The most key feature of securing thecrime sight is to safeguard the sight with least contamination and interruptionof physical evidence. The first comeback to an event shall be speedy and systematic.On onset, the officer should examine the scene and treat the event as a crimescene.
Ø Write or log information such as address/location, time, date,type of call, parties involved. Ø Any pupil or vehicles leaving the crime scene`Ø Approach the scene carefully, scan the entire area to thoroughlyassess the scene, and note any possible secondary crime scenes. Be aware of anypersons and vehicles in the vicinity that may be related to the crime.Ø Make initial observations (look, listen, smell) to assess thescene and ensure officer safety before proceeding.
.Safety proceduresEnsuringsafety and physical health of officers and other individuals, near the sight.otherofficer need to identify and control and dangerous situations. Ø Ensure that there is no immediate threat to other responders —scan area for sights, sounds, and smells that may present danger.Ø Approach the scene in amanner designed to reduce risk of harm to officer(s) while maximizing thesafety of victims, witnesses, and others in the area.
Ø Survey the scene fordangerous persons and control the situation. Ø Notify supervisorypersonnel and call for assistance/backup Proceedto a primary survey; a first survey of the scene is conducted to prioritizeevidence collection. During this survey, the investigator will find possible evidence;write notes and detained photographs of the scene and the evidence with capacity.
The crime scene is written to record situation such as positon of impermanentfurniture, any smells presents, temperature of the scene. For this process totake action investigators make an evidence-free pathway. Crime Scene PhotographyThe key part ofphotography is duties that the crime scene investigator performs. Visual communicationsare important for the quality, to the point and precise photographs of both thescene and the evidence exactly the way it was found. Photography of the sceneand of evidence is one of the first procedures performed at a scene. Forexample;Ø Take the photographs so that the areaand items of evidence will be identified and oriented with other areas in theoverall scene.
Ø An extreme close-up photograph may betaken of a small item, such as a bloodstain, hair, fabric stain or fingerprintin blood. For an extreme close-up shot, the item should be photographed atleast twice, once with a scale (ruler) and at least once without a scale.Ø Investigators should use rulers andmarkers at crime scenes to identify items or areas being photographed. Themarkers may be cones with numbers or letters affixed to the cone, plasticevidence cards or index cards which have been marked identifying the evidencebeing photographed. When using markers, take a photograph of the object or areawith and without the marker.Ø When evidence has been identified ashaving been moved from its original position at a crime scene, the investigatorshould make note of that.
If the investigator is directed to photograph theevidence item in its original location, a detailed note should be made that theitem was photographed in the area where it was originally located.Diagrams/SketchesDiagrams orsketches are formed on agency forms orgraph paper.Ø Sketches/diagrams drawn to scaleshould identify the scale ratio on the diagram.Ø Sketches/diagrams should be drawnusing pencil, blue ink or black ink.Ø Crime scene sketches/diagrams shouldcontain the minimum following information on the drawing:· Case number.· Date.
· Investigator’s name or initials.· Incident location address. List of evidence and the type of packaging used The SOCO team has noticed every unusual thing in thecrime scene to look for the clue and have collected as the evidence forforensic examination.
During the collection, all evidence is sorted andpackaged within a specific type of packaging to preserve the authenticity andto improve credibility to present it for the future criminal investigation.Throughout the investigation the following evidences were collected:• Ablack purse • Brokenglasses (beaker) • Ablack phone within a case • Bloodsplatter • Bloodysyringe • Splitchemical • Splitbrown bottle • Woundin the body caused by knife• Whitepowder in the bagOnce the evidences were collected, they wereput on the specific packaging system based on the characteristics and types ofevidence requires for further preservation. Choosing correct size and materialsfor the evidence is important to preserve the evidence for long time.
Thefollowing types of packaging were used for the each type of evidence to placein and appropriate label was used to document it later:· In order to maintain safety, sharp metal likeknife is packaged to a plastic tube to strap that risky weapon without causingany harm to the evidence and reducing the chance of tempering. · In order to collect DNA evidence blood swabswere used. After swabbing within the blood it was dried within the scene andthen packaged in the swab boxes separately and then were put within differentenvelopes. · The chemical bottle was packed within apolythene bag to prevent further split and maintain the authenticity ofevidence.
· Besides the above mentioned evidence, therest of the evidence were put within brown paper bag with separate label and then were sealed to maintain theauthenticity of the evidences. Key procedure followed to maintain health andsafety at the crime scene When the investigation team arrives at thecrime scene it is important to follow some safety procedure to ensure healthand safety throughout the crime scene and prevent further contamination. Thegeneral key procedure used in the crime scene is to arrive at the crime scenewith caution. The investigation team logged the dispatch information beforeentering the scene, made primary observation and used protection to avoidcontamination.
Before the investigation began, the team hadscanned the crime for the any hazard things, smell or sounds that may causedanger to the team. As the crime scene happened in the main prep roomcontaining dangerous chemicals and other objects, the investigation teamscanned for hazardous materials before entering the crime scene. To serve thepurpose of preventing contamination, the investigation team made limited accessto the scene while processing for information and followed the establishedentry and exit route.
After that a specific area was secured to collectevidence while taking caution to health and safety issues. In order to do so,disposable Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) was used by every member toprevent any contamination. Disposable point was established between the crimescene and evidence collection area to dispose of the PPE to avoid furthercontamination. The risk of getting contaminated during the crime scene was alsoassessed and effective precaution like: using protective uniform, breathingmask and googles were used to minimize health risk.
These procedure helped theSOCO’s to remain protected from any dangerous materials from chemical split inair and floor from the lab and kept their health protected. From the scenario that I assessed from thecrime scene in the Nottingham College, it seems that, the victim was attackedby someone with knife and made wound to her body. As her purse is beingshattered, may be the perpetrator was looking for something from the victim andcame into fighting.
Key procedures to collect evidence from acrime scene When crime investigators enter to a crimescene, they follow some procedure to effectively collect the evidence. Atfirst, the major crime scene is being cordon off to protect it from generalpublic and to avoid unnecessary entering. After that the investigation teamassess the perceived risk to enter the scene.
They consider if there is anytrace of dangerous materials, bomb or other threat existent to the crime scene.After assessing the risk, the team uses PPE to protect themselves from any typeof health and safety risks. After taking PPE initial observation is made fromoutside to finally check if there is any threat existent to the crime scene.Entry and exit log is maintained to restrict and record the entry of themembers entering to the scene and to avoid any unnecessary viewing.
Once theentry and exit log is established, common approach path is created to restrictthe accessibility to the crime scene. Yellow tape is usually used with specificsigns and banners. Once the investigators enters the crime scenethey started to take evidence from the victim, floor and throughout the crimescene.
Blood, any broken or unusual objects, dangerous things, knifes or othersharp material, footprint, fingerprint etc is commonly being collected as theform of evidence. While collecting the evidence, each thing is collectedseparately without any contact from the collectors and is being packaged in aspecific containers according to their form. For example, blood sample iscollected through swabbing and then kept in a zipped plastic bag. Propercollection of evidence and maintaining in the proper packaging system ensuresthe validity and long lasting of the evidence. Sketches, notes and photographsis also taken to ensure the collection of every information necessary to solvea particular crime scene as well as to provide further reference in future.
Justification of using the evidencecollection procedure To avoid further risk and to maintain validevidence it is important to follow some specific evidence collection procedure.However, the rationale for using key procedures of collecting the evidence isin following: Cordon off the area:This procedure helps to create restrictiontowards the entry and exit to the crime scene and minimize the access of peopleto the scene to prevent unwanted tempering with the evidence. Risk assessment:By using risk assessment the investigationteam can use health and safety initiatives before entering into a scene.
Thishelps to reduce health risk and saves time in the investigation. PPE:Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) helps theteam to prevent from any contamination and keep the evidence protected withoutthe touch. Observation of the scene before entry:Before entering to the crime scene, theinvestigation team observe the crime scene in order to perceive any dangerousmaterial, smell or sound exists in the area that may hamper the collection ofthe evidence. Entry and exit log:It helps to keep proper tack of the evidencecollected by the member of the investigation team along with justifying theevidence in future to the court. Common approach path:Helps to restrict the use of path by thepeople in the crime scene that ultimately protects main areas before exposingto the public which may contaminate the evidence.
Evidence collection methods and packagingtypes:Based on the nature and structure of theevidence (soild, liquid, blood etc), different evidence collection method istaken. The collected evidences were kept in a specific packaging based on theirnature to preserve them for a longer period of time and to remain valid for thecourt. Sketches and notes:This helps the investigation team to leadfurther clue in future. After clearing the crime scene, sketches and notesstill can provide useful information regarding the crime scene. Photographs:Photographs of the crime scene helps to getevery tiny details necessary for the investigation once outside from the crimescene.