investor Yen Wei. In April 2013 NZQA said that it depends on academic performance of the academy but still not complete in the self-assessment capacity. Iranian born Jazbani, who was the executive director of Advance training academy started the course for excellent academy purchase in August 2013 and has done international exam every 12 weeks. In the follow up assessment in July 2014 it has been started that NZQA in its assessment, is was confident in it academy performance. However Jazbani expanded the school to present commercial diploma courses in 2016. She said that NZQA told her in May 2017 that they were not happy with the quality of assessment for business courses at the end of 2016, but she said this was because the courses were new.Mission Statement: Excellent international academy’s mission is a committed school committed excellence in education, is to provide students with challenging education to be active, emotional and lifelong learning, in turn, providing care, reflections, open minds, members of our community and the world at large (Fyple NewZealand,2018)
Vision Statement: Excellent international academy values everyone respects the right to research, manufacture and obtain, because we do the educational heritage of students to create a positive impact on our communities and the world (Fyple New Zealand, 2018)
Innovation Decision making Process: Jazbani appointed a new academic manager Robin Bailey, who said she has made changes immediately. Robin said in response to your draft report, we have prepared an urgent action plan, which we will immediately work by the end of June. She has never seen evaluation or moderation since March. Robin said that other big player in international education were allowed to continue the business but they believed that NZQA has target the answer as an immigrant and a women. It seems that the number of women belonging to women is very small at least five women’s multicultural schools have been closed last year.

NZQA deputy chief executive officer Dr Grant Klinkum said that the authority has worked under the education act. He noted the decision of the high court that the NQZA to cancel the register of New Zealand national college on December 19. The Decision was delayed for judicial review. The role of NZQA is to make sure that students gets quality education and New Zealand’s capabilities have been recognized strong, trustworthy and internationally. Where there is no evidence that quality education has not been provided and a valid assessment has not been made the NZQA will intervene and take firm action to ensure the integrity of the educational results. Excellent international academy is the fifth class organization that was cancelled last year (NZME. publishing limited, 2018).

The first step is situation assessment: According to the law of 1989 legal action has been taken. When it does not follow a non-signatory Tio or signatory law NZQA rules under section 253 of the act is prepared and practice international student’s western care code. NZQA the academic code has the legal authority to use different legal proceedings, if applicable. Whenever possible NZQA is known to follow the organisation’s informal functioning in the first instance for example through a request for a formal, formal paperwork or action plan. If any formal approach fails or more serious or student public can immediately be extended to the legal proceedings of the matter of violation of the risk (NZME. publishing limited, 2018).

Type Explanation Length of time on this page
Compliance notice Directs the organisations to do (or refrain from doing) something specific Example: ensure that the organization’s student files are accurate and complete by a given date. From when the compliance notice is issued to when it is closed(removed a maximum of five working days after it is closed)
Conditions imposed Specify constraints that the organisations will be subject to; can be time-bound or indefiniteExample: submit extra assessment materials for moderation and demonstrate improved moderation results, or (for Code signatories) stop enrolling new international students From when the condition is imposed, to when it is revoked(removed a maximum of five working days after it is revoked)
Withdrawal Withdrawal of consent to assess against standards, training scheme approval, programmer approval or programmer accreditation For six months after the notice is issued
Removal of Code signatory status Prevents the Code signatory from enrolling any new international students, or continuing to have its existing international students enrolled For six months after the notice is issued
Cancellation of registration (private training establishments only) Rem
oval of a private training establishment’s registration For six months after the notice is issued
Primary Data:
The reason for information will be disclosed to them with the goal that they will not progress toward becoming respondents. Every single moral issue, for example, security act 1993 will be given thought. NZQA will interviewed with current stakeholders. It was impact on 145 students and 15 staffs. About 15 staff have lost their jobs and NZQA has advised the academy’s 145 students from Asia, South America and Saudi Arabia to apply for places at other school (NZME. publishing limited, 2018).

https://www.nzherald.co.nz/nz/news/article.cfm?c_id=1&objectid=11989851Conclusion:
To conclude, the operational problem I have researched in this organization and I found that the organisation was not compliance with NZQA rules and regulation. The main operational problem in this organization is related with assessments and staff which are not enough qualified for teaching. To conclude my objective was to find the main operational problem of the company that was affecting the performance of the company.

References:
The PIE News, 2018, Retrieved from
https://thepienews.com/news/pte-owner-nzqa-closure-process-unbelievable/Fyple New Zealand, 2018, Retrieved from
https://www.fyple.co.nz/company/excellent-international-academy-eia-12gl1b0/NZME. Publishing limited, 2018).

https://www.nzherald.co.nz/nz/news/article.cfm?c_id=1&objectid=11989851

TITLE: IMPLEMENTATION OF A COMPUTERIZED FIELD REPORTING SYSTEM IN THE ZAMBIA POLICE SERVICE

Author: John Jango

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Implementation of a Computerized Field Reporting System in the Zambia Police Service
By John Jango
Texila American University
Zambia
August 13, 2018

TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT …………………………………………………………………………………4
PROBLEM STATEMENT…………………………………………………………………..5
CHAPTER 1………………………………………………………………………………….6
1.1 ZAMBIA POLICE TECHNICAL DEPARTMENT ……………………………6
1.2 RESEARCH AND PLANNING SECTION………………………………………6
1.3 INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY UNIT……………………………………….7
1.4 BACKGROUND…………………………………………………………………7
1.5 IMPORTANCE……………………………………………………………………9
CHAPTER 2…………………………………………………………………………………13
2.1 PROPOSAL TO ADDRESS THE PROBLEM…………………………………13
2.2 RELEVANT MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES…………………………………14
2.3 RELEVANT LAWS, RULES, REGULATIONS, OR POLICIES…………..…15
CHAPTER 3………………………………………………………………………………….16
3.1 IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES……………………………………………..……16
3.2 HUMAN RESOURCES………………………………………………..…….….16
3.3 FINANCIAL RESOURCES…………………………………………….………16
3.4 TIME FRAME………………………………………………………….……….17
3.5 ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS………………………………………….…….17
3.6 DIVERSITY CONSIDERATIONS……………………………………………..17
3.6 DIVERSITY CONSIDERATIONS………………..……………………………17
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS……………………………………………19
REFERENCES………………………………………………………………………………20

ABSTRACT
This research examines the effectives of field mobile computing in law enforcement through the theory of ‘Task-Technology Fit’. Field mobile computing has been at the forefront of Zambia Police for technology implementations. This study measures how these systems benefit investigators, administrators and records personnel. It also measures the effectiveness of field mobile computing if implemented in a medium-sized Police department. We found statistical support indicating that inquiries to local, state and national criminal information databases increased with the implementation of mobile computing. Administrators, detectives and records personnel all need to experience statistically significant improvements in the tasks they perform, directly resulting from the implementation of mobile computing.

PROBLEM STATEMENT
Implementation of a Computerized Field Reporting System in the Zambia Police
The objective of this proposal is to assess the deficiencies of traditional report writing procedures conducted by Zambia Police officers and to compare those practices to the benefits of implementing a fully automated field reporting system.
Traditional report writing is very time consuming and inefficient. Information is currently hand written into field note book, then hand written into a station report book, and later filed by the records officer. This practice, along with the additional time it takes for officers to travel back and forth to the office for each report, results in wasted time and increased errors. A field reporting system would allow officers to enter data into the system right from the scene. New data could be regenerated from existing data already in the system and officers could have victims validate the accuracy of the information right on the spot.

Chapter 1
1.1 Zambia Police Technical Department
The City of Solwezi is a provincial Headquarters of Northwestern Province in Zambia. Solwezi district comprise of the following Police Stations:- Kasempa, Mwinilunga, Jimbe, Maheba, Mutanda, St. Dorothy, Kyawama and Kanklokolo Police stations. The district is headed by an officer commanding who is stationed at Solwezi. Solwezi Police Station has four Police Posts namely; Bus terminus, Kamijiji, Weighbridge and Solwezi General Hospital.
The department employs officers and civilian members, all who work together to protect and serve the residents of the community. The members of the community are affluent, diverse, and forward thinking. As a result, they expect their local police department to be on the cutting edge of technology.
Processing police reports the old fashioned way is no longer considered an acceptable solution. It is time to change the practice of redundant data entry and hand written reports. It is time to progress forward to an environment of real time reporting with a fully automated solution.
1.2 Research and Planning Section
The role of the Section is to undertake research and planning, provide appropriate and up-to-date information for effective decision-making and for the enhancement of efficiency and effectiveness in the operations of the Zambia Police Service. To achieve its mandate, the Section will be divided into the following Units: –
– Research Unit
The responsibility of this Unit is to undertake research in various police and crime related issues in order to facilitate effective decision making in the fight against crime and the maintenance of internal security.
– Planning Unit
The planning unit is responsible for planning for the operations, expansion and human resources for the Police Service. In addition, the unit co-ordinates strategic planning process, monitoring and evaluation, as well as linking the budget to the plans. The unit is also responsible for facilitating technical co-operation.
1.3 Information Technology Unit
The unit is charged with the responsibility of spearheading the computerisation of the Zambia Police in order to enhance and improve its operation so as to efficiently and effectively combat crime. Its main functions are to oversee the networking of all divisions, procurement of information technology hardware, maintenance and servicing of all computer related equipment. The advancement of technology which has brought in a lot of challenges such as sophisticated and organized crime has led the unit to undertake various projects so as to have an integrated communication system such as the interconnection of a computer network to link divisions, units to Police Headquarters.
This interconnection of a computer network has provided a better platform for transmission of information within the police in order to improve its operations. These linkages shall provide services to members of Zambia Police and the general public at large as the facility shall be decentralized to all provincial centres which will result in fast delivery of service. For easy interaction with the members of the public, Information Technology unit designed the Police website, a modern service delivery tool to build a great relationship with the members of the public and to allow constant contact via website and also to provide corrected and up to date information to the members of the public.
1.4 Background
From the viewpoint of other Police Departments, it has been observed that there is a progressive improvement in implementing community programs and in their technology. However, the Zambia Police Department currently lacks a fully automated electronic field reporting system.
In a decade of restricted budgets within governmental agencies, the concept of doing more with less has become an expected of budget administrators. As a result, police department managers look for new ways to improve service to the communities they serve while finding ways of spending less. One of the greatest costs to any police department is the salaries of the officers who work there. One way of being fiscally responsible is to be more efficient with those officers’ time. In an effort to understand how officers can be more efficient, it is necessary to analyze their duties. One of the core functions of a police officer is to investigate and document crimes.
Every peace officer shall keep or cause to be kept a written record of crimes reported to or discovered by the officer within the officer’s jurisdiction including a statement of the facts and a description of the offender, so far as known, the offender’s method of operation, the action taken by the officer, and all such other information that may be required.
In the Zambia Police Department, officers currently achieve compliance with this statute through a very traditional and antiquated method. Imagine this scenario: A complainant or victim calls the police department to report a crime. The dispatcher receiving the call obtains the person’s name, contact information, location of the incident, and the description of the event. The dispatcher then enters the data into a computer aided dispatch system, assigns the incident a tracking number, and dispatches an officer to the scene. The officer responds to the scene and meets with the victim. Upon interviewing the victim, the officer takes out his notebook and writes down the incident number, time of call, location of the crime, the victim’s name, address, and phone numbers. The officer will also take similar notes on all subjects, vehicles, and property connected to the crime. Additionally, the officer will process the scene for evidence and note any findings. All audio statements and photographs collected must be taken to the police department and burned to a compact disk in order to preserve the information.
Once cleared from the scene, the officer drives back to the police department, logs into a computer, and loads a report template in a word processing program. The officer then re-enters all the basic call information that was originally collected by the dispatcher. Additionally, the officer types in complete information of all subjects, vehicles, property, and offense information collected at the scene. The report face sheet is then saved and printed out in order to start a workflow process. The officer can either dictate or type their narrative report. The narrative report must include summary information about the crime, the details of the subject statements, and the officer’s observations and actions taken. If the report was dictated, the officer will have to wait one to several days until the report is transcribed by a record’s technician. When the narrative report is finally typed, the officer will review it for accuracy. Once the officer is satisfied with the narrative report, the office will print it out, attach it to a typed face sheet, and give it to a supervisor for approval. After the report is approved, the paper report is submitted to a technician in the Records Unit, who will then re-enter all the subject, vehicle, and property information into the records management system. The records technicians will finally complete the intake workflow by scanning the paper reports and supporting documents into the system. Only at this point can a case be officially assigned to a detective.
1.5 Importance
An analysis of the above process indicates that some of the data is recorded as many as four times for each report. Additionally, due to necessity of saving temporary documents through the process, the case number of the event is required to be typed a minimum of seven times. In addition to wasting time with this redundancy, the whole process of data entry (and re-entry) greatly increases the potential for errors in the final record.
1.6 Stakeholders
According to data documented in the Zambia Police Department records database (2011), Zambia Police officers wrote 6,460 crime reports in the year 2010. In that same year, an officer’s average response time to a call was 4.8 minutes. The Zambia Police commissioner, explained from his personal experience that officers will often return to the police department to write a report and then get called away before they finish it. He mentioned also that at times officers are able to write two reports at the office before they get called away. Using a reasonable estimate that these two are about equal in volume, it is fair to say that on average, officers make at least one round trip to the police department for each report they write. Using the average call response time of 4.8 minutes, the travel time back and forth to the office for each report is approximately 9.6 minutes. Upon multiplying this period of time to the 6,460 reports written, it is estimated that most officers spent over 1,033 hours traveling back and forth to the office to write reports. This time results in the loss of one half of one officer’s annual work time. In summary, it is estimated to cost the police department over $50,000 in lost time a year for police officers to drive back to the office to write a report versus typing the report while in their police car or still at the scene.
Although the Zambia Police Records Unit does not log the amount of time spent on data entry or processing crime reports, a study was conducted for a local Solwezi police department where the police records staff did document their time. The study compared the amount of time for the police department’s records staff to process each police report before and after the department moved to a field reporting system. It was discovered that prior to the Implementation of a computerized Field Reporting System in the Zambia Police , it took approximately 45 minutes to enter all necessary data and complete a crime report. After the implementation of field reporting, it took approximately 9 minutes per report. This resulted in a net savings of 36 minutes per report. Applying that time savings to the 6,460 crime reports processed earlier Police Records Unit could have saved an estimated 3,876 hours of data entry time throughout the year. It is estimated that a field reporting solution could reduce data entry staffing needs and would save the city $108,960 annually.
The study analyzes the detectives’ clearance rate for the three years prior to the implementation of a computerized field reporting and compared it to clearance rate for the three years after the implementation of a computerized field reporting solution. The study showed a significant improvement in case clearance with an estimated 64 percent increase. This improvement was attributed primarily to the speed that the crime reports were available to the investigations department, and partially to improved accuracy of the data.
It has been found that police administrators benefited primarily due to improved speed in which crime information was available to them. The unnecessary delays caused by dictation and the current report workflow can not only handicap an investigation but also frustrate an impatient victim who is waiting for a resolution to the reported crime. Additionally, an officer typing a report inside the police department has no realized presence in the community. The community members of Solwezi expect and deserve better service from their police department.
Another requirement of police officers is to document vehicle accidents that occur within their jurisdiction. Officers are required to send specific statistical information to the Roads traffic and safety Department (RATSA).
A peace officer who investigates an accident that must be reported under this section shall, within ten days after the date of the accident, forward an electronic or written report of the accident as prescribed by the commissioner of public safety. The commissioner of public safety shall prescribe the format for the accident reports required under this section. Upon request, the commissioner shall make available the format to police departments.
Currently, when Zambia Police officers are called to the scene of an accident, they complete handwritten forms that include all necessary information on the vehicles, drivers and passengers of the vehicles. They also take notes on the additional information required by the Roads traffic and safety Department, including a map of the accident scene, direction of travel, injuries sustained, and contributing factors to the cause of the accident. After the accident, the officer returns to the police department, logs into the Roads traffic and safety Department online crash reporting website, and types in all the information that was gathered at the scene. Once that data entry is complete, the officer electronically submits the data to the state and prints out a local copy for approval. Once the report is approved, it is sent to the Records Unit where a records technician scans the report in and then enters the driver and vehicle information into the police records management system.
Because most of the statistical data collected is submitted directly to the Driver and Vehicle Services databases, that data is not entered into the local records management system. As a result, the police department is unable to track or produce intelligent reports regarding the cause and/or contributing factors of the accidents that occurred within the city.
the process of building a new crash report management system; however, the actual completion and implementation of this new solution is anticipated still to be several years away. The commissioner stated that as a result, his division has no plans to invest developmental resources into implementing an electronic interface solution for local police departments. He further stated that although Zambian police departments are encouraged to use the Driver and Vehicle Services online reporting system, they are not legally required to do so. He pointed out that there are still several police departments in the state that send their crash reports to the state via paper report. Currently, data collected by Driver and Vehicle Services is not provided to the police departments until the end of the first quarter of the year following the year the data was collected.
If Mobile computers were installed police cars. They could have been assisting officers in retrieving important information from databases so that the officer could make safe and informed law enforcement decisions while out in the field. While these computers could have really helped officers get necessary information out of databases, it seems impractical to not take advantage of this very same equipment to provide a solution for officers to put data into the system while still out in the field.

Chapter 2
2.1 Proposal to Address the Problem
I propose to address the above issues by implementing a paperless all-inclusive field reporting system that allows officers to electronically document crime information and input electronic evidence directly into the department’s records management system. This system would allow officers to enter subject, vehicle, and property information electronically into their mobile computers while still at the scene. data already in the existing computer aided the dispatch system, and the records management system could be used to auto-populate many of the fields in the report. This would save on data entry time and dramatically reduce errors. When the data is already in the system, officers could just ask subjects to verify its accuracy. Observations could be typed into narrative reports in real time, which would improve accuracy. Additionally, officers could attach audio statements and photos to the report electronically right from the scene. The officer could send the report to the supervisor for review prior to even leaving the scene. As a result, errors or inadequate information could be resolved before the officer leaves the scene. Once approved, the report and data could be immediately available to other patrol officers, supervisors, investigators, administrators, and records staff. Since the data would already be in the system, records technicians would not have to do any data entry. Records staff would merely validate the information for quality and control, and enter the crime codes mandated for statistical reporting. The data could then be immediately shared with investigations, other law enforcement agencies, and the courts system.
Although change is often met with resistance by many staff members, I propose to address these concerns by first educating all department employees on the benefits of the change. I propose to create a team of employees that represents all demographic groups of affected users. Team members would be selected based on a balance of capability and interest. The team would be empowered to research solutions, take part in the report creation, participate as beta testers, and then help train the rest of the employees. This active involvement by the front line users would help diminish the fears and bring ownership to the users themselves.
Concerns of officer safety have been considered. It is understood that officers may be distracted from seeing potential dangers when focused on typing reports while out in public. These concerns can be mitigated by allowing officers to either dictate, type reports while still at safe scenes, or stop at one of the several fire stations to complete their narratives. Another option would be for officers to park in the median on the freeway. This location allows an officer plenty of time to recognize a potential danger. It also works as a traffic violation deterrent to the hundreds of drivers who pass by the police car parked in the median.
An electronic accident report would also be created for field use. Data entry into this report would be similar to a crime report, as would the approval process and electronic workflow, which would automatically submit all collected data directly into the police records database. A records technician could then send a paper copy to Driver and Vehicle Services to achieve compliance with their reporting requirements. Data entry would be a wash for the officer when compared to the old system; however, it would save valuable data entry time for records technicians. Additionally, the extra crash data in our system would help supervisors and administrators allocate resources to issues that are causing crashes more quickly.
2.2 Relevant Management Principles
It is understood that according to existing management principles, the decision to move forward with this proposal would normally be made by the existing police command staff. However, in this case it is believed that both the police and fire management teams should be consulted and educated on the benefits of using the departments’ existing system. To stay within the city’s goal of keeping public safety solutions fully integrated, it only makes sense to use Mobile field reporting solution. Additionally, besides benefiting the police department, the field reporting solution could also be used by the fire department for building inspections and fire investigative reports. In an effort to be fiscally responsible and to preserve continued integration, it is recommended that this proposal be considered by both the police and fire management teams.
2.3 Relevant Laws, Rules, Regulations, or Policies
There are very few laws or rules that impact whether a field reporting system could be put in place. One exception involves security as it relates to the mobile computer connectivity to the police department. In order to transmit law enforcement sensitive data from a mobile computer to a police department, the agency is required to use a secure Virtual Private Network. Additionally, the policy requires advanced authentication login if the mobile computer is removed from a secure area such as the inside of a police vehicle. Examples of advanced authentication are defined to be technologies such as fingerprint biometric readers, smart cards, key fobs, or some other physical hardware tokens. Fortunately, all Zambia Police mobile computers are already set up with these security requirements in place.

Chapter 3
3.1 Implementation Issues
Things to think about when considering the Implementation of a Computerized Field Reporting System in the Zambia Police include how much staff time will be involved in the implementation and training, the overall cost of the project, and how long will it take to complete the project.
3.2 Human Resources
In order to successfully implement this project, it would be of value to assign a project manager who has a broad knowledge of technology and also understands the needs of the patrol, investigations and records divisions. This role would best fit one of the two existing support sergeants who are already jointly responsible for the implementation of other technologies. The project manager would be responsible for overseeing the project team and establishing a detailed timeline for the project. The project team should proportionately represent all involved workgroups. It is proposed that the build team include at least two patrol officers, a patrol sergeant, the record’s supervisor, a record’s technician, and the evidence technician. Supervisors of team members should provide them with a sufficient amount of time to successfully fulfill their role on the team. It is estimated that each build team member would allocate two hours a week for group meetings during the planning and development process. Also, team members would need additional time to beta test the system in the field with real examples.
3.3 Financial Resources
The existing mobile computers already have the latest hardware and software resources and are able to support field reporting. Mobile computers already have driver license readers and printers. No additional hardware would be needed in the field.
Like the rest of the system, there would be a reoccurring annual maintenance cost effective the year following the implementation. These estimates are for the police department needs only. The fire department needs would be a separate cost if they wished to create a field reporting solution for their mobile computers.
3.4 Time Frame
The desired timeline for product approval, design, and development is expected to last six to eight months. Beta testing, workflow implementation, and training is expected to take another four months. It is expected to have a fully functional all-inclusive field reporting system in place within one year.
3.5 Ethical Considerations
One ethical issue that is certainly noteworthy in this proposal is job security for existing records technicians. As noted in the problem statement of this document, the traditional method of report writing requires the need for much time consuming data entry by records technicians. Removing that need of redundant data entry would reduce the need for staffing. Records staff have already expressed concerns that they may lose their jobs if the department moves to an electronic field reporting system. As a result, they’ve already started talking negatively about the idea of this proposed change. The remaining time realized from the substantial reduction in data entry resulted in clerical staff being transferred to other job functions, such as assisting investigations and administration in the production of crime analysis data. Additionally, in the Zambia Police Department, there is still much work that needs to be done to standardize and digitize many historical and permanent case files. There is also much work to do in digitizing and entering historical personnel training records. As time passes and staffing leaves or retires, the department can gradually reduce clerical staffing on an as needed basis.
3.6 Diversity Considerations
It is recognized that some veteran officers resist technology and some younger officers resist writing reports. Technology was already the solution for officers to get information into the system, so once veteran officers understand that the auto-population solutions of field reporting will be quicker than the traditional system, and that they will no longer have to burn their digital evidence to compact disks, it is believed that they will eventually appreciate the new solution. This front end fear and resistance to change can be further resolved through good education and making sure that this group of officers is represented on the developmental team.
For the younger officers who resist writing reports, the option of dictation still exists. Younger officers are often technically savvy. As a result, it is believed they will appreciate the point and click automations that will be part of field reporting. Additionally, the time saved from driving back and forth to the office will allow them the opportunities to focus more on what they enjoy the most catching bad guys. Like the seasoned officers, it will also be important to educate the benefits of field reporting in advance and to make sure this demographic group of officers is represented on the developmental team.

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The objective of this proposal is to compare the police department’s current report writing procedures to the benefits associated with implementing a fully automated field reporting system. In summary, the current system of gathering notes in the field, driving to the office to type that information in a report, and then printing the report out so the data can be entered into the records management system is inefficient and slow. Alternatively, entering data only once at the scene is considered to be more accurate and results in an expedited delivery of information to investigations, which increases the case solvability factor. Additionally, field reporting keeps officers out in the field where they will be more available to the community.
Although there is a realized cost up front to move to a field reporting system, improving efficiencies in officer’s time, and gradual reduction in records technicians will help alleviate these costs. Concerns of officer safety while typing reports out in public can be mitigated with alternative solutions. The intended outcome would be to have an all-inclusive field reporting system in place that realizes all the listed benefits, and a system that would be so appreciated by all users that no one would even consider wanting to go back to the old system.

References
1. Zambia Police records database. (2011). Retrieved from the cases module of the records management system.
2. http://www.zambiapolice.gov.zm
3. www.homeaffairs.gov.zm
4. www.zambiaprison.gov.zm
5. www.interpol.int
6. www.statehouse.gov.zm

Title: Subtitle
In recent years there has been a big change as revolution in the computer and communication world and all the signs are that technological development and employ of information technology (IT) will continue go on with a fast velocity. As a result, Such great progresses in development present several major and great opportunities but also pose a lot of challenges. Nowadays, increasing in inventions in the field of IT are having extensive effects over the social life of every individual it does no matter whether they belong to a rural or urban area. There are many factors that shows people all over the world are addicted towards the new applications such as Facebook, Instagram, Snapchat and Twitter etcetera. Ultimately these advanced apps were made to use by huans but unfortunelly they have been running down in the blood vessel of kids, youngsters and elders. One of the main rsaon these sites are addidtives are because of there millions of ictures , videos and non-stop essaging and texting from

Title: The Progression of Rwanda to the United Nations Sustainable Development
Goal one, Target one.
End poverty in all its forms everywhere.

Low socioeconomic status is intrinsically linked to low health outcomes and low life expediency (Munyaneza, Muhammad, & Chen, 2016). Poverty is often caused by high unemployment, little access to education, food resources and health care. People living in poverty are vulnerable, to disease from dirty water and infections (United Nations, 2016). Often stigmatised these members of society become marginalised having to live on the outskirts of the city. Extreme poverty is defined by the World bank as living on less than $1.25 a day (World Bank data, 2018). Currently there is 783 million people that is equal to 10% of the world’s working population, most of these people live in Southern Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa, such as Rwanda (United Nations, 2016). Rwanda is a landlocked Sub-Saharan country in Africa, 63% of Rwanda’s population live in extreme poverty, however, it is my belief through strong leadership, investment in human capital and most significantly reconciliation and forgiveness, President Paul Kagame has transformed Rwanda into one of the world’s fastest growing economies, pathing the way to end poverty for all Rwandan’s by 2030.
1 Historical factor: how the past influences the present

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Rwanda in colonial times was occupied by the Belgians, however, the population consists of two ethnic groups, the Tutsi and the Hutu. These two ethnic groups have a long history in conflict largely due to Belgian colonial policies (Desrosiers, & Thomson, 2011). Policies that divided these two groups based on how causian they looked and wealth or how many cows they owned. This was known as the ten-cow rule, those that owned more than ten cows were considered Tutsis and the rest Hutu. (Edmondson, 2009). The Tutsis had economic wealth so were considered by the Belgian’s privileged and were given bureaucratic jobs. This gave rise to an uprising by the Tutsi who stood for independence. The Belgian’s in response got behind the Hutu and supported them in forming their own political party. 1962 Rwanda gained independence, the Hutu took power and over one hundred thousand Tutsi fled to escape the violence form Hutu gangs (Edmondson, 2009). Rwanda continued as a nation of political instability deepening the resentment and prejudiced hostility between these two ethnic groups. The Genocide of 1994 led to the deaths of almost one million Tutsis. Mascaraed by the Hutus on demand by the Hutu government. April 4 1994 the killings begun and lasted for 100 days. The genocide has been remembered as one of the world’s worst events in history. While ordinary Hutus were slaughtering their Tutsi neighbours the world stood by and did nothing. Rwanda’s infrastructure was destroyed and the economy in tatters. Those that were lucky to not be killed or have become a killer were traumatised as they watched their Mothers and Fathers hacked apart in front of them, the violence so great it permanently destroyed the social and cultural makeup of Rwanda causing generational trauma and displaced hundreds of thousands as they fled the violence or fled in fear of repercussions once the Tutsi political army put an end to the massacre in July 1994. This army was led by Paul Kagame Rwanda’s present today
(Moghalu, Kingsley ; Chiedu, 2017, p. 183).
July 1994 the RPF a Tutsi lead army from the neighbouring country took control of Kigali and formed an administration and begun a new ruling based on the principles of power-sharing and national reconciliation which were the basis of the 1993 Arusha Accords (Moghalu, Kingsley ; Chiedu, 2017, p. 183). The administration comprised five political parties: the RPF, Christian Democratic Party, Liberal Party, Republican Democratic Movement and Social Democratic Party. Pasteur Bizimungu was inaugurated as President for a five-year term; the RPF military chief Paul Kagame became Vice-President and Defence Minister (Moghalu, Kingsley ; Chiedu, 2017, p. 183). Kagame became president of Rwanda in 2000 and has since turned the war-torn country into one of the cleanest, safest and fast-growing economic hubs in the nation. (Moghalu, Kingsley ; Chiedu, 2017, p. 183).

2 Cultural factors: how culture impacts on our lives;
President Kagame reformed Rwanda’s culture by drawing upon aspects of ancient Rwandan practices such as umuganda, the act of community service, unity and dedication to country (Desrosiers, & Thomson, 2011). Reinforced through the active involvement of all citizens and levels of government providing service to the community, removing rubbish, building roads/schools as well as building homes for those citizens who were without. One day per month community members gather together and work on the projects the community needs, after the work is done all citizens participate in a banquet and celebrate with music and cultural songs (Crawley, 2000). By coming together communities build close relationships as they discuss and resolve issues as a community, paving the way for economic growth and a better future for all Rwandans (Desrosiers, & Thomson, 2011). Rwanda’s steady economic growth can also be attributed to Kagame’s regime rhetoric of reconciliation and ethnic unity, gender equality and investment in education. Rwandan culture based upon this rhetoric remains a driving force behind their developments in luxury tourism, information and communication technologies, modernized agriculture and in the medical health sectors (Desrosiers, & Thomson, 2011). The new Rwandan culture boasts Rwandan solutions to Rwandan problems. Evident by their innovative methane gas sourced power, a solution to the country’s past power crisis (Munyaneza, Muhammad, ; Chen, 2016). It has been projected that Rwanda will be able to satisfy 100% of its populations electrical needs reliably and sustainably by 2022-2024 (Munyaneza, Muhammad, ; Chen, 2016).

3 Structural factors: how particular forms of social organisation affect our lives;
Post-genocide, Rwanda.
With the formation of new government, many new laws were made addressing issues and assist in the rebuilding of the war-torn country. They made a law to eliminate all reference to ethnicity in identification documents and banned the use of references to Tutsi and Hutu ethnicity. A declaration was made that all citizens from then on to be known as Rwandans. By doing this they rebuilt the country while fostering community spirit and reinforcing unity across the country (Kohen., et al 2011).

Today Woman make up a little over half of the Rwandan population, as mainly men were killed in the genocide (Crawley, 2000). Social roles of women changed as they had to step up and fill the position traditionally been a held by men (Crawley, 2000). It became socially accepted for attend community meetings and have her say regarding family matters, just as it became the norm for woman to seek work, many becoming agriculture labours (Crawley, 2000). This shift in traditional roles lead to the raise of new laws that gave men and woman equal rights to inherit property. The 1994 genocide which had targeted and killed mainly men causing a massive upheaval in Rwandan society bringing about a change in social structure (Crawley, 2000).
Woman are over represented in Rwanda’s parliament, demonstrating Kagams commitment to address gender equality. President Kagame is very popular among his people, delivering on set goals as he defined in his vision 2020, which includes ending poverty, delivering power, education and advancing the nations standard of health care for all just to name a few.
Kidanemariam, (2011) states “The experience of the east African nation of Rwanda which is being hailed as the “poster child” for its remarkable success in implementing a comprehensive health care system under global public health framework in the last 1 5 years is presented to serve as an inspiration for other African countries.” (p163)

4. Critical factors:
President Paul Kagame, the face of the new Rwanda, adored by his people sharing in a nation dedicated to country and achieving strength through unity and reconciliation. Assuming power in 2000, Kagame demanded transparency in governance, a democracy in decision making and zero tolerance to corruption. Rwanda reinvented itself presenting to the world as a nation of stability, beauty, sustainable growth and free of crime, earning the right to call himself a visionary and a true leader. Kagame strategically utilised foreign aid and private investment to improve health, expand and developed education, build infrastructure, modernise agriculture and develop a hub of information technology communication, connecting people and opening up an endless flow of business opportunities and creating employment. As a result the people have become empowered and in the last few years have become quite the enponures. Communities work as one, in collaboration to come up with solutions for their own problems supporting a sense of social cohesions . The people of Rwanda are catapulting forward with developments reported in all sectors, at a rate never seen before. In the past oyears one million people have lifted their poverty stats and not live above the poverty line. elivering one million people out of poverty in the last decade, cutting the national poverty rate by 14%. According to the 12th edition of the World Bank Economic report, June 2018, Rwanda’s export and agriculture continued positive progress reaching an annual growth of 6.1% and is expected to accelerate to express a growth of 7.5% in 2019.

“Rwanda has a unique opportunity to create a positive virtuous cycle of producing a generation of well-nourished children who grow, thrive, and reach their full potential, contribute to human capital development, and contribute to future economic growth,” said Miriam Schneidman, Lead Health Specialist and World Bank’s
(1267)
References

Crawley, M., (2000) Rwandan social structure evolves, retrieved from: https://www.csmonitor.com/2000/0621/p6s1.html

Desrosiers, M., Thomson, S., (2011), Rhetorical legacies of leadership: projections of ‘benevolent leadership’ in pre- and post-genocide Rwanda, The Journal of Modern African Studies 43(3) 429-453 DOI:10.1017/S0022278X11000279

Edmondson, Laura, (2009), Genocide Unbound: Erik Ehn, Rwanda, and an Aesthetics of Discomfort. Theatre Journal 61(1), 65-83. Retrieved from:
https://search-proquest-com.dbgw.lis.curtin.edu.au/docview/216065969?accountid=10382

Kidanemariam, A. (2011). RETHINKING HEALTH PROMOTION AND DISEASE PREVENTION IN AFRICA: THE QUEST FOR AN INTEGRATED MODEL. Journal of Third World Studies, 28(2), 161-178. Retrieved from https://search-proquest-com.dbgw.lis.curtin.edu.au/docview/903426680?accountid=10382

Kohen, A., Zanchelli, M., Drake, L., (2011), Personal and political reconciliation in post-genocide Rwanda, Social Justice Research 24(1) 85-106.
DOI:10.1007/s11211-011-0126-7

Munyaneza, J., Muhammad, W., Chen, B., (2016) Overview of Rwanda energy sector: From energy shortage to sufficiency, Science Direct Energy Procedia 104, 215-230 DOI:10.1016/j.egypro.2016.12.037
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) – the United Nations Retrieved from https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/sustainable-development-goals

World Bank Group – International Development, Poverty, & Sustainability
Retrieved from https://www.worldbank.org/

http://www.worldbank.org/en/results/2016/07/12/rwanda-achieving-food-security-reducing-poverty-moving-up-the-value-chain
https://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2018/06/21/world-bank-rwanda-economic-update

Kagame’s management style and approach to complex problems by breaking them down into easy obtainable solutions, empowering young Rwanda’s self-assurance for future aspirations (Moghalu et al., 2017). Kagame’s focus is on the needs of his people, while boasting a Western style modern leadership regime, Kagame incorporates Rwandan core values aiding enhancement in the lives of his people. (Moghalu et al., 2017). Kagame’s leadership is palpable in his ability to communicating his forward vision for Rwanda to the country’s average citizen sharing social cohesion and restoring a sense of pride amongst its people (Moghalu et al., 2017).
targets regarding performance targets are closely monitored, with officials being relieved of their positions for failing to meet these mandates (Moghalu et al., 2017).

Strong leadership is again demonstrated by Kagame’s management style and approach to complex problems by breaking them down into easy obtainable solutions, empowering Rwanda’s people creating a sense of pride and belief in future aspirations (Moghalu et al., 2017). Kagame’s focus is on the needs of his people, while boasting a Western style modern leadership regime, Kagame incorporates Rwandan core values aiding enhancement in the lives of his people.
A2 evedence of human capital
Rwanda today is largely the product one man’s vision and grit, a so-far successful but still fragile experiment at transformational leadership in Africa out of the ashes of conflict and poverty. If the country is “Rwanda, Inc.,” Paul Kagame is its Chief Executive Officer, and he is committed to a “pro-poor” model of economic growth that prioritizes eradicating rural poverty based on a national Vision 2020 that is being implemented on target.7 That Kagame has delivered returns to his country-corporation, and therefore is domestically popular, is beyond dispute, and he is eagerly observed as a leadership case study on the continent.
Another aspect of Rwanda’s leadership, one of fundamental relevance to Africa’s true emergence on the global economic and political stage, is Kagame’s attitude to foreign aid, which has broadly failed to achieve much in Africa beyond maintaining the aid-industrial complex in the Western world and incompetent leaders in several African countries who believe, vainly, that outside assistance is what will create prosperity for Africans. Rwanda has benefited from large amounts of foreign aid, to the tune of $1 billion annually, and is viewed as the sub-Saharan Africa country that has utilized aid most efficiently and effectively.10 Thus, Western governments and bureaucrats have viewed Kagame and his Rwanda as a great example of aid effectiveness. africa’s leadership conundrum Y
Yet, Kagame is contemptuous of foreign aid, which he views, correctly, as detracting from the dignity of Africans, and has treated aid as a necessary but transient evil. He is systematically reducing his country’s aid dependence, encouraging a self-confident culture of entrepreneurship in young Rwandans. Laden with bitter memories of the world’s failure to intervene and stop the genocide of 1994 in his country, the Rwandan leader has little faith in the aspirational contraption known as the “international community.”
While he has been adroit in exploiting the guilt of Western nations for their failure to stop the genocide and has been described as “the global elite’s favorite strongman,”11

With men the primary victims in the ’94 genocide, women have more responsi- bilities now. A new law will give them inheritance rights.
June 21, 2000
• By Mike Crawley Special to The Christian Science Monitor
RUTONGO, RWANDA

Abondibana’s husband died back in 1988, she was unable to inherit his property. So her son gave her a small piece of land on which to live. But tragically, the son was murdered during the genocide. And, “when he died, his wife refused to give me any land,” says Abondibana.
She stayed in the house, living off food from her neighbors, but eventually felt intimidated by threats from her daughter-in-law and her male accomplices. “I feared for my life,” she said. “I thought I could be killed anytime if I remained in the house.”
Conflicts over land in Rwanda – long a factor in one of the world’s most densely populated countries – became no less intense after the genocide. Hundreds of thousands of Tutsis returned from exile, hoping to recover property they had left behind as far back as 1959. Thousands of Hutus fled the country, for fear of reprisals or justice, leaving land to be quickly claimed by others. And with so many men killed in the genocide, women became the heads of hundreds of thousands of households – 34 percent of them, according to the government.
International aid agencies have found a newly receptive environment for initiatives to meet women’s needs and train them in new skills, all aimed at increasing their participation in society and encouraging peace. Women’s groups have become key forums both for local activism and decisionmaking. And more women are working in formal employment, although their numbers remain small.
“Traditionally, a woman was not a breadwinner. Now she has had to become one,” says Ms. Inyumba, who was minister of gender during the law’s drafting process.
Organizations like Haguruka (Stand Up), a women’s and children’s rights group, were engulfed by hundreds of women asking for legal help after being turfed from their land. Even though the Rwandan Constitution has enshrined equal rights since 1992, the practice on the ground was vastly different.
“The Constitution was not applied,” explains Edda Mukabagwiza, executive director of Hagururka. Judges – almost exclusively men – tended to side with cultural norms over constitutional niceties, she says. “The woman had no rights to property because property belonged to men. Only boys had the right to inherit. The most important thing in this new law is the equality between women and men, girl and boy.”
Two provisions in the law are key. If a parent divides land while still alive, the law says: “All children, without distinction between girls and boys … have a right to the partition made by their ascendants.” After a parent’s death, the law says all children “inherit in equal parts without any discrimination between male and female children.”
The law also contains detailed clauses explaining inheritance rules in the event of such instances as the death of a spouse when there are no children, and the rights of so-called “illegitimate” children. Another provision that helped Abondibana’s case says a surviving spouse must assist needy parents.
Legal experts say the system is a departure from the laws in most other African countries, which do not allow women the right to inherit. Passing the law was one thing: Implementing it is another. Although some cases like Abondibana’s have been heard and won by the female petitioners, such decisions have mainly taken place in the superior courts. It will be tougher to change the attitudes of lower-level judges.
“There are a lot of differences between the law and the decisions that magistrates and local officials are making. This gap needs to be filled,” says Jean Marie Kamatali, dean of law at the National University of Rwanda in Butare.
Mr. Kamatali says the government isn’t doing enough to promote the new legislation. “Few Rwandans know the content of this law,” he says. “You need a lot of sensitization.”
“There’s going to need to be a huge sensitization campaign, not just for the judges and magistrates, but for the general population as well,” agrees Lisa Jones, a protection officer with the UN High Commissioner for Refugees in Kigali. Specific administrative regulations, she adds, are needed so that local officials know how to apply its principles.
The law took effect only last November. Inyumba says it will take time for the government’s sensitization campaign – which includes radio and TV items, written material and direct presentations to groups of students, youths and women – to have an impact.
She acknowledges that the battle against ingrained attitudes toward women is a tough one. And it’s not just men who cling to traditional beliefs.
“Some women, because of the culture, don’t believe they have rights,” says Mr. Mukabagwiza. “Not all men are against the law. Even in rural areas, some of them understand the principle.”
It’s a principle that changed Abondibana’s life. She won her court case just 15 days after the law took effect, having lost earlier in a lower court.
“My life is better, and I have good expectations that the future will be OK,” she says. “I can plant beans and give them to the children to eat.”

Structure factors 4.3. Private sector-led development
For Rwanda’s development, the emergence of a viable private sector that can take over as the principle growth engine of the economy is absolutely key. Not only will such a development be conducive for economic growth, but it will also ensure the emergence of a vibrant middle class of entrepreneurs, which will help develop and embed the principles of democracy. Although foreign direct investment will be encouraged, a local-based business class remains a crucial component of development.
The Government of Rwanda will foster private sector development as a catalyst; ensuring that infrastructure (specifically IT, transport and energy), human resources and legal frameworks are geared towards to stimulating economic activity and growth of private investments.
The continued development of the financial sector remains crucial with an increasing number of people accessing financial services. The financial sector must be able to provide the necessary capital for private sector development. The government aims to promote local business through the introduction of industrial parks and export processing zones in which foreign operators could partner with local businesses.
Particular attention will be paid to the labour market. More than 10 years into the implementation of Vision 2020, the Rwandan economy has been able to generate 1.2 million non-farm jobs. With population expected to reach around 13.5 million by 2020 and at least half the population depending on off-farm activities, it will therefore be necessary to create
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1.6 million off-farm jobs. This will require a substantial number of jobs created in the private sector.
4.4. Infrastructure development
The development of infrastructure is a crucial aspect in lowering the costs of doing business in Rwanda, which is essential to attracting domestic and foreign investments.
Land use management
Land use management is a fundamental tool in development. As Rwanda is characterized by acute land shortage, a land use plan has been developed to ensure its optimal utilization in urban and rural development. Currently, Rwanda’s scarce land resources still face a challenge of ineffective translation of the developed land use master plan into sector strategic plans and district development plans. In the coming years, Rwanda will ensure that every development plan is guided by the land use master plan. The recent land tenure regularization will increase security on ownership and improve productive land usage.
Rwanda will continue to pursue a harmonious policy of organized grouped settlements (umudugudization). Rural settlements organized into active development centres will be further equipped with basic infrastructure and services. While this system of settlement will continue to serve as an entry point into the development of non-agricultural income generating activities, land consolidation will be emphasized so as to create adequate space for modern and viable farming.
Urban development
By 2020, each town will have updated urban master plans with coordinated implementation of the plans. The country will develop basic infrastructure in urban centres and in other development poles, enabling the decongestion of agricultural zones. The proportion of those living in towns and cities will increase from 14.8% in 2010 to 35% in 2020 (and 10% in 2000). The income differential between towns and rural areas should remain within reasonable proportions, due to the decentralization of economic activities throughout the country.
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Transport
Rwanda is landlocked with high transport costs to the ocean ports of Kenya and Tanzania. Therefore, it is imperative to develop alternative lower costs of transport to the sea, notably through a regional rail extension to Isaka, Tanzania and an extension to the Ugandan Railway system. Furthermore, a second airport capable of serving, as a regional hub for the great lakes region will be developed. For the internal market, Rwanda has a reliable and safe transport network of feeder roads; however, these will continue to be maintained, extended and improved.
Communication ; ICT
Rwanda has made a rapid improvement in ICT with fibre optic network coverage all through the country, mobile telephone network coverage at almost 100%, with 45% mobile subscriptions in 2011. By 2020, Rwanda projects to have internet access at all administrative levels, for all secondary schools and for a large number of primary schools. Telephone services will be widespread in rural areas and efficiency of public services will have increased through the application of e-government principles. It is expected that mobile subscription will reach 60% and the number of internet users will reach at least 50 % (from 4.3% in 2010).
energy
Inadequate and expensive electricity supply constitutes a limiting factor to development. Wood is the main source of energy for 86.3% (2010) of the population down from 99% in 2000 which is a significant drop. This leads to massive deforestation and soil destruction. Imported petroleum products consume more than 17% of foreign exchange. Rwanda will therefore increase energy production and diversify into alternative energy sources.
To achieve this, Rwanda has considerable hydroelectric potential, in addition to large deposits of renewable methane gas in Lake Kivu, estimated at 60 billion cubic meters. In rural areas direct solar energy or photovoltaic energy can be used, whilst up to 1/3 of 155 million tons of peat deposit is currently exploitable. Rwanda projects that by 2020, at least 75% of the population will be connected to electricity (up from 2% in 2000 and 11% in 2010) and the consumption of wood will decrease from the current 86.3% to 50% of national energy consumption.
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Water
In 2010, 74.2% of Rwandans have access to clean water. The country is endowed with reserves that could provide enough water for both consumption and agricultural purposes. These include substantial rainfall (between 900 ; 1500 mm per year) and the abundance of lakes, streams and watercourses. Furthermore, there is an abundant supply of high altitude water in the western part of the country, which may be used in providing water by gravity to the southern and south-eastern regions of the country that face water shortages. Rwanda will continue to invest in protection and efficient management of water resources, as well as water infrastructure development to ensure that by 2020 all Rwandans have access to clean water.
Waste management
The transmission of various water- borne diseases can be attributed to the consumption of dirty and contaminated water. The unplanned and disorganized construction of towns without a suitable drainage system exacerbates sanitary problems. Sewerage and rainwater can destroy public roads or stagnate, creating ideal breeding grounds for both human and animal diseases. Since most houses are situated on the summit and on the slopes of hills, water sources are in constant danger of pollution by domestic sewerage and other human activities carried by the stream of water. The environmental impact and waste management has recently been taken into account by human settlements and industrial installations, but challenges remain.
By 2020, the rural and urban areas are to have sufficient sewerage and disposal systems. Each town is to be endowed with an adequate unit for treating solid wastes. Households will have mastered and be practicing measures of hygiene and waste disposal.
4.5. Productive high value and market oriented agriculture
Since independence, Rwanda’s economic policies have targeted agriculture as the main engine of economic growth. Though agriculture productivity has been increasing in the recent years, there is still room for improvement. It will be necessary to continue with the implementation of aggressive transformational policies that move towards a modern and more productive agriculture.
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Agricultural policy orientation will continue to focus on promoting intensification so as to increase productivity, promoting value addition, modernization and improved quality of livestock to achieve an average annual growth rate of 8.5%. The vision aims to replace subsistence farming by a fully, commercialized agricultural sector by 2020.
4.6. Regional and international integration
Rwanda considers regional economic integration as one of the crucial elements of achieving Vision 2020. To this end, Rwanda will continue pursuing an open, liberal trade regime, minimizing barriers to trade as well as implementing policies to encourage foreign direct investment. Furthermore, policies to promote competitive enterprises, exports and entrepreneurship will be emphasized. Economic zones for ICT based production will be crucial for enhancing competitiveness of Rwandan firms.
The vision of accessing larger regional markets will be accompanied through a program of investing in infrastructure to promote Rwanda as a logistics, telecommunication and financial hub. Furthermore, taking advantage of Rwanda’s comparative strategic position should be exploited in terms of warehouse functions in trade and commerce. Export processing zones, coupled with the industrial reforms noted above, will enable the country to consolidate its niche in services, communication and financial sectors and take advantage of growing regional co- operation in the Great Lakes/ Eastern African Region.
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5. CROSS-CUTTING ISSUeS OF VISION 2020
Alongside the 6 pillars, there are three cross-cutting areas of gender, environment and climate change; and science and technology.
5.1. Gender equality
Women make up 53% of the population and participate in subsistence agriculture more than men. They usually feed and provide care for their children and ensure their fundamental education. There has been tremendous progress in gender equality specifically in education (as the number of girls in primary and secondary education has surpassed boys with girls to boys ratio at 1.03) and in decision making positions (as of 2012 women represent about 56% of parliamentarians).
In order to strengthen gender equality and equity, Rwanda will further update and adapt its laws on gender. It will continue to support education for all, fight against poverty and practice a positive discrimination policy in favour of women with a focus in TVET, tertiary level and in employment opportunities. Gender will continue to be integrated as a cross-cutting issue in all development policies and strategies at both central and local government levels.
5.2. Natural resources, environment and climate change
To date, climate change is widely recognized as the major environmental problem facing the globe that is becoming inextricably linked to development. Rwanda is increasingly facing global climate change consequences including; flooding, resulting in disasters such as landslides that cost lives and resources, and droughts that adversely affect agricultural output. Other threats to the environment take the form of depletion of bio-diversity, degradation of ecosystems such as swamps and wetlands and pollution of waterways. Rwanda will continue to put in place strategies to mitigate the impact of climate change by focusing on developing eco-friendly policies and strategies in all sectors of the economy and by promoting green growth.
5.3. Science, technology and ICT
Rwanda will continue to invest in developing adequate, highly skilled scientists and technicians to satisfy the needs of the transition to knowledge-based economy. A knowledge based-economy will require innovative products that can be competitive in regional and global
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markets. Having laid the foundations for ICT to take-off in the country through the laying of the fibre optic cable network, Rwandans have a whole new world of opportunities to take advantage of. More importantly the government of Rwanda will encourage the use of ICT as a tool for self employment, innovation and job creation. Policies to encourage development of smart applications that meet economic needs and develop economic potential will be promoted amongst the youth. ICT as a tool for improving service delivery in both the private and public sector will be emphasized.

Africa’s Leadership Conundrum
Moghalu, Kingsley Chiedu. The Fletcher Forum of World Affairs; Medford Vol. 41, Iss. 2, (Summer 2017): 171-191.

Components: Author, A. A. (year). Title of article. Title of journal, volume(issue), page range. DOI

Moghalu, Kingsley Chiedu. (2017). Africa’s Leadership Conundrum. The Fletcher Forum of World Affairs, 41(2), 171-191. Retrieved from
https://search-proquest-com.dbgw.lis.curtin.edu.au/docview/1933863752?accountid=10382
(Moghalu, Kingsley ; Chiedu, 2017, p. 183)
(Moghalu et al., 2017)

Introduction
From Murders to Mogul, Rwanda the scene of one of the biggest atrocities in mankind’s history. Looking at the Rwanda today it’s hard to imagine that only two decades ago Rwanda’s government had orchestrated the genocide of more than half a million people. The majority being Tutis but many moderate Hutus were also killed in a mere 90 days ().

A3 reconciliation and forgiveness
International and local gacaca trials in 1990s to 2000s delivered justice for those involved in the 1994 geniside enabling Tutsi and Hutus to live side by side. Furthermore the banning of ethnic identification and one of a unified Rwanda is foremost Kagame’s basis for his countries reconciliation and forgiveness policy. Rwandains throughout the country come together on the last Saturday of every month
Kigali, the capital city, is the cleanest in the continent—thanks to the orderly efficiency of Rwandan society and in part to the fact that, in order to prevent environmental degradation, one cannot enter the country with a plastic bag. Modern skyscrapers increasingly dot the Kigali skyline, and the country is clearly open for business.

.
Dictorship or demoracy… freedom of speech and dead or missing oppersion.

The Rwandan parliament recently amended the country’s constitution to allow Kagame to run for a third seven-year term in office, and after that two further terms of five years each. Thus, Paul Kagame could be Rwanda’s president until 2034. From an outsider’s perspective, this ought to be a difficult judgment call for Rwanda’s citizens, one between a leader who is providing effective and transformational leadership that is verifiable, but in a restricted political space and blooming political freedoms that might yield a return to divisive, ethnocentric politics that defined the country’s past and makes it potentially unsafe for the minority Tutsi.
This brings up the unpleasant but practically necessary question of whether, whenever Kagame leaves office after a long period as Rwanda’s helmsman, he will be succeeded by another Tutsi. Such a scenario, absent Kagame’s uniqueness against the immediate historical backdrop of the 1994 genocide, will likely generate significant hostility from the majority Hutu, who make up 85 percent of Rwandans. It could be interpreted as a signal of a return to earlier historical trends in which the minority Tutsi dominated Rwandan leadership and society before the tables turned in the Belgian-inspired Hutu “revolution” of 1959.
Kagame’s critics have noted that his official policy of “banishment” of ethnic identification in Rwanda is really just a smokescreen for the dominance of Tutsi who comprise the leader’s core inner circle, although there are high-ranking Hutu, such as prime minister Anastase Murekezi, in Kagame’s government. Thus, the “us versus them” conundrum, aided in this case by the imperative of ethnic survival and shrouded in accusations of a repressive political climate and poor human rights record, remains embedded in a larger worldview of transformation that has marked Rwanda’s post-genocide journey
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Structure factors 4.3. Private sector-led development
For Rwanda’s development, the emergence of a viable private sector that can take over as the principle growth engine of the economy is absolutely key. Not only will such a development be conducive for economic growth, but it will also ensure the emergence of a vibrant middle class of entrepreneurs, which will help develop and embed the principles of democracy. Although foreign direct investment will be encouraged, a local-based business class remains a crucial component of development.
The Government of Rwanda will foster private sector development as a catalyst; ensuring that infrastructure (specifically IT, transport and energy), human resources and legal frameworks are geared towards to stimulating economic activity and growth of private investments.
The continued development of the financial sector remains crucial with an increasing number of people accessing financial services. The financial sector must be able to provide the necessary capital for private sector development. The government aims to promote local business through the introduction of industrial parks and export processing zones in which foreign operators could partner with local businesses.
Particular attention will be paid to the labour market. More than 10 years into the implementation of Vision 2020, the Rwandan economy has been able to generate 1.2 million non-farm jobs. With population expected to reach around 13.5 million by 2020 and at least half the population depending on off-farm activities, it will therefore be necessary to create
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1.6 million off-farm jobs. This will require a substantial number of jobs created in the private sector.
4.4. Infrastructure development
The development of infrastructure is a crucial aspect in lowering the costs of doing business in Rwanda, which is essential to attracting domestic and foreign investments.
Land use management
Land use management is a fundamental tool in development. As Rwanda is characterized by acute land shortage, a land use plan has been developed to ensure its optimal utilization in urban and rural development. Currently, Rwanda’s scarce land resources still face a challenge of ineffective translation of the developed land use master plan into sector strategic plans and district development plans. In the coming years, Rwanda will ensure that every development plan is guided by the land use master plan. The recent land tenure regularization will increase security on ownership and improve productive land usage.
Rwanda will continue to pursue a harmonious policy of organized grouped settlements (umudugudization). Rural settlements organized into active development centres will be further equipped with basic infrastructure and services. While this system of settlement will continue to serve as an entry point into the development of non-agricultural income generating activities, land consolidation will be emphasized so as to create adequate space for modern and viable farming.
Urban development
By 2020, each town will have updated urban master plans with coordinated implementation of the plans. The country will develop basic infrastructure in urban centres and in other development poles, enabling the decongestion of agricultural zones. The proportion of those living in towns and cities will increase from 14.8% in 2010 to 35% in 2020 (and 10% in 2000). The income differential between towns and rural areas should remain within reasonable proportions, due to the decentralization of economic activities throughout the country.
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Transport
Rwanda is landlocked with high transport costs to the ocean ports of Kenya and Tanzania. Therefore, it is imperative to develop alternative lower costs of transport to the sea, notably through a regional rail extension to Isaka, Tanzania and an extension to the Ugandan Railway system. Furthermore, a second airport capable of serving, as a regional hub for the great lakes region will be developed. For the internal market, Rwanda has a reliable and safe transport network of feeder roads; however, these will continue to be maintained, extended and improved.
Communication & ICT
Rwanda has made a rapid improvement in ICT with fibre optic network coverage all through the country, mobile telephone network coverage at almost 100%, with 45% mobile subscriptions in 2011. By 2020, Rwanda projects to have internet access at all administrative levels, for all secondary schools and for a large number of primary schools. Telephone services will be widespread in rural areas and efficiency of public services will have increased through the application of e-government principles. It is expected that mobile subscription will reach 60% and the number of internet users will reach at least 50 % (from 4.3% in 2010).
energy
Inadequate and expensive electricity supply constitutes a limiting factor to development. Wood is the main source of energy for 86.3% (2010) of the population down from 99% in 2000 which is a significant drop. This leads to massive deforestation and soil destruction. Imported petroleum products consume more than 17% of foreign exchange. Rwanda will therefore increase energy production and diversify into alternative energy sources.
To achieve this, Rwanda has considerable hydroelectric potential, in addition to large deposits of renewable methane gas in Lake Kivu, estimated at 60 billion cubic meters. In rural areas direct solar energy or photovoltaic energy can be used, whilst up to 1/3 of 155 million tons of peat deposit is currently exploitable. Rwanda projects that by 2020, at least 75% of the population will be connected to electricity (up from 2% in 2000 and 11% in 2010) and the consumption of wood will decrease from the current 86.3% to 50% of national energy consumption.
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Water
In 2010, 74.2% of Rwandans have access to clean water. The country is endowed with reserves that could provide enough water for both consumption and agricultural purposes. These include substantial rainfall (between 900 & 1500 mm per year) and the abundance of lakes, streams and watercourses. Furthermore, there is an abundant supply of high altitude water in the western part of the country, which may be used in providing water by gravity to the southern and south-eastern regions of the country that face water shortages. Rwanda will continue to invest in protection and efficient management of water resources, as well as water infrastructure development to ensure that by 2020 all Rwandans have access to clean water.
Waste management
The transmission of various water- borne diseases can be attributed to the consumption of dirty and contaminated water. The unplanned and disorganized construction of towns without a suitable drainage system exacerbates sanitary problems. Sewerage and rainwater can destroy public roads or stagnate, creating ideal breeding grounds for both human and animal diseases. Since most houses are situated on the summit and on the slopes of hills, water sources are in constant danger of pollution by domestic sewerage and other human activities carried by the stream of water. The environmental impact and waste management has recently been taken into account by human settlements and industrial installations, but challenges remain.
By 2020, the rural and urban areas are to have sufficient sewerage and disposal systems. Each town is to be endowed with an adequate unit for treating solid wastes. Households will have mastered and be practicing measures of hygiene and waste disposal.
4.5. Productive high value and market oriented agriculture
Since independence, Rwanda’s economic policies have targeted agriculture as the main engine of economic growth. Though agriculture productivity has been increasing in the recent years, there is still room for improvement. It will be necessary to continue with the implementation of aggressive transformational policies that move towards a modern and more productive agriculture.
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Agricultural policy orientation will continue to focus on promoting intensification so as to increase productivity, promoting value addition, modernization and improved quality of livestock to achieve an average annual growth rate of 8.5%. The vision aims to replace subsistence farming by a fully, commercialized agricultural sector by 2020.
4.6. Regional and international integration
Rwanda considers regional economic integration as one of the crucial elements of achieving Vision 2020. To this end, Rwanda will continue pursuing an open, liberal trade regime, minimizing barriers to trade as well as implementing policies to encourage foreign direct investment. Furthermore, policies to promote competitive enterprises, exports and entrepreneurship will be emphasized. Economic zones for ICT based production will be crucial for enhancing competitiveness of Rwandan firms.
The vision of accessing larger regional markets will be accompanied through a program of investing in infrastructure to promote Rwanda as a logistics, telecommunication and financial hub. Furthermore, taking advantage of Rwanda’s comparative strategic position should be exploited in terms of warehouse functions in trade and commerce. Export processing zones, coupled with the industrial reforms noted above, will enable the country to consolidate its niche in services, communication and financial sectors and take advantage of growing regional co- operation in the Great Lakes/ Eastern African Region.
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5. CROSS-CUTTING ISSUeS OF VISION 2020
Alongside the 6 pillars, there are three cross-cutting areas of gender, environment and climate change; and science and technology.
5.1. Gender equality
Women make up 53% of the population and participate in subsistence agriculture more than men. They usually feed and provide care for their children and ensure their fundamental education. There has been tremendous progress in gender equality specifically in education (as the number of girls in primary and secondary education has surpassed boys with girls to boys ratio at 1.03) and in decision making positions (as of 2012 women represent about 56% of parliamentarians).
In order to strengthen gender equality and equity, Rwanda will further update and adapt its laws on gender. It will continue to support education for all, fight against poverty and practice a positive discrimination policy in favour of women with a focus in TVET, tertiary level and in employment opportunities. Gender will continue to be integrated as a cross-cutting issue in all development policies and strategies at both central and local government levels.
5.2. Natural resources, environment and climate change
To date, climate change is widely recognized as the major environmental problem facing the globe that is becoming inextricably linked to development. Rwanda is increasingly facing global climate change consequences including; flooding, resulting in disasters such as landslides that cost lives and resources, and droughts that adversely affect agricultural output. Other threats to the environment take the form of depletion of bio-diversity, degradation of ecosystems such as swamps and wetlands and pollution of waterways. Rwanda will continue to put in place strategies to mitigate the impact of climate change by focusing on developing eco-friendly policies and strategies in all sectors of the economy and by promoting green growth.
5.3. Science, technology and ICT
Rwanda will continue to invest in developing adequate, highly skilled scientists and technicians to satisfy the needs of the transition to knowledge-based economy. A knowledge based-economy will require innovative products that can be competitive in regional and global
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markets. Having laid the foundations for ICT to take-off in the country through the laying of the fibre optic cable network, Rwandans have a whole new world of opportunities to take advantage of. More importantly the government of Rwanda will encourage the use of ICT as a tool for self employment, innovation and job creation. Policies to encourage development of smart applications that meet economic needs and develop economic potential will be promoted amongst the youth. ICT as a tool for improving service delivery in both the private and public sector will be emphasized.
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6. THe ROAD MAP
This roadmap lays out how Rwanda’s Vision 2020 will be realized through the country’s planning process. It also establishes a set of yardsticks against which we can measure our progress towards achieving the targets. Macroeconomic projections and the underlying assumptions clearly showing the requirements to realize the Vision are also made.
6.1. Rwanda’s planning process and the realization of Vision 2020
To ensure smooth implementation of Vision 2020 and achievement of the aspirations described above, it will have to be reflected in the whole planning process and, particularly, medium-term operational instruments. Therefore, the long-term aspirations of the Vision will translate into medium -term Economic Development and Poverty Reduction Strategies (EDPRS) at the national level.
The EDPRS is operationalized through sector strategies and district development plans. The sector strategies and the district development plans are implemented through the Medium-Term Expenditure Framework (MTEF); three- year fully integrated budgets that mainstream the Public Investment Programs (PIP) of the agencies and translate into concrete action plans, costed through annual budgets. The poverty reduction achieved through the MTEF will be monitored and will feed back into the elaboration of sector and district plans.
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Figure 2: Converting vision 2020 into a reality

Vision 2020

4 critical factors : how we can improve our social environment.

Sector strategies
MTEFs
District development plans
EDPRS
Annual Budget
Annual action plans
Annual action plans
Monitoring and Evaluation
6.2. Achieving Vision 2020: Macroeconomic assumptions and projections
The implementation of Vision 2020 strongly holds onto the necessity to achieve the aspirations of the Rwandan people, by markedly transforming the economy, turning the country into a middle-income country and parting away with extreme poverty.
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Inspired by recent robust economic performance and remarkable progress in reducing poverty, assumptions for the macroeconomic perspectives over the period until 2020 were made, aiming at more robust growth and more ambitious objectives.
Notwithstanding the existing macroeconomic challenges stemming from both internal and external imbalances with still sizeable aid dependence and a large trade balance deficit, the Vision’s macroeconomic assumptions aim for an annual average real GDP growth of 11.5 percent, GDP per capita of USD 1,240, gradual but sustained improvement in the external trade balance, higher investments and savings, and a stronger financial sector.
With real GDP expected to grow on average by 11.5 percent per year (real output growth between 2000 and 2011 was on average 8.3 percent a year), agriculture would need to grow by at least 8.5 percent and reach about 25 percent of total output (agriculture grew on average by 5.6 percent a year between 2000 and 2011 and amounted to 32 percent of total output in 2011). The industry is expected to grow by 14 percent on average and reach about 20 percent of total output (industry grew on average by 9.5 percent a year between 2000 and 2011 and amounted to 16 percent of total output in 2011) while services would be expected to continue taking the lead, growing by 13.5 percent on average and expected to reach about 55 percent of total output (services grew on average by 10.2 percent between 2000 and 2011 and amounted to 46 percent of total output).
Increased investments will be needed to achieve the growth objectives from both the public sector as well as the private sector. Domestic investments are expected to expand, but this will need a stronger financial sector to mobilize the necessary savings to finance those investments. Total investments are expected to reach 30 percent of GDP by 2020 (from about 21 percent of GDP in 2011) with the private sector gradually taking a larger proportion, and savings are expected to reach 20 percent of GDP by 2020 (from about 14 percent of GDP in 2011).
The scaled up investments in bottleneck-releasing infrastructure projects that are expected to bolster competitiveness and further reduce external trade imbalances, will require equally substantive financing that the domestic savings mobilization efforts alone will not be able to cater for. While a gradual 0-+

in the reliance on foreign aid remains a key objective over the medium-term, domestic revenues – that nevertheless are expected to significantly increase – will alone not cover all the required public investments. A combination of highly concessional financing
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(in the form of grant financing and concessional borrowing) and nonconcessional borrowing that does not adversely affect Rwanda’s external debt sustainability will be considered, while avenues leading to a greater participation of the private sector will also be emphasized through public private partnership ventures.
In order to realize the targets set out, we will have to streamline planning processes so that the Vision is translated into implementable plans, with strong linkages between set priorities and the allocation of resources. It also requires a mobilization of a substantial financial resource from the state, the donor community and the private sector. If these resources can be efficiently allocated through the planning process, the goals set in this Vision will become attainable.
6.3 Institutional framework for the implementation of Rwanda’s vision
The implementation of the Vision 2020 is within the ambition of all players: the state, the private sector, civil society, NGOs, decentralized authorities, grassroots communities, faith-based organizations and development partners. The top most policy making bodies of Vision 2020 implementation is the Cabinet and the National Steering Committee (Ministers and Governors). The Permanent Secretaries (PS) forum and Development Partners Coordination Group (DPCG) oversee and guide the implementation of the Vision and ensure that consensus building around Vision 2020 implementation is realized.
The Ministry in charge of Finance and Economic Planning coordinates the implementation and monitoring and evaluation of the Vision. It also ensures that Vision 2020 targets are considered in Sector Strategies as well as District Development Plans.
The Ministry will specifically:
• Coordinate all the activities related to the implementation of the Vision 2020
• Mobilize and allocate resources to Vision 2020 priority areas
• Support the planning organs and other institutions in charge of implementation of the Vision
• Ensure that Vision 2020 based sector strategic plans and district developments plans are prepared and linked to the Medium-Term Expenditure Framework and annual budgets
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• Ensure the establishment of a monitoring and evaluation framework for the Vision
• Regularly report to Cabinet the status of achievement of Vision 2020 objectives and targets
The institutional framework for implementation of Vision 2020 is shown in the organization chart below.
Cabinet
National Steering Committee
PS Forum & DPCG
Ministry of Finance and economic Planning
Sector Working Group (SWG) Joint Action Development Forum
6.3 Institutional framework for the implementation of Rwanda’s vision
The implementation of the Vision 2020 is within the ambition of all players: the state, the private sector, civil society, NGOs, decentralized authorities, grassroots communities, faith-based organizations and development partners. The top most policy making bodies of Vision 2020 implementation is the Cabinet and the National Steering Committee (Ministers and Governors). The Permanent Secretaries (PS) forum and Development Partners Coordination Group (DPCG) oversee and guide the implementation of the Vision and ensure that consensus building around Vision 2020 implementation is realized.
The Ministry in charge of Finance and Economic Planning coordinates the implementation and monitoring and evaluation of the Vision. It also ensures that Vision 2020 targets are considered in Sector Strategies as well as District Development Plans.
The Ministry will specifically:
• Coordinate all the activities related to the implementation of the Vision 2020
• Mobilize and allocate resources to Vision 2020 priority areas
• Support the planning organs and other institutions in charge of implementation of the Vision
• Ensure that Vision 2020 based sector strategic plans and district developments plans are prepared and linked to the Medium-Term Expenditure Framework and annual budgets
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• Ensure the establishment of a monitoring and evaluation framework for the Vision
• Regularly report to Cabinet the status of achievement of Vision 2020 objectives and targets
The institutional framework for implementation of Vision 2020 is shown in the organization chart below.
Cabinet
National Steering Committee
PS Forum ; DPCG
Ministry of Finance and economic Planning
Sector Working Group (SWG) Joint Action Development Forum (JADF)
One of the fastest growing economies in Central Africa, Rwanda notched up GDP growth of around 8% per year between 2001 and 2014.
The International Monetary Fund expects the economy to slow down this year and pick up in 2018, forecasting around 6% growth in 2016 compared with 6.9% last year.

Image: IMF
The IMF said Rwanda’s growth in 2015 was driven by construction, services, agriculture and manufacturing, but mining exports have slowed.
2. Poverty rates
The country reduced the percentage of people living below the poverty line from 57% in 2005 to 45% in 2010. Despite this, 63% of the population still live in extreme poverty, defined by the World Bank as less than $1.25 a day.
3. Reducing inequality
Life expectancy, literacy, primary school enrollment and spending on healthcare have all improved.
Rwanda has also made big strides towards gender equality – almost 64% of parliamentarians are women, compared to just 22% worldwide – which has enabled women in the country to make economic advances. Women are now able to own land and girls can inherit from their parents.

Image: Inter-Parliamentary Union
4. Aid dependence
Foreign aid to Rwanda increased significantly as the country began rebuilding itself after the genocide. A large chunk of government revenues – 30-40% of the budget – still comes from aid.
The World Bank says Rwanda’s economy is vulnerable to fluctuations in foreign aid – growth fell to 4.7% in 2013 after some donors withheld aid over allegations in a 2012 UN report that the government was backing rebels in the Democratic Republic of Congo.
5. From a farming to a knowledge economy?
Currently around 83% of Rwanda’s population of 10.5 million live in rural areas and more than 70% of the population still work in subsistence farming. But the government, led by President Paul Kagame, wants to change this.
In the long term, the government aims to transform Rwanda from a low-income agriculture-based economy to a knowledge-based, service-oriented economy with a middle-income status by 2020.
Have you read?
Why Rwanda’s clinics have gone off-grid and onto renewable energy
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Rwanda is located in the poorest region in the world, sub-Saharan Africa. Despite this, it is making advances with off-grid renewable energy solutions for rural areas that could be a model for similar economies.
Rwanda has harnessed its endowment with enormous, untapped renewable energy generation potential to address the problem of how to get energy into remote parts of the country.
The approach being taken accepts that extending the electricity grid to remote areas is fraught with problems. It is expensive, transport costs are high, and accessibility is difficult. In sub-Saharan Africa, grid-extension costs $23,000 per kilometre.
A project to get clinics in remote areas of Rwanda onto reliable sources of renewable energy has recently been stepped up a notch with the introduction of technology that smooths distribution.
Small-scale generation for remote areas
Off-grid electrical systems, where power is derived from renewable energy, have the potential in Rwanda for taking advantage of several types of small-scale generation.
This has become more feasible with the development of new technologies that have revolutionised the possibilities for making these systems highly resilient and economically sustainable. Examples include smart meters with wireless communication and sophisticated technology for fine-grained monitoring and control.
Rwanda is taking advantage of developments such as this to crack the problem of getting electricity to remote clinics.
Uninterrupted access to electricity is a key requirement for improving care in health facilities. But access to either grid or off-grid electricity is still one of the grand challenges for rural health centres in the region. One-quarter of health facilities are not connected to any source of electricity. On average, three-quarters of facilities have no reliable source of electricity. This leads to a poor health care service delivery.
83% of Rwanda’s population live in rural areas. This makes healthcare in these areas all the more important. And ensuring that healthcare centres have power is vital.
To overcome this obstacle decentralised power sources such as PV systems are becoming popular in rural areas because of their cost effectiveness compared to grid extensions. PV systems basically convert solar energy to direct current electricity using semi-conducting materials. But these have not proved adequate in matching supply with demand because:
• Health centres operate on a first-come first-serve basis. If health centres continue to use connected electronic devices without proper management, the chances of blackouts will increase and patients will suffer.
• Unused energy from fewer patients than expected also presents a problem as energy is wasted. Making batteries available to store energy can be a way to ensure less is wasted, help avoid shortages and manage excess demands. But this option is expensive.
The graph below shows the ad-hoc scheduling of energy services in PV-power health clinics. Between t0-t1, the power demand exceeds available solar power. The t1-t2 window sees no load. This results in some services not being delivered, unnecessary use of batteries, and hence a shorter life-time, and less orderly operation.

Existing ways scheduling show overutilisation and underutilisation of the energy generated by solar systems.
Smart scheduling has done the trick
Smart scheduling is used to match consumption of active services with the available solar power. This results in minimum use of batteries or other energy sources.
The idea lying behind is as follows: the central controller estimates daily solar profile of the PV panels by pulling solar radiation information from online servers. Then when a physician wants to undertake an operation that requires electricity he sends a request to the central controller. This request includes power consumption and the duration of the operation.
In our prototype, the final decision lies with the system. Different services have different priorities. So, a surgery room may be given the highest priority during system planning. If an emergency occurs and a surgery room is fed into the system, it will be given the highest priority.
But human intervention is possible. The central controller is a photo voltaic (PV) inside the clinic. This means that a clinic administrator or the highest ranking physician can tap into the system, remove some services from the list and add some others.
The central controller checks the available solar power and the loads that are already being served. If there is sufficient excess energy, the request is confirmed and the energy is delivered. If there is not sufficient energy the controller schedules the request to when there will be enough energy. This may happen due to solar radiation, hence the generation, increasing or a service that was already receiving energy load being terminated.
In this way, facilities are used in a smart way and solar generation is used as it is generated.

This article is published in collaboration with The Conversation. Publication does not imply endorsement of views by the World Economic Forum.
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Author: Taha Selim Ustun is Assistant Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Carnegie Mellon University.
Image: A solar panel is shown. REUTERS
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Small and landlocked, Rwanda is hilly and fertile with a densely packed population of about 11.9 million people (2016). It borders the far larger and richer Democratic Republic of Congo, as well as its closest East African neighbors, Tanzania, Uganda, and Burundi. With the support of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank, Rwanda has been able to make important economic and structural reforms, and sustain its economic growth rates over the last decade

Culture Factors.
Political Context
Rwanda has guarded its political stability since the genocide in 1994. Parliamentary elections in September 2013 saw women fill 64% of the seats, and the Rwandan Patriotic Front maintain an absolute majority in the Chamber of Deputies. President Paul Kagame was re-elected to a seven-year term in the August 2018, following an amendment to the constitution in December 2015 allowing him to serve a third term.
Economic Overview
Rwanda’s long-term development goals are defined in “Vision 2020,” a strategy that seeks to transform the country from a low-income, agriculture-based economy to a knowledge-based, service-oriented economy with middle-income country status by 2020. To achieve this, the Government of Rwanda has developed the second Economic Development and Poverty Reduction Strategy (EDPRS 2), a medium-term strategy which outlines the country’s overarching goal to accelerate growth and reduce poverty through four thematic areas: economic transformation, rural development, productivity and youth employment, and accountable governance.
The EDPRS 2 aims to: raise gross domestic product (GDP) per capita to $1,000; reduce the percentage of the population living below the poverty line to less than 30%; and reduce the percentage of the population living in extreme poverty to less than 9%. These goals build on recent development successes over the last decade that include high growth, rapid poverty reduction and reduced inequality. Between 2001and 2015, real GDP growth averaged at about 7.8% per annum.
Development Challenges
Public investments have been the main driver of growth in recent years. External financing through grants, concessional and non-concessional borrowing played an important role in financing of public investments. Growth slowdown of 2016 and 2017 highlighted the limits of public sector-led growth model. Going forward, the private sector will play a bigger role in helping to ensure economic growth. Low domestic savings, skills, and high cost of energy are some of the major constraints to private investment. A stronger dynamism in the private sector will help to sustain high investment rate and accelerate the growth. Promoting domestic savings is viewed as critical.
Social Context
. Rwanda’s strong economic growth was accompanied by substantial improvements in living standards, with a two-thirds drop in child mortality and near-universal primary school enrolment. A strong focus on homegrown policies and initiatives has contributed to significant improvement in access to services and human development indicators. The poverty rate dropped from 44% in 2011 to 39% in 2014, while inequality measured by the Gini coefficient stood at 0.45.

Last Updated: May 16, 2018

TITLE:
The Level of Performance of Grade 8 students in Oriental Mindoro Academy in the correct usage of Punctuation Marks.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM:
This study aimed to determine the Level of Performance of Grade 8 students in Oriental Mindoro Academy in the correct usage of Punctuation Marks.
1. What is the level of Performance of Grade 8 students in Oriental Mindoro Academy in the correct usage of Punctuation Marks?
2. Is there a significant difference in the Level of Performance of Grade 8 students in the correct usage of Punctuation Marks in terms of:
3. There is no significant difference between the Level of Performance of Grade 8 students in the correct usage of Punctuation Marks.
Question Mark (?)
Period (.)
2.3 Comma (,)
2.4 Exclamation point (!)
BACKGROUND OF STUDY
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global liguafranca. English may not be the most spoken language in the world, but it is the official language in a large number of countries. It is estimated that the number of people in the world that use in English to communicate on a regular basis is 2 billion!
Marks of punctuation play very important role in giving intended meaning to the language. Use of wrong mark of punctuation or even wrong placement of mark of punctuation can change the meaning of the sentence completely and sometimes even convert the sentence to complete nonsense. Punctuation marks are symbols that are used to aid the clarity and comprehension of written language. Some common punctuation marks are the period, comma, question mark, exclamation point, apostrophe, quotation mark and hyphen. Punctuation marks are used for sentences with high or extreme emotions, feelings and expressions. Different sentence have punctuation mark to easily determine the expression of it. There is important, because without punctuation marks we would not be able to determine the strong feeling of a written sentence or words.
Marks of punctuation play very important role in giving intended meaning to the language. Use of wrong mark of punctuation or even wrong placement of mark of punctuation can change the meaning of the sentence completely and sometimes even convert the sentence to complete nonsense. Punctuation marks are symbols that are used to aid the clarity and comprehension of written language. Some common punctuation marks are the period, comma, question mark, exclamation point, apostrophe, quotation mark and hyphen. Punctuation marks are used for sentences with high or extreme emotions, feelings and expressions. Different sentence have punctuation mark to easily determine the expression of it. There is important, because without punctuation marks we would not be able to determine the strong feeling of a written sentence or words.
Punctuation marks are very important also in every student. Because it can be a big help to them also in Grammar. Punctuation marks are symbols used to emphasize certain emotions in a sentence and serve as the end of it.
Punctuation and capitalization are basic, surface features of written communication. However, it was not until the nineteenth century that authorities recognized that punctuation marks are should be primarily an integral part of the sentence pattern, not an indicator of pauses. Throughout the literature on punctuation two major purposes recur–to bring together and to separate. More recently, five major purposes for punctuation have been identified: to terminate and separate, to combine and separate, to introduce, to enclose, and to indicate omission. Generally, the rules for punctuation and capitalization are relatively standardized. Because of the large number of rules, however, errors can be expected even among good writers. For most writers, the smaller set of rules that they know may be sufficient for adequate written communication. Nevertheless, sentence fragments, run-on sentences, and the punctuation of relative clauses are three problems that occur frequently. A review of the literature reveals that very little research has been conducted in the teaching of mechanics. Generally, introduction to mechanics begins with instruction in the rules, followed by mispunctuated or unpunctuated sentences that illustrate the need for appropriate punctuation. Whereas many people suggest teaching mechanics functionally–when students need it–they rarely have any suggestions about how to do this.
This research aimed to determine the Level of Performance of Grade 8 students in the correct usage of Punctuation marks. Also to be able to enhance their capability in using the correct usage of Punctuation marks. It can give the big help to all the students who are using for the grammar.
In Punctuation marks is one of the most important aspects in written English and yet it is one that is taken the most lightly. In fact this feauture in writing that gives meaning for the written words. Also for the grammar or in a sentence much like pauses and changes in tones of the voice when we speak. An error in Punctuation can convey a completely different meaning to the one is intended. And that it can have a big help also for student who work be it an article, blog, email or any other written material. And that any flow or mission in the use of Punctuation marks which convey the totally different meaning to the reader.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The result of the study would be benificial to the following groups of people:
Students- The result would give them an opportunity to reflect the status of their using Punctuation Marks which have the ability to become actively participate for the intervention program of implement by the teacher to improve their performance in using correct usage of Punctuation marks.
Parents- Awareness of their children’s performance in using the correct usage of Punctuation Marks could serve us their basis to provide their necessary support to their children and work it with the teachers to improve the skill or performance in using correct usage of Punctuation marks.
Teachers- Finding of the study are reveal to the students also in performance of using correct usage of Punctuation marks that should cause to used by the teachers as the developing to appropriate intervention to improve for their using Punctuation marks.

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Period (.)
The period is placed at the end of declarative sentences, statement thought to be complete and after many abbreviations.
As a sentence ender- Jane and Jack went to the market.
After an abbreviation- Her son, John Jones Jr. was born on Dec. 6,2008.

Exclamation Point (!)
Is used when a person wants to express a sudden outery or add emphasis.
Within dialogue- “Holy cow!” screamed Jane.
To emphasize a point- My mother-in-law rants make me furious!
Comma (,)
Is used to show a separation of ideas or elements within the structure of a sentence. Additionaly it is used in members,date letter writing after the salutation and closing.

Direct Address- Thank’s for all your help,John.
Separation of two complete sentences- Suzi wanted the black,green and blue dress.

Question Mark (?)
To indicate a direct question when placed at the end of a sentence.
When did jane leave for the market?

Review of Related Literature and Studies
This chapter presents a review of some definition of punctuation marks which have relevance to study.

Literature Review
In this study, the researcher shows the definition and theory in literature review. It have the write some definition of punctuation marks that taken from the some of Researcher.

English Punctuation
According to Jones (1994)”Punctuation as we consider it, can be defined as the central part of the range on non-lexical orthography.” Non-Lexical orthography it is the system of writing convention used to represent spoken English in written form. That allows readers to connect spelling to sound to meaning. Although arguments could be made for including the sub-lexical marks.

Writing
Writing is an outward expression of what is going on in the writer’s mind.”Writing is the visual medium through which graphical and grammatical system of a language is manifested.” Another statement in writing ability can be formed as teachers and philosophy of writing taken into consideration characteristics of learners and aims in a given contex.
However writing also can improve the grammatical and lexical accuracy in writing English. Writing skills are an important part of communication. In writing requires to know the factors that influence both its process and product.
Punctuation and capitalization are basic,surface features of written communication. However,it was not until the nineteenth century that authorities recognized that punctuation marks should be primarily an integral part of the sentencepattern,not an indicator or pauses. Throughout the literature on punctuation two major purposes are recure to ring together and to separate. More recently,five major purposes for punctuation have been identified to terminate and separate,to combine and separate,to introduce,to enclose,and to indicate.

Error Analysis
Errors are something usual done by the learners who are learning process.
They usually made many mistakes in writing process. Also to know the students difficulties in writing, the teacher required the investigation of the errors by analyzing the sources of errors. The one way to identify the student’s error analysis method.
According to Gass and Slinker the error analysis is a type of linguistic analysis which focus on the errors made by the learners. It starts from the learner production data. The comparison is between the learners error in producing the target language and the target language itself. There are some steps in the conducting an error analysis.
Collecting Data
Identify Errors
Classify Errors
Quantify Errors
Analyze Sources
Remediate

Mistakes and Error
Mistake and error has roughly the same meaning which is to analyze learners language and apply error analysis both have differences. Therefore, the researcher provides some definition of mistakes and error as here below:

Mistake are the division that occurs because of the influence of the situation in language learners.
Mistake are no significant to the process of language learning. However, the problem of determining what learner’s mistake is and what is learners error is one of the some difficulty and involves much more.

According to Brown, a mistake refers to a performance error that is either a random guess or a slip and that is a failure to utilize and known system correctly.
Mistake reflect occasional lapses in performance they occur because in particular instance the learner is unable to perform what he or she knows. From opinions above we can learn that mistake is caused by learner so that the mistake can be corrected by the learners so that the mistake can be corrected by the learners with concentrate.
Error
Knowing learner’s error will provide useful evidence of the system of the language.
For beginner learner certainly they do not understand how to learn language so the teachers are very active to help students with knowing errors made by learners and follow the development of learner’s toward to the purpose of learning language.
Ellis, stated that error reflect gap in learner’s knowledge which arises because the learner does not know what is correct. And meanwhile,brown explain error as an idiosyncrasies in the language of the of the learner that are direct a system within which is learner is operating at the time. An error is noticeable deviation from the native grammar to reflect the competence of the learner.
Error take place when learner has incorporated a particular erroneous from perspective target of language into his or her system. From the information above, we can know that error is the deviation that occurs because language learners do not understand the rules of the language learners do not understand the rules of the language it can be helped by the teacher who provide additional exercise.
Chapter III
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This chapter presents the research method, the respondents of the study, sampling technique, the research instrument, validation and reliability of the instrument,scaling and qualification, data gathering procedure and statistical treatment of data.
Research Method
This study made use of Descriptive-correlational and comparative Methods of research. Descriptive research is a purposive process of data gathering, analyzing, classifying and tabulating data about prevailing conditions, practices, beliefs processes,trends and cause effect relationships and adequate and accurate interpretation about such data with or without and of statistical treatment.
Correlational method describes the link between the different variables and tells that they are somehow related. It explains a mutual relationship between two variables.
Comparative method, on the other hand, provides an explanation about the extent of relationship between two or more variables. It examines the relationships including similarities of differences in the extent of factors affecting the correct usage of Punctuation Marks ability and the level of performance in correct usage of Punctuation Marks of Grade 8 students in Oriental Mindoro Academy.

Respondents of the Study
The respondents of the study were the Ninety Three (85) Grade 8 students.
Based on the correct usage of Punctuation marks results of our Grade 8 students, the students had low performance in spelling. To assess whether their performance improved,they were included as the respondents in the present study. The Ninety three respondents, a factor that is considered in choosing them as respondent. Moreover, the number of students in the grade level was also considered in selecting there level wherein in the population of 108 and above served as the basis of selection.

Formula: N=N/(1+Ne)
Where: n = sample size

N = population

e = margin of error
Computation:
N=N/(1+Ne)
N=108/(1+108(0.05) ^2 )
N=108/(1+108(0.0025))
N=108/(1+0.27)
N=108/1.27
N=85.03/85

Table A. Distribution of the Respondents from Grade 8 students
of Oriental Mindoro Academy.
Section Number of Students Sample Taken
Lyra 37 37 29
Lacerta 39 35 28
Lynx36 36 28
Total 108 85

Sampling Technique
Proportional Stratified Random Sampling technique was used in the study. Three section with the population of 100 and above were used as the basis for its stratum.

Research Instrument
The study used a self-made questionnaire. It was composed of two pages. It included the determinants of using correct usage of Punctuation Marks in the ability of the Grade 8 students in terms of using correct Punctuation Marks.
Validation of the Instrument
The questionnaire was subjected to content validation by experts who were comprised of one English master teacher from school. His comments and suggestions were considered in the revision of the questionnaire.

Data Gathering Procedures
Prior to data gathering, a request letter duly noted by the English teacher of Grade 8 students. The letter was forwarded to the principal of Oriental Mindoro Academy to allow the researcher to administer the questionnaire to the respondents. After collecting the answer sheets, it was checked by the researcher. The data collected were tallied, tabulated and treated using appropriate statistical tools.

Statistical Treatment of the Data

Chapter IV
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter includes the interpretation of the data gathered from the respondents.
Extend of the Determinants of correct usage of Punctuation Marks in the ability of the Grade 8 students in Terms of:
Reading Habit

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