The Shooting of Trayvon Martin essay

How these intercrop threats are perceived can cause extreme negative outcomes. This paper will discuss a current event, the shooting of Trap:on Martin in Sanford, Florida. This event has add national headlines. The intercrop threat and intercrop emotions theories will be discussed to interpret the dynamics of this event. Key tenets of these theories will be applied, the role of emotion as well as three ways to reduce intercrop bias and prejudice in the aftermath of this tragedy.

Key words: Prejudice, Tyranny Martin, intercrop threats theory, intercrop emotions theory Intercrop Cognition and Emotions Theories The shooting of Tyranny Martin by George Zimmerman on February 26, 2012 in Sanford, Florida, ripped through the nation causing the ghost of past racial and prejudice conflicts to emerge between groups. The issues of prejudice and race are very relevant to this case in that the foundational bases in which the events unfolds reveals hints of prejudice and racism. George Zimmerman perceived a threat of an out-group (African Americans) member towards him; this resulted in a tragic outcome.Tyranny Martin was a seventeen year old African American wearing a hooded carrying bag of skittles and ice tea.

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He walked alone at night, through a gated community where he was temporarily staying or visiting his father. Martin is observed by the neighborhood watch person, George Zimmerman, a twenty eight year old multi-racial Hispanic American male; who profiles the young man (Stuntman, 2012). The assumption in this case is Zimmerman profiled Tyranny Martin as a being criminal-minded young black male up to no good. Zimmerman thought he maybe on drugs and looked to possibly break in a house; he reports to police.Zimmerman is being accused by African Americans groups and others as categorizing and lord profiling Martin based on the ethnic group in which he belonged( African American) and ‘or skin color (Stuntman, 2012) The highlighted events from Stuntman (2012) are George Zimmerman calls in to the Sanford police states that there is potential problem with a black male ho looks like he is up to no good. Zimmerman further tells the police that the young man is looking at houses, does not belong in the neighborhood and may be on drugs.Zimmerman is advised to stand down and stay in his car.

At some point speculation has it and according to Martin’s girlfriend( he talking on the cell phone with her); Martin tells her he being watched by some man who is walking towards him. Zimmerman does not adhere to the police warning and he has a gun. There is some encounter between the two; some neighbors say they heard Martin screaming for help. Zimmerman says it was him yelling for help.

There is a tape Neighbors hear a gunshot go outside and see Martin face down; he dies.Zimmerman standing over him and looks like there may have been some altercation. Martin was shot once in the chest at close range. The lack Of actions taken by Sanford police in arresting Zimmerman caused negative reactions toward the police department and the city of Sanford. The death of Martin and the initial decision not to charge George Zimmerman brought about allegations of racism and prejudicial behaviors for both the shooting and police conduct(Stuntman, 2012). A firsthand account as I was driving to work in a homeless shelter located inSanford, Radio which was located in the midst of the gatherings and demonstrations; seeing black panthers marching with signs Zimmerman wanted dead or alive; civil right leaders fighting for justice was reminder that prejudice and racism is very much alive between groups. Stuntman (2012) reports George Zimmerman went into hiding as there were those out to harm or kill him. The African American groups was highly upset; although Zimmerman is a multi-racial Hispanic American, he was being categorized with the white American group initially; The white groups in the area clearly pointed out him as being Hispanic American.

Some whites and Hispanics joined in with the black groups in hopes of diffusing racial tensions that was vastly building. Zimmerman ended up pleading not guilty to the charge and was released on one million dollar bond while he awaits trial. Martin’s behavior that night thus far has shown he was just returning from the store and had not done anything wrong (Stuntman, 2012). The case is still pending with a trial date sometime in June. The actions of George Zimmerman can be explained as an in-group and out group experience that went tragically wrong.Intercrop threat and intercrop emotions theories There are many that may look at the surface of this tragic outcome and contend George Zimmerman just decide to shoot Martin; while he did make a choice to shoot him. There are possible explanations or interpretations of his behavior that night in February, 2012; that may have been driving force for such a tragic event.

Zimmerman had preconceived ideas about Martin as he observed him from a far, but close enough to recognize that Martin was not part of the ethnic or social group in which he belonged or identified with.Zimmerman may have profiled Martin based on prior experiences he had tit African Americans males or the group overall that relates to prejudice and racism. Zimmerman had a certain belief system about African Americans, as he called and reported Martin as being a problem prior to any encounter; often a member of an in-group has misconceptions about the out group. There was a trait association toward Martin in as being part of stereotyped group. Most often this is based on inaccurate, negative and overgrazing false data.

These false attributes can become embedded in the minds of people (Stanton, 2009 ;Wagoner, Clark, & Petty, 2006). George Zimmerman profiled Tyranny Martin and the assumption can be made that Zimmerman identified Martin as being on drugs or something, did not belong in the neighborhood, and he looked like trouble indicated in his report. He also called the police and had negative stereotypical thought processes and prejudice attitude towards African Americans by the police’s own admission (Stuntman, 2012).Zimmerman seemed to have a conscious awareness of what he conceived if Martin was left unattended, something bad would occur; because Martin fit a profile that Zimmerman related to the out-group in which he belonged. The face to face encounter with Martin may have come overwhelming to Zimmerman; he experienced an in-group threat. An in-group threat occurs when members of one particular group believe that another group is in a position to cause them harm (Stephan, Hobart, & Morrison, 2009).

The assumption of the altercation is Zimmerman quickly realizes or perceives he is In dangerous situation.May be Martin is a bigger African American than he imagined or fear griped him. The intercrop threat theory can apply in this case; as normally the threat is perceived that something that will bring about physical harm; or is a realistic threat and there is a concern about integrity or loss of resources. Zimmerman may have been influenced by feeling he would be physically harmed; to include had a concern about integrity as the neighborhood watch person. Zimmerman may felt he was faced with a real life situational threat of being harm or killed. This can evoke lot emotions at one time.The importance of this theory explaining or interpreting Zimmermann behavior is these in-group threats have profound effects on intercrop relations; which can led to a path of destruction and extreme negative outcomes (Stephan, Hobart, & Morrison, 2009).

In this perspective Zimmermann fear may have ignited a fire of anger ND life survival emotions that cause his actions. Additional information retrieved explains that even when the out group behavior may be non- hostile in their behavioral response, the cognitive and affective responses by the in-group to the threats are likely to be still negative (Stephan, Hobart, & Morrison, 2009).The neighbors report a cry for help from Martin; George Zimmerman perception of threat may not have been minimized; although Tyranny Martin may have been trying offer some type of plea or compromise. Zimmerman believes he applied self- defense; he had to protect himself from Martin (Stuntman, 2012). Tyranny Martin as well could have felt an intercrop threat and both viewed each other as the out-group; however, Martin may have felt threaten, but was unable to defend himself; Zimmerman had a gun. Intercrop Emotions Theory The intercrop emotion theory can also interpret Zimmermann behavior in the Tyranny Martin shooting event.The intercrop emotions theory contends that people experience a variety of emotions depending if they see themselves as unique individuals or members of a group including the different emotions experienced when thinking about themselves as members of different groups. Certain circumstances can drive people to consider themselves as certain groups; psychologically they become members of a particular group rather than a unique individual (Mackey, Maitre, & Smith, 2009).

There are two perspectives Zimmerman as neighborhood watch person believed he belong to the group in which he associated his ethnicity between white and Hispanic.However, he may have associated himself with being a police offer protecting the environment. Zimmerman may have no longer seen himself as a unique individual rather saw self in terms of a salient group membership; this is referred to as self-categorization. Being part of the police team or group Zimmerman believed he was acting accordingly.

Police officers have a right to defend themselves when someone is out of hand; his already perceived trouble with Martin may have evoked what he believed were the attitudes and beliefs associated with group memberships (Sanford Police officers).Zimmermann beliefs about Martin coupled with the fact he was alone with feelings of being threaten triggered a forceful reaction (Mackey, Smith, & Ray, 2008). Zimmerman psychologically may have believed he had power and authority because he was associated himself with a high rower group (he was never a real member of that group); that often would provide backup; once all alone was unaccustomed to the types of threats. This may have been a new and unwanted experience. The other perspective is the impact of many intercrop outcomes is facilitated by specific group directed emotions.

That is people examine and feel the way they do based on their own experiences and emotions; related to race and / or prejudices (Mackey, Maitre, & Smith, 2009). The assumption could be made that George Zimmermann view of Tyranny Martin, as someone who was up to no good and headed for trouble, perhaps, was based solely on his receptions of African Americans grounded in a prejudice attitude and racist mindset that was acquired through life experiences and ‘or upbringing.Key Tenets Of Theories The key tenets in the intercrop threat theory related to the intercrop relation between Tyranny Martin and George Zimmerman includes several components. For example, the situational factor created the chain of events. That is, certain situations create perceptions of threats. When people are in uncertain situation and feel like they are outgunned or in a vulnerable position will react to the threats in an aggressive manner (Stephan, Hobart, & Morrison, 2009). This is especially true when an in-group is in direct conflict with an out-group.

People can be influenced by the condition they are in; this may have greatly affected the intercrop – out-group relation between Zimmerman and Martin. Consequences of the threat related to cognitive biases can increase in-group perceptions that can trigger or amplified a threat. These intercrop threats contribute to conflict because of their influences on behaviors, perceptions, and emotions (Stephan, Hobart, & Morrison, 2009).

People may also respond o the threats by opposing policies that favor the out-group. The police instructed Zimmerman to stay in car and stand down.This would have allowed Martin (perceived out-group) to continue on his way; Zimmerman did not adhere to police instructions. Zimmerman may have responded in a way that was contrary to normal behavior as the outcome became extreme.

Emotional response perceived Or realistic threats are likely to be negative; as they include fear, anxiety, anger and resentments (Stephan, Hobart, & Morrison, 2009). Extreme levels of these emotions in whole or impart caused Zimmerman to make bad choices. Key Tenets Intercrop Emotions Theory The intercrop emotion theory key tenant relates to how people experience emotions according to how they see themselves.Zimmerman emotions may be connected with several categorization and identities.

Zimmerman social categorization may have determined his emotional responses; and the identification he associated with moderated the relation with Martin and the outcome. Zimmerman may be connected with multiple group memberships; thus he was capable of multiple emotional reactions that influence his extreme behavior of shooting martin (Mackey, Maitre, & Smith, 2009). Information retrieved from Mackey, Devon, & Smith (2000) give further insight o key tenet specific intercrop emotions can lead to various intercrop behaviors.

These different intercrop behaviors occur due to specific intercrop emotions that can be triggered by particular appraisals of the situation or event or object (Tramway Martin) that most often relate to social identity (Mackey, Maitre, & Smith, 2009). Offensive reactions against an out-group might occur when there is high level situation that has a specific nature of prejudice and racism present. Role of Emotions In theories Emotions play a significant role in both theories. Emotion is underlying driving force that influences intercrop and out group conflicts and threats.Negative intercrop emotions and perceptual biases contribute to threats and behavioral responses. For example, the in-group threat theory perceived or realistic threats evoke emotions between the in group and out group; these emotions can cause negative reactions (Stephan, Hobart, & Morrison, 2009). The ingrown emotions theory outlines emotions are associated with categorization and multiple identities; verses single biological entities. Emotion is not restricted to just an individual level; it includes a social phenomenon.

Moreover if specific emotions are experienced repeatedly over time to a particular group these feelings become associated with mental representation of that given group; through the process of classical conditioning. These emotions are then more likely to be reactivated when there is an encountered or thought. Action tendencies may also become chronically accessible in the same fashion; in that the perceiver may feel impulses to attack or harm the group or member every time they think about or come in contact with them (Mackey, Maitre, & Smith, 2009).This can explain what was occurring with Zimmerman outlook toward Martin from the onset.

Further information reveals that emotions between the groups are appraisal based. Most often in-groups emotions are based on appraisal; how the in-group appraises the situation or the object can result in what behavioral action that may occur (Mackey, Smith, & Ray, 2008). Emotions motivate or evoke people to do certain acts and to behave in certain ways. What Zimmerman feels after he shot and killed 1 7 year old Tyranny Martin can only be speculated.However, it can be assumed Zimmerman made an appraisal based on his own beliefs or a group. Information retrieved reveals intercrop emotions are the same as individual emotions.

They carry the same consequences; intercrop anger can be stimulated by an insult or threat of harm. People experiencing the intercrop anger fail to carefully evaluate the content of their actions; their responses to dilemmas or problems are different than people who are not angry (Mackey, Maitre, & Smith, 2009).Zimmermann anger did not afford him to think clearly in the moments leading to the altercation. Additional information obtained describe when people think about self as members of a group, their motional reactions reflect appraisals of the effects that events, or situations have for that given group (Mackey, Maitre, & Smith, 2009). “Those distinct emotional reactions entail inclinations to act; especially toward the in-group and out-group in equally and distinct and specific ways” (Mackey, Maitre, & Smith, 2009, p. 02).

Intercrop emotions can be associated with a multitude of intercrop identities; as such this variability can cause inconsistency of intercrop behavior (Mackey, Smith, & Ray, 2008). Emotions between the in- group and out-group with both theories can evoke different actions or uniqueness; as it depends upon if the out-group is feared, hated or despised. Ways to Reduce Intercrop Bias and Prejudice Ingrown biases and prejudice requires extensive work between the groups.The chance that biases and prejudicial attitudes will emerge again between the groups is likely; with the pending court case.

The groups should look toward learning from this tragic event. The Tyranny Martin shooting is an example of the destruction that can occur when there is an ingrown and out group conflict. Group conflicts always involve more than an individual member when an event like this happen; as it impacted the nation. There are a many ways to reduce intercrop bias and prejudices; however it requires work and a conscious effort.Information retrieved from Dovish & Gardener( 2010) outlines that addressing contemporary forms of ingrown biases and prejudices requires alternative strategies; in addition to educational classes.

Individual-level strategies can engage motivations that move people to become non-prejudiced; this includes focusing on realistic conflict between the groups and the psychological effects of categorization. Intercrop contact should be considered as a primary focus; this includes empowering cooperation between the groups. This can reduce bias by reducing the salience of the intercrop boundaries, through the process of De-categorization.Benefits of intercrop contact can occur through many routes; these are producing more individuated perceptions of out-group members; this includes more personalized relationships (Dovish & Gardener, 2010). Intercrop contact can also produce inclusiveness and subordinates representations of the groups; redirecting positive attitudes toward others. Obtaining knowledge and understanding the processes that takes place in the tauter and development of prejudice can guide discussions and actions; can effectively reduce intercrop biases, traditional and contemporary forms of prejudices (Dovish & Gardener, 2010).Most often groups respond to the acts of ingrown biases and prejudices without really understanding the true nature. In this case, it is important to understand the dynamics of what may have occurred and the underlying force to improve the future.

This does not mean George Zimmerman should not be punished, but it should also mean that this is an opportunity to learn that ingrown and out-groups conflicts impedes the ability to work together in a collaborative and peaceful way. Intercrop contacts are needed with the pending court case.

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