The project management is defined as the applicationof knowledge, skills tools and techniques to a broad range of activities inorder to meet the requirement of a particular project. Every project has a welldefined start and an finish. So project management is the method of planningwhat is to be done from starting/ identification of the project to achievingits goals.
In the context of project management while describing the projectthe following aspect (cited below) must be clearly defined/ specified1. Starting date 2. Specific goals and conditions 3. Defined responsibilities4. Budget5.
Planning 6. Fixed end date 7. Parties involved In developmental animal husbandry projectswhere project management techniques are used, the following points will bespecifically described1. Objective 2.
Tenure3. Team4. Phases of project cycle5. Project management constraints and challenges1. Objectives Inproject Management objectives are to be specifically described. Manydevelopmental project fail to deliver the desired impact because the objectivesare not properly defined or agreed or because they are not defined inmeasurable terms.
Utmost care must be taken while developing and specifying theobjectives. The objective must be made after the situation analysis and shouldbe need based. Try to avoid too general objective as it creates problems inmeasuring it. In case of project management the four major things related toproject needs clarity in the objective.
They are a. Scope: here the expectation of the team leader/project manager and the stakeholders are defined in measureable termsb. Performance: theexpected performance of the project with the available resources (human andfinancial) is to be described. Forexample in animal husbandry it may be the level of increase in milk productionor quality of milk etc.
C. Time : A project management technique is said to besuccessful if it completes the project in time. Many a times in developmentalprojects the optimistic and pessimistic time and the most probable times aredefined.
Sometime the team specifies a critical path the delay along whichcause a delay in time.d. Cost : usually itappears a a function of above three i.e. scope, performance and time. Based onthese factor cost may vary.
Certain project managers also define objectives based onthe SMART approach where S stands for Specific, M for Measureable, A stands for Attainable, R indicates Realistic and T represents Time bound.2. Tenure:Eachand every project has a fixed life span. It is never a continuous activity.
Agood project management team could specify the tenure of the projects. 3. Team: Projectmay contain various activities.
A team is needed to accomplish or completethese activities. In Developmental project nowadays participation of thebeneficiaries/ stakeholders has become the fad due to the high use ofparticipatory methods. So usually beneficiaries and most of the stakeholdersare part of the team of developmental project4. Project Cycle Itdivides the different sequence of operations of project into different phases.The important phases of the project cycle are 1.
Conception orIdentification2. Formulation orpreparation of project3. Appraisal oranalysis4. Implementation5. Monitoring6. EvaluationIdentification phase:This phase examines the relevance of the ideas of the project including the stake holder analysis and target group specification.
The beneficiaries are identified in this phase. Problem identification and identification of various alternate solutions for the problems happens in this phase. Project documents, pre feasibility study documents, feasibility reports, project identification and concept documents, project caters are made available in this stageFormulation phase: This phase determines the following purpose1. Project Conditions2. Project costs and schedule3.
Identify the source of all resources The location of the farm and the farm site are explained here. Following aspects like technical aspects, financial aspects, commercial aspects, managerial aspects, organisational aspects, social aspects, economic aspects are briefly outlined in the project formulation stage. Role assignment and project scheduling employing Gantt charts are done in this phase. Risk management planning and procurement planning are done in this phase. Limitations of the project are also specified here.
Appraisal phase This occurs before implementation stage. Here Ex ante evaluation (evaluation before implementation) is conducted by specialist. It is done to know whether the project is feasible according to the data available. The technical data for assessing the feasibility of the project should be consistent with the information available with the sanctioning authority. Managerial aspects play a key role in this appraisal phase. In case of developmental projects in animal husbandry during appraisal particular stress should be given to the sustainability of the project.
Implementation phase This is the most crucial phase in a developmental project. Here actual work on the planned task occurs. Successful implementation occurs on the extent of realism put into plans drawn beforehand.
Here project manager is responsible for the task executed and he should inform the stake holders of the status of the task. The project implementation period can be divided into investment period, development period and full production period. The former ranges from a few months to a few years. Development period too consume time.
The project managers and the team must take all efforts to reduce the gestation time. Full production period is the period in which beneficiaries harvest the benefit of the project.Monitoring phase.
Here the timely collection and analysis of data on the progress of the project occurs. This is primarily done with the objective of finding the constraints. This is highly desirable when the project fail to complete as per time schedule or in the process of attaining self set goals. Monitoring should be systematic and continuous so that it offers scope for re planning in the occurrence of contingencies. For proper monitoring an efficient reporting mechanism should be there.Evaluation phase.
This is the final phase in project cycle. It is not confined to the completed project. It can be done several times during life of the project. .It will analyse how far the objectives set out have been reached. If evaluation is conducted in between it is mid term evaluation and if it si done after termination it is ex post evaluation.
The termination of both successful and unsuccessful project is inevitable. After final termination project report is prepared after due evaluation and is presented to the concerned stake holders and beneficiaries.5.
Project Management constraints Every developmental project has to manage four constraints1. Scope: what the project is trying to achieve. It is the reason and purpose for the project2.
Schedule: is the time required to complete the project. Here constraints happens as missed deadlines, incomplete activities and late donor reports3. Budget: cost approved for the project including all required expenses required to deliver the project. Here a balance should be between the both ends i.
e. overspending and running out of money and under spending of money thereby compromising the efficiency of project4. Quality: it includes delivering the project outcomes according to the stated expectations as described in the objectives. This is highly important in meeting stake holder satisfaction..
it also means complying with quality standard kept by international agencies and national agencies in the food sector/ animal husbandry sector.Managing these constraints is the major responsibility of the project manager. A project is deemed successful when it overcomes all the four constraints.Challenges of development projects management1. Poor planning caused by rushing to obtain funds2.
Lack of skilled project management staff3. Lack of clarity in beneficiaries or target group.4.
Overambitious and unrealistic plans5. Lack of monitoring criteria6. No well developed methodology for evaluation7. Lack of project discipline and duplication of effortsBenefits of project management1.
Help the farmers in identifying a the common methodology on how developmental projects are planned and implemented in farm sector2. Since standard terminology are used and well explained along with objectives, all stake holders are able to understand it.3.
Give stake holders confidence in project implementation4. Permits accurate prediction on amount of funds and resources needed5. Helps in better monitoring and reporting and easy to rectify any mistakes