The on 22nd February and 22nd October,

The
monumental building that was designed in cooperation with light during ancient
Egypt civilization is the Abu Simbel temples. Construction of the temples
started around 1264 BC and was only finished being built until 20 years later.
The temples were originally carved out of the mountainside, which was situated
on the western bank of Lake Nasser. It was rediscovered in 1813 and was
relocated on an artificial hill because of the creation of the Aswan High Dam,
otherwise it would have been submerged. The monument was built to dedicate to
the gods Amun, Ra-Horakhty, and Ptah, as well as to celebrate Ramesses’ victory
over the Hittites at the Battle of Kadesh in 1274 BC. The temples were aligned
with the east by the Egyptian architects in such a way that, twice a year, on 22nd
February and 22nd October, the sun would shine into the sanctuary
and illuminate the statues of Ramesses and Amun. The statue of Ptah however,
was carefully positioned so that it would always remain in the dark as Ptah is
a god that is connected to the Underworld. These dates are believed to
correspond to king’s birthday and coronation.

The
monumental building that was designed in cooperation with light during ancient
Maya civilization is El Castillo, also known as the Temple of Kukulkan. It was
built around 1000AD by the Maya civilization and is located at Chichen Itza archaeology
site in Yucatan, Mexico. El Castillo served as the temple to the god Kukulkan.
The temple also serves as a monumental representation of the Mayan calendar,
with four sides having 91 steps each, the temple topping as an additional step,
with 365 steps in total and each step representing a day in the calendar.
Running down the sides of the northern balustrade are sculptures of plumed
serpents. The pyramid is positioned slightly North East, so that during the
spring and autumn equinox, the sun will shine on the pyramid and cast shadows
across the balustrade, creating an illusion of serpents crawling down the
pyramid. This phenomenon is known as the “Descent of Kukulkan”.

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Another building that is designed to work with
light is the Pyramid of the Sun. It is situated in Teotihuacan and been
constructed about 200CE. The pyramid is slightly orientated so that it faces
the sunset on the 11th August and the 29th April of the
following year.

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