This essay shows Parturition is also called childbirth. This is the way of giving birth during labour. This happens 15 days of the planned date. (MedicineNet.
com, 2016). During the first stage of labour, the cervix becomes thinner and stretches as the baby’s head fall downwards involving with the pelvis. This takes 4-8 hours, in women who may be having their second or first baby. (NHS.Choice, 2018). The first stage of labour consists of three different stages, which are; the Latent Stage is when the uterus starts to tense regularly with the Braxton Hicks contractions which are uneven and do not usually hurt, it occurs at least every 10 minutes with lasting 20 seconds.
The contractions cause the cervix to widen and begin to open till it reaches the 3cm opening. The active stage is from 3cm full cervical opening (10cm) to when contractions become more frequent and stronger. The cervix opens at a rate of 1cm or hour faster and last between 2-6 hours.
And the Transition stage of labour is intense and It causes frequent strong contraction occur every 2-3 minutes. (NHS.Choice, 2018)The Second stage of labour is from the time of full opening of the cervix until the baby is delivered. (gosh.nhs.
UK, 2018). It consists of 2 initial part, the descent stage; where the baby’s head moves down through the mother’s vagina. Followed by an active stage, where the mother feels the desire to push. (gosh.nhs.
UK, 2018). The pushing involves contracting the stomach muscles in time with each uterine contraction and takes an average of 20-40minutes to deliver the baby. (gosh.nhs.UK, 2018).
During the third stage of labour, the umbilical cord is held and cut by the midwife/doctor. The remains shrink up in few days to form belly button.The suckling of the rub at the breast by the baby, help gives the body oxytocin hormone. (gosh.nhs.UK, 2018).
This help contracts the womb and push out the placenta and reduces the amount of blood loss. (gosh.nhs.UK, 2018)Birth hormones act as chemical messengers. These hormones help co-ordinates the process of labour, which is the expulsion of the foetus from the mother’s uterus.
(MedicineNet.com, 2016).High levels of progesterone prevent uterine contractions while the baby is still developing.
Therefore, progesterone is decreased so that labour can occur. If it is inhibited, that means the smooth muscles of the uterus can begin to contract. This process is initiated by the baby.
(MedicineNet.com, 2016).The mother’s pituitary gland release oxytocin hormone when the baby is fully developed and ready for labour.
This hormone stimulates contractions. (americanpregnancy.org, 2017). The baby’s adrenal glands send a signal to start labour. (romper.com, 2017).
The baby’s lungs release an enzyme when they are fully developed and it causes prostaglandins to be released into the mother’s system, helping to start labour. (romper.com, 2017). And along with another hormone called relaxin, relaxes the muscles of the cervix. This is important because the cervix must be relaxed if it is to stretch enough to allow the baby to pass through.
(Google.com, 2018).The body produces calming and pain-relieving hormones called beta-endorphin or catecholamine.
This is also known as the fight or flight hormones. High levels of this hormone cause the oxytocin level to reduce and cause contractions to slow down. Low levels of endorphins can cause labour to be excessively painful and difficult to accept.
Prolactin is known as the mothering hormone. It increases during labour. It plays a role in helping the new-born healthy development, and change to live outside the womb. Low levels of prolactin may cause the Poor transition of the baby at the time of labour. (Google.com, 2018).
The umbilical cord connects the mother and foetal to the placenta. The blood vessels in the umbilical cord supply oxygen to the foetal through the placenta. The blood travels using two right to left shunts, that have small passages used to direct blood that needs to be oxygenated. These shunts purpose is to bypass certain body parts, in particular, the lung and liver which may not be developed fully during late pregnancy.
The foramen ovale is the shunts that bypass the lungs. It transports blood from the right to the left entrance of the heart. The ductus arteriosus is another shunts that move blood from the pulmonary artery to that of the aorta. (stanfordchildrens.org ,1885)The foetus receives oxygen nutrients transferred across the placenta from the maternal blood. The blood splits into three branches when it flows through the umbilical cord and into the liver.
The heart has a vein called vena cava, which the blood reaches into. A shunt called ductus venosus that allow oxygenated blood through the liver to vein and into the right entrance of the heart also allow most of the blood from the mother.(stanfordchildrens.org ,1885)When the umbilical cord is clamped at birth, oxygen nutrients from the mother are not received by the baby.
The lung expands during the first breaths of life. When the lungs expand, the tiny air sacs of the lungs called alveoli becomes cleared of fluid. The increase in the baby’s blood pressure and the decrease of blood flow in the lung causes less need for the ductus arteriosus. This support the closing of this shunt. When changes increase pressure in the left entrance of the heart, it reduces pressure in the right entrance of the heart, that stimulate the closing of the foramen ovale.
The closing of the ductus arteriosus and foramen ovale help complete the transition of foetal and new-born blood flow.(stanfordchildrens.org ,1885)Hormonal control of lactation is through the suckling of an infant by the mother, occurs through endocrine control.
This involves prolactin hormone which helps support the development of the mammary gland of the breast, that help support the production of colostrum milk through the process known as lactogenesis. during lactogenesis, the breast functional changes help support the release of milk from the breast. (Harmsen, 1995).
The mammary gland secretion of breast milk suckling triggers and stimulate the release of oxytocin from the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland in the brain. (Harmsen, 1995). The squeezing of milk from the alveoli to release milk is through the contraction of the oxytocin hormone in the walls of the myoepithelial cells of the lactiferous ducts. (Harmsen, 1995). Lactogenesis involve the following stages also; Mammogenesis that develops the growth of the breast.
Galactopoiesis, help maintain the production of milk. The involution stage is the termination of milk production. (Faye, 2010).The Colostrum milk is the first early milk produced since about 14 weeks of pregnancy. It is thick, sticky and yellowish and is particularly rich in immunoglobulin, antimicrobial peptides (lactoferrin and lactoperoxidase) and other bioactive molecules, including growth factors which are important for nutrition, growth and development of newborn infants and also for passive immunity. (Harmsen, 1995).
Its nutrient profile is highly different from mature milk. It contains macronutrient like proteins, Carbohydrate, fats and micronutrients like vitamins (A and K) and minerals. (Harmsen, 1995)Milk is produced in the first postpartum days. It is white and thin in colour and contains more protein, less fat than breast milk. (Stephan,1990).
Many of the proteins are antibodies that help infant fight bad infections until its own immune system develops. (Stephan,1990). Mature milk contains water, fat, carbohydrates, protein, vitamins and minerals, amino acids, enzymes, and white blood cells called macrophages. (Stephan,1990). It changes from colostrum to mature breast milk, which becomes more diluted and greater in volume. When breastfeeding is initiated, breast milk changes from foremilk, high in water and lactose, to hindmilk, high in fat and calories.
(Harmsen, 1995).Mothers who are either not able to produce milk or have conditions that prevent them from breastfeeding can access milk through donor banks. (AFO, 2011).
These facilities collect extra breast milk from lactating mothers and process it for distribution to infants in need. (AFO, 2011). While colostrum is known as Bovine, which may be available for human consumption as an over-the-counter supplement in capsule form. (AFO, 2011). This essay shows the event of giving birth to a newborn baby. This involves hormones which initiate birth, growth and regulate milk production through lactogenesis.
This essay shows how blood flows from the mother to the unborn child in the womb and how the blood flows through the blood vessels, lungs and heart to promote breathing and survival of new-born after birth.