Ossifies-schemas: beliefs about oneself that guide the processing of self- relevant information. – Domain-specific interpretive structures – Built up in domains the person considers both descriptive and important. – Include possible selves; – People hold many different self-schemas; – Derive from self-observation and evaluation and observations and evaluations of others – Basis of self-esteem; resist inconsistent or threatening information; prefer validating, affirming information Clonking-glass self: other people serve as a mirror in which we see ourselves.
Introspection Affective forecasting: People have difficulty projecting forward and predicting how they would furl in response to future emotional events. The Culture Cycle -Two ways to be a self: Lengthened & interdependent Information Processing – Cocktail Party Effect: The tendency of people to pick out personally relevant stimulus, like name, out Of a complex and noisy environment. – Flashbulb Memories: The enduring detailed, high-resolution recollections of personal circumstances around a shocking or impacting event. Spotlight Effect: The tendency of people to believe that they are noticed more than they really are. Feedback hypothesis: changes in facial expression can trigger corresponding changes in the subjective experience of emotions. – Self-perception Theory: People infer what they think or how they feel by observing their own behavior and the situation in which that behavior takes place. – Affective forecasting: people have difficulty projecting forward and predicting how they would feel in response to future emotional events.
Motivation – Intrinsic motivation vs.. Extrinsic motivation – Personification Effect: When one’s behavior is rewarded, that behavior can be attributed to both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations. The Need for Self-esteem – Self-esteem: a person’s positive and negative self-evaluations – Why do we need self-esteem? Seismometer Theory L]Terror Management Theory: humans are biologically programmed for life and self-preservation; yet we are conscious of and terrified by the inevitability of our own death. Self-Enhancement Techniques – Self-Awareness theory: most people are not usually self-focused, but certain situation predictably forces us to turn inward and become the objects of our own attention.