The uniformity of construction methods is also due to the geographical isolation of Egypt from other civilized countries, where skilled builders lived, and this deprived the Egyptian architects of the much needed competition in architecture.For centuries, the distinctive features of the architecture of Ancient Egypt:strict symmetry,geometry of forms,rhythmic repetition of identical images,heaviness,huge size,grandiosity,greatness.Monumentality, rooted in the whole nature of Egyptian architecture, at each separate period of its history finds a different embodiment.The pyramid strikes and suppresses its grandeur.
The monumentality of the pyramid is expressed by all the features of its architectural composition: geometric form, laconicism, majestic tranquility, lack of decor. Covering all of its outer surface smooth polished slabs of limestone create the impression of a monolith of an ideal geometric shape.The monumentality of the temples of the New Kingdom is manifested in the majesty of proportions, the grandeur of their dimensions, the obligatory introduction of scale.A detail repeating in a smaller size the shape that dominates the structure emphasizes the size of the structure.Ancient Egyptian architecture is exceptionally conventional. It is characterized by a peculiar system of symbols. Types of facilities:the abode of the dead,the dwelling of the gods,dwelling of the living.
A characteristic feature of the architecture of Ancient Egypt was the gallery (corridor). Large column halls and courtyards were gallery type, as evidenced by the direction of laying the beams and the direction of the wall painting on the supports. The inner rooms and rooms followed one after another in the same direction and along one axis. The location and contiguity of the individual rooms correspond to this gallery layout, usually it was linear.Since the sanctuary, in the architecture of the temple structures of Ancient Egypt, from the entrance, rooms and halls became more spacious, the volume of premises increased, the height of ceilings increased. The building opened like a flower of a plant. The Egyptians used the opposite concept in the construction of the pyramids.
The central layout of the building is a rare exception.In the Egyptian constructions of that time, stones were laid without mortar and without any artificial connections. Judging by some of the surviving columns of the temple in Karnak, before laying the stone, the Egyptians only cleaned the beds and vertical seams; The front surface of the stones was then polished after the building was completed.
Later this method was used by the Greeks.The external forms of buildings were very simple: inclined and straight-sided pyramids and prisms. The windows were not a characteristic element for the buildings of the ancient Egyptians, they were extremely rare only on the facade of the building.As a consequence of the simplicity of the architectural forms, the surfaces of the buildings from the outside and from the inside were flat and flat.
This monotony and geometric isolation, inherent in Egyptian architecture, softened numerous wall paintings, texts and bas-reliefs.The motifs of the building decorations in Egypt are symbolic, for example – a solar disk symbolizing the sun god Ra, or a scarab, a sacred beetle. Also often there are thickets of papyrus, palm leaves, lotus flowers. Hieroglyphs in wall texts were used not only for decorative purposes, but also to preserve the gods that were worshiped, historical events, wars that were fought, the life of the ancient Egyptians, the life and death of the pharaohs who ruled the ancient state.