Thispaper is an attempt to study open access resources and open access repositoriesin India. Open access repositories were identified from the literature and openaccess directory- OpenDOAR.
The analysis of the study found seventy nine openaccess repositories in India. Among them 84.8 per cent are institutionalrepositories (IRs) and multidisciplinary in nature. More than half of theIndian repositories prefer DSpace software.
The study found Shodhganga ofINFLIBNET is the biggest repository in India having 170509 documents. Eventhough the number of IRs in India is growing steadily, the growth rate of IRs isnot satisfactory in compare to the total number of institutions in India. Key words:Institutional repositories, Open access repositories, Open access resources andIndia.
IntroductionThe term ‘open access’ (OA) was first originated in threepublic statements namely the Budapest Open Access Initiative in February 2002, the Bethesda Statement on Open AccessPublishing in June 2003, and the Berlin Declaration on Open Access toKnowledge in the Sciences and Humanities inOctober 2003. Budapest Open Access Initiative (2002), states openaccess as: free availability on the public internet, permitting any users toread, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts ofthese articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or usethem for any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal, or technicalbarriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internetitself. The only constraint on reproduction and distribution, and the only rolefor copyright in this domain, should be to give authors control over theintegrity of their work and the right to be properly acknowledged and cited. (BudapestOpen Access Initiative, 2002)BudapestOpen Access Initiative also recommends two strategies for open access. Thefirst one is open access publishing and the other one is self archiving.
Selfarchiving is the practice of depositing e-prints (published papers andpre-prints) into open electronic archives set up by the researchers’ owninstitutions. A university-based institutional repository isa set of services that a university offers to the members of its community forthe management and dissemination of digital materials created by theinstitution and its community members. It is most essentially an organizationalcommitment to the stewardship of these digital materials, including long-termpreservation where appropriate, as well as organization and access ordistribution (Lynch, 2003).
Open-access IRs are the most cost-effective andimmediate route to providing maximal access to the results of publicly fundedresearch, thereby maximizing the potential research impact of thesepublications (Harnad, 2001a; 2001b; 2003). Promotion of open access in India has beenlargely due to the efforts of Leslie Chan, Barbara Kirsop, Subbiah Arunachalamand the late T.B. Rajasekhar (Fernandez, 2006).
The Indianinitiatives in open access repositories date back to the development of therepository of Indian institute of Science in 2002. After that, there are numberof institutions started to develop IRs. This study evaluates the currentsituation of open access repositories in India with special reference to thegrowth, strength and geographical distribution.RelatedStudiesScholars have explored diverse facets of institutionalrepositories and open access resources.
The author reviewed some relevantstudies on the characteristics of Indian institutional repositories. Mittal and Mahesh (2008) stated that thecollection size in most digital libraries and repositories is in a fewhundreds. Tripathi and Jeevan (2011) opined onlya small number of IRs have more than one thousand items. Hanief Bhat (2014) also pointed out that barring a few repositories the collections ofthe most of the repositories are very small (inthe hundreds).
Even the repositories of those institutions which publishlarge numbers of papers in scholarly journals do not reflect this in theirrepositories. Choudhury and Choudhury (2014) noted that the strength ofIndian IRs is quite satisfactory as compare with other developing countries. Poongodiand Muralidhar (2015) revealed that the growth and development of IR inIndia is encouraging with the significant proliferation of open access anddigital library initiatives. Singh (2016) alsoidentified that there is a trend towards the development of open accessrepositories are increasing among higher education and research institutions.Das,Sen and Dutta (2005) stated that most of the repositories are using open sourcerepository software like DSpace, Greenstone digital library software andEPrints.
Roy et al (2011) also stated that DSpace software has the mostinstallations followed by E prints and Greenstone. Cherukodan and Kabir (2016)confirmed that Indiaoccupies second position among the countries that have adopted DSpace opensource software for institutional repositories (IRs)/digital libraries (DLs).Theliterature survey on the area of open access and open repositories revealedthat there is a gap in the knowledge on the issue of strength, growth and geographicaldistribution of repositories. This paper is intended to fill the gap.Objectives· To provide an overview of open accessrepositories across the world. · To analyse growth and geographicaldistribution of Indian IRs.
· To find out the characteristics of theIndian IRs by size, content type, scope, language and software used. MethodologyOpenaccess resources and open access repositories in India were identified from theliterature and open access directory- OpenDOAR. OpenDOAR is a directory of open access repositories around the world maintainedby SHERPA services, based at the Centre for Research Communications at theUniversity of Nottingham. The data was collected on 17th November2017.