Thornbury a story or examples, learners attention to


Thornbury (2002) has stated some of the advantages of inductive approach.

1.     Rules learners discover for themselves are more likely to fit their

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existing mental structures than rules they have been presented with.


2.     The mental effort involved ensures a greater degree of cognitive


 depth which ensures greater memorability.


3.     Students are more actively involved in learning.


4.     It favors pattern-recognition and problem-solving ability.


5.     It is conductive to learner autonomy. (p. 54)



        Also Thornbury (2002), introduced some disadvantages of inductive


1.     The time and energy spent in working out rules may mislead students


into believing that rules are the objective of language learning, rather


than a means.


2.     The time taken to work out a rule may be at the expense in putting


the rule to some sort of productive practice.


3.     Students may hypothesize the wrong rule.


4.     It can place heavy demands on teachers in planning a lesson.


5.     It frustrates students who prefer simply to be told the rule. (p. 55)


      According to Haight, Herron, and Cole (2007), while there is little change in


deductive approaches a lot of forms and several strategies can be noticed in


guided inductive instructional approaches.  Hellon and Tomassello (as cited in


Haight et al., 2007) have introduced strategies in which teachers draw students’


attention to the structure through using some guiding questions. Also, Adair-


Hauck, Donato, and Cumo-Johanssen’s (as cited in Haight et al., 2007) proposed


PACE model in which grammar is taught through naturally inserting targeted


structures in a presentation text. It is said that PACE stands for presentation of


the structure through a story or examples, learners attention to a special form,


coconstruction phase, and extension activity.


      In a research article by Haight, et al. (2007), they investigated the


effect of deductive and guided inductive approaches for teaching grammar in


College French classrooms. They used quasiexperimental design within subjects.


The results of the study showed that guided induction affects long-term learning


of grammatical structures. It also indicated that using guided inductive instruction


is so useful in teaching foreign language in the beginning levels.



Besides, Vogel, Herron, Cole, and York (2011) carried out the same study amongst

intermediate level college French classroom. They investigated the effectiveness

of guided inductive Versus a deductive approach on the learning of Grammar.

In order to assess learning of the grammatical structures and to study the

tendency of approach, a mixed-method design was used. Performances in both

states were assessed through a within-subjects design. It had a pretest, posttest

and immediate post-treatment test. In order to measure the students’ preferences

and correspondence between preferences and performance, a questionnaire was

used. But on the contrary to the previous study, the long-term findings and the

 relationship between preferences and performances were not significant, but

guided inductive approach had a significantly greater effect on short term learning.

Also, the results showed that students who favor explanations of the

rules perform better with a guided inductive approach.

       In another field of study carried out amongst 44college-aged participants in

 two separate intermediate levels who studied Spanish, Kuder (2009) examined

the result of deductive versus inductive lesson teaching direct object pronouns.

The result showed that achievement and satisfaction level of the group exposed

  to inductive approach is a bit more than the group exposed to the deductive

lesson. Of course, this difference is not statistically significant.


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