This and lived up to the expectations level

This project involved thedesigning and fabrication of gamma-type Stirling engine model.

This projectdevelopment task aligns well with the ‘green-energy’ movements that insistedusing energy efficient models and system in the tasks’ execution. I thought ofworking with Gamma aided configuration as they proved to be the best to achievemy intended objective. These are solar powered low temperature differential Stirlingengines. This was the problem statement behind my project idea. This projectpaper indicated that a Stirling cycle engine working with relatively lowtemperature with air as working fluid is one of the potentially attractiveengines of the future, especially solar-powered low-temperature differentialStirling engines.CE1.3Stirlingengine was invented by Robert Stirling and lived up to the expectations levelto great extent. It had an easy mode of operation, was remarkably safe andquiet and involved less maintenance cost.

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Various hit and trials were done tomodernize the earlier versions of the engine to upgrade the efficiency as wellas the performance parameters of the engine.it was observed that the efficiencyof an ideal Stirling engine was dependent only on temperature and no otherparameter. It showed maximum efficiency when tested under the conditions supportingSecond Law of Thermodynamics. Mechanical configurations of Stirling Engineshave three distinct arrangements: alpha, beta and gamma arrangement. Out ofthese three, Gamma configuration rules out all the negative aspects observed inother two types and seem to be mechanically simpler. CE1.

4Objectivesto be accomplished in this project were as below:·        Devising an apt project framework to designintended Stirling Model Engine.·        Looking for the best solutions of theexisting model design presented in the previous literature reviews.·        Design calculations for the entirefabrication of this model.

·        Testing of the results for the performanceand heat transfer of the engine design.·        Summarizing all the obtained results in aproject report by giving recommendations.CE1.5Organizationof my project position is shown below: Figure 1: My projectpositionCE1.6ActivitiesI performed in this project were:·        Gathering of the significant designdetails from varied sources through different means.·        Preparing a project framework in terms ofproject milestones to be achieved at regular time intervals.·        Design activity as per the requirementsand standards of design principles.

·        Calculation of the data values of all theparts of the design and getting the correct output values.·        Fabrication of the proposed design model byapplying mechanical engineering concepts and design standards.·        Documenting a final project reportmentioning all the key design parameters and methodology followed to completethe fabrication. PersonalEngineering ActivityCE1.7Istarted this project by studying a history of Stirling engine and its processflow in all its types. I also read regarding the principles of flywheel designprinciples from some reference books.

I did a detailed literature survey andtried to understand the earlier relevant work done in this respect. Idifferentiated the positive and negative attributes and did my level best torule out the earlier discrepancies in my new design. I went through a series ofresearch work, papers published to ensure that I choose the best possibledesign with high efficiency and technical parameters as well.CE1.8Duringmy study, I observed that gamma engine showed greater feasibility ratio whencompared to other arrangements as it involved ease in manufacturing, reducedpower losses and had suitability for multi-cylinder use. I did the fabricationand testing of the gamma configuration Stirling engine starting with thecomponent description. Main components that I selected for this designing taskincluded:·        Heat source: kerosene oil and somecandles.·        Displacer: to move the working gas backand forth between the hot and cold heat exchangers.

·        Flywheel: storing mechanical energy forcontinuous motion within the engine.·        Piston and cylinder: transfer force fromexpanding gas in the cylinder to the crankshaft via a piston rod and/orconnecting rod·        Crankshaft: to convert the linear energyof the pistons into rotational energy in an engine.CE1.9Itook into consideration material properties while selecting the component. Ialso examined their properties so that the designed accessories would operateperfectly. The material of each of these stated components was chosen afterkeeping in mind their physical and chemical characteristics. In order to get anefficient and successful design model, I tried out many ways by                    sketching various schematicdiagrams and after series of discussions; I came to the final design in which Iused a heat source displacer, flywheel, piston, crankshaft and cylinder.

      CE1.10Whilefabrication I used the displacer cylinder which had two separate sections, onefor the higher temperature and the other for the lower temperature. I placed itin the base plate with the help of notch support. I connected both the ends andleft few holes to place the transfer tube and the linkages. I transmitted thepressurized air through the pipe placed from displacer to piston. The baseplate I used formed the foundation of the design. It provides the base for allthe other components like piston cylinder, displacer cylinder, flywheel.

Iplaced the displacer piston in the displacer cylinder to transfer air from hotchamber to the cold chamber. I used the power piston to transmit the power tothe fly wheel through linkages. I adjusted the flywheel with the help ofsupports welded to the base plate. I placed the fins in the displacer cylinderabove cold chamber to enhance heat transfer.CE1.11Afterdesigning and fabrication, I analyzed the functioning by performing numeroustests and experiments. I evaluated the swept volume, calculated ideal volume,ratio depending on the temperature difference.

I compared the network andactual work volume. I also calculated power and torque and did the fincalculations. I also calculated the ideal efficiency value. I carried outseries of experiments to test the engine against the theoretical calculationswe made for power and efficiency. To do this, I made use of heating the hot endof the cylinders to required temperature and starting of the engine requiredseveral trials of hand-cranking of the flywheel.CE1.12Afterexecuting preliminary analysis and running a number of experiments, I observedthat the striling engine shows high potential for future use. For the Power andTorque measurement, I connected the engine to a Prony Brake Dynamometer.

Itmeasured the torque and power generated by the engine. In order to calculatethe power I must first find the torque. To do this, I used a weighted scalethat measured the force exerted by the dyno housing attempting to rotate. Ithen calculated the torque by the force indicated by the scale multiplied bythe length of the torque arm. With the value of Torque, I evaluated the PowerOutput of the engine.                 Measured Power = 1.

003 Watt with the Mean Torque = 0.095 N-mCE1.13Problems facedI encountered with technical as well as manufacturingproblems while carrying out this project.

They are listed below:·        Selection of configuration of the proposeddesign model.·        Slider and linkage mechanism operation asit can cause obstruction to the motion.·        Calculation of output power given by thesystem.·        Welding of piston cylinder cap to cylinderdue to high chances of melting the nylon piston inside the cylinder due to heatdissipation.·        The linkage was pinned off-center of the pistonhead and thus alignment was improper.·        Fabrication of fins and conduction losses.Solutions derived: I applied the design selectionmatrix to select the best configuration.

I implemented Grashof’s law so thatsum of shortest linkage length and longest linkage length was greater thanremaining linkage length to ensure that the linkage mechanism would not berocker.     Assuming the motion of theengine as sinusoidal, I executed Schmidt analysis rather than idealized cycle.Then, I replaced the loosely fit O-rings by tight fit rings and provided minorfluid leakage.

I also removed piston while welding to avoid distortion. Afterthis I replaced the linkage position and pinned to the center of the pistonhead for proper alignment to reduce leakage. I preferred a Rectangular shapefin to circular fin as per the fabrication point of view.   To reduce conduction losses, the heat capand displacer cylinder were made as thin as possible.SummaryCE1.16Thiswas a challenging project in every aspect. It gave me the exposure to brush upmy skills and I was able to incorporate my technical skills with knowledge andtake up my career to new heights.

This project has helped me a lot in boostingup my confidence. Now I find myself more confident and competent to look afternew opportunities coming my way. I think I am expertise in operationalprecision on pilot scale. I gained the confidence to sort out problems afterthe completion of my work. I am looking forward to take up new challenges in mylife now, after the successful journey of this project work.

 

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