There are 3 main approaches when it comes to management. The 3 main approaches consists of the classical approach, behavioural approach and the contingency approach. Although all 3 approaches have strengths and weaknesses, different management approaches can work for different situations and businesses.
The Classical approach is a style of management that has a main goal of planning, organising, commanding, coordinating and controlling. This approach is very traditional and very controlling of people and resources. The Classical Approach can be very effective if management does well with their people and their resources. As management is in control it is easy to do tasks as they can be broken down to easier jobs and come together as a whole. The Classical approach is also very easy for employees as tasks, jobs and expectations are clearly defined by management. Although there is leadership and structure, this can limit innovation and creativity which can drastically affect the business, resources and their worker’s motivation. An example of a business using the Classical approach that worked is Alibaba. Jack Ma, the CEO used this style as had a vision of where he wanted his business and wanted to be in charge of the entire operation. The Classical Approach of management is effective when used correctly and has many strengths and weaknesses in contrast to other management approaches.
Generally the classical approach has an organisational structure of Hierarchal Structure, meaning that people on the top (e.g. CEO, The board) make all the decisions, and the rest of the business follow them. Using the hierarchal structure, there are generally 3 levels of management. The top management tier generally consists of the CEO and the board, responsible for long term and major decisions of the business. The second tier of management consists of supervisors and general managers, responsible for setting goals for workers and small decisions. The third management tier consists of supervisors who oversee day to day activity and train employees. An example of the hierarchal structure being used is a CEO, General management and supervisors. The Hierarchal structure generally is how the Classical Approach is organised and structured. This structure is effective and easy to follow in comparison to other organised structures.
The classical approach also usually depends on an autocratic leadership style. This idea states that a business should have one sole leader that should make all the decisions, to organize the business and to direct the employees what to do. This style allows decisions to be made quickly making it efficient and effective, even though the decisions may not be right. An example of an autocratic leadership style are sole trader businesses who only have one person to make all the decisions and to organize the business. This leadership style is effective as it fast and only has one person making all the decisions. In comparison to other leadership styles, there is generally no group decisions and if the decision is wrong, an autocratic leadership style may be very bad for a business.
The Behavioural approach to management is very different to that of the Classical approach. The behavioural approach focuses on leading, communicating and motivating employees. The behavioural approach gives employees a greater say and a higher participation rate in their workplace. This also affects decision making as it isn’t just up to management for major decisions of the business. The Behavioural approach can have a higher production output and a positive approach from employees as they have more freedom and innovation can also increase. The Behavioural approach also has negatives in contrast to the classical approach. As there is not a lot of structure in the behavioural approach and everyone has different thoughts and opinions, decision making may take more time and effort to try and make all employees happy. The behavioural approach doesn’t generally just have one leader but rather a combined effort of inputs. This has positives and negatives as decisions could be made as a group but could affect the business as an employee may be right and other employees may be wrong, but as there is no decisive single leader, decision making may be incorrect. An example of a business using the behavioural approach is SpaceX and Elon Musk. As SpaceX actively encourages its employees to come forward with new ideas and technology, SpaceX has made billions of dollars of its employee’s ideas. In comparison to that of the Classical approach where the sole leader may not have the best ideas but rather the employees do. In comparison to the classical approach, The Behavioural approach also has a lot of positives and negatives as a management style.
Teams organisational structure is generally how the behavioural management style is set out. In comparison to the classical hierarchal structure of classical management, there are generally two tiers of management as opposed to 3. The Teams organisational structure generally removes the middle level of management and instead has the managers on the top and the employees on the bottom. This allows more information to be flowed through both up and down the structure. This allows both employees to express thoughts and opinions and for managers to give directions and orders. This structure works well for employees as they can be motivated as they have a say on what happens inside the business but can also create problems as the task may become difficult and vague in comparison to the classical structure’s direct tasks. An example of the Teams organisational structure being used in a business is Coca Cola. Coca Cola allow employees to come forward with new ideas to already successful innovators in their company. They also offer great reward to their employees if it benefits their company and Coca Cola always actively encourages employees to learn from other leaders and adopt their traits and characteristics. In comparison to the hierarchical structure used by the classical management style, the behavioural management style gives employees a chance to voice their pinions straight to management and removes the 3 levels of management in doing so.
The Democratic Leadership style
Body Paragraph 7 Contingency Approach
Body Paragraph 8 Adapting To Changing Circumstances