The responsibility of the paediatric first aider essay

It comprises emergency procedures to: C] recognise and manage a clear and open airway Cl restore breathing and/or circulation C] monitor well-being, using techniques as described by approved first aid raining providers, until the person is transferred to the care of an ambulance officer, nurse or doctor. Duty of care Care providers, teachers and support workers have a special and primary duty to the children and students in their care. This duty of care requires them to refrain from doing things that might lead to a child or student being injured.It also requires the worker to take positive steps towards maintaining health and safety. An employee could be found to be negligent if assistance was not provided to an ill or injured child or student.

The duty of care owed by education and childcare personnel is that of a reasonable professional’ and will be governed by factors that include: 0 the age of the child or student C] the child’s or students individual capabilities, including intellectual and physical impairment C] potential dangers C] the degree to which injury, or unwellness due to illness, is predictable.A basic first aid kit should contain: Plasters, in a variety of different sizes and shapes. Small, medium and large sterile gauze dressings. At least two sterile eye dressings.

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Triangular bandages. Cr©pe rolled bandages. Safety pins.

Disposable sterile gloves. Tweezers. Scissors. Alcohol-free cleansing wipes. Sticky tape. Thermometer, preferably digital. Skin rash cream such as hydrocortisone or calendula.

Cream or spray to relieve insect bites and stings. Antiseptic cream.Painkillers such as paracetamol (or infant paracetamol for children), aspirin (not to be given to children under 16), or ibuprofen. Cough medicine. Decongestant tablets or nasal spray. Antihistamine tablets. Distilled water, for cleaning wounds and as an eye bath.

Outcomes 1 ,2,3) Conducting a scene survey: Be calm Seek information from bystanders and witnesses You may need to call 999 1. 2Ensure the safety of yourself and others C] Be alert to dangers at the scene.Call for help Do not hesitate to call the Emergency Services if you believe that it is in the best interest of the casualty to do so. CALL AMBULANCE TO call ambulance: Dial out, then 000 or mobile 112. Say what state you are calling from, the person’s condition and their location. INFORM EMERGENCY CONTACTS Communicate C] Reassure the casualty and bystanders. C] Get information and provide necessary information to emergency personnel when they arrive. Organise bystanders to: Call emergency services.

C] Direct the ambulance to the scene. 0 Help other bystanders.C] Bring first aid supplies and blankets. When calling 999: location incident other services which may be needed N number of casualties E extent of injuries location repeated Outcome 3 (1 , 2) Outcome 4 (1 ,2) 5 initial breaths then 30 compressions then repeat 30 / 2 breaths Help them to breath by opening their airway To do this, place one hand on the forehead and using two fingers lift the chin. Position your cheek close to their mouth Look, listen and feel for no more than 10 seconds: look to see if the chest is rising and falling listen for breathing feel the breath against your cheekIf they are not breathing commence cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) Ensure the airway is open Seal your lips around the child’s mouth and Blow gently into their lungs, looking along the chest as you breathe. As the chest rises, stop blowing and allow it to fall Repeat this five times. Place one or hands in the centre of the chest (depending on the size of the child) – it is possible to identify the correct hand position without removing the child’s clothes.

Use the heel of that hand with arms straight and press down to a third of the depth of the chest Press 30 times, at a rate of 00-120 compressions per minute After 30 compressions, give 2 rescue breaths. Continue resuscitation, 30 compressions to 2 rescue breaths Do not stop unless: emergency help arrives and takes over they show signs of recovery such as coughing, opening eyes, speaking or moving purposefully and breathing normally you become so exhausted that you cannot carry on. Choki ng A foreign object that is stuck at the back of the throat may block the throat or cause muscular spasm.Young children especially are prone to choking. A child may choke on food, or may put small objects into their mouth and cause blockage of the airway. Ifthe blockage of the area airway is mild, the casualty should be able to clear it; if it is severe they will be unable to speak, cough, or breathe, and will eventually lose consciousness. Recognition Mild obstruction Casualty able to speak, cry, cough or breathe. Severe obstruction Casualty is unable to speak, cry, cough or breathe.

Casualty will eventually become unconcious without assistance.Treatment for adult or child Your aims are to remove the Obstruction and to arrange urgent removal to hospital if necessary. If the obstruction is mild Encourage them to continue coughing.

Remove any obvious obstruction from the mouth. Asthma In an asthma attack the muscles of the air passages in the lungs go into spasm and the linings of the airways swell. As a result, the airways become narrowed and breathing becomes difficult. Sometimes there is a specific trigger for an asthma attack such as: An allergy. A cold.

Cigarette smoke.Extremes of temperature. Exercise. People with asthma usually deal well with their own attacks by using a blue reliever inhaler, however you may be required to assist someone having an asthma attack or having an attack for the first time. Recognition features Difficulty in breathing, with a very prolonged breathing-out phase. There may also be: Wheezing as the casualty breathes out. Difficulty speaking and whispering. Distress and anxiety.

Coughing. Features Of hypoxia, such as a grey-blue tinge to the lips, earlobes and nailbeds (cyanosis).Hyperventilation Introduction Hyperventilation is excessive breathing, it is normally caused by acute anxiety and it may accompany a panic attack, it can also occur in individuals who have recently experienced an emotional or psychological shock.

Recognition unnaturally fast deep breathing. Attention seeking behaviour. Dizziness. Feeling faint. Trembling or marked tingling in the hands and cramps in the hands and feet. Treatment Your aim with somebody who is hyperventilating is to remove the casualty from the cause of distress, to reassure them and calm them down.

Speak to them firmly, but be kind and reassuring.Remove them to a place that is quiet. If this is not possible ask bystanders to leave or turn away. Encourage the casualty to see their own doctor about preventing and controlling panic attacks in the future.

015 Outcome 6 (1 Wounds and bleeding Any break in the surface of the skin (wound), will not only allow blood and ther fluids to be lost, but allow germs to enter the body. If the wound is minor, the aim of the first aider is to prevent infection. severe wounds may be very daunting to deal with but the aim is to prevent further blood loss and minimise the shock that could result from the bleeding.Some closed wounds such as bruising could indicate an underlying injury and first aiders need to be aware of the cause of injury as this may alert you to a more serious condition, such as internal bleeding. Any open wound is at risk of becoming infected, it is important to maintain good hygiene procedures to guard gainst prevent cross infection between yourself and the casualty. Minor cuts, scratches and grazes Wash and dry your own hands.

Cover any cuts on your own hands and put on disposable gloves. Clean the cut, if dirty, under running water. Pat dry with a sterile dressing or clean lint- free material.If possible, raise affected area above the heart. Cover the cut temporarily while you clean the surrounding skin with soap and water and pat the surrounding skin dry.

Cover the cut completely with a sterile dressing or plaster. Severe bleeding Put on disposable gloves. Apply direct pressure to the wound with a pad (e. g. clean cloth) or fingers until a sterile dressing is available. Raise and support the injured limb. Take particular care if you suspect a bone has been broken. Lay the casualty down to treat for shock.

Bandage the pad or dressing firmly to control bleeding, but not so tightly that it stops the circulation to fingers or toes.If bleeding seeps through first bandage, cover with a second bandage. If bleeding continues to seep through bandage, remove it and reapply. Nosebleeds Bleeding from the nose most commonly occurs when tiny blood vessels inside the nostrils are ruptured, either by a blow to the nose, or as a result of neezing, picking or blowing the nose. Nosebleeds may also occur as a result of high blood pressure. A nosebleed can be dangerous if the casualty loses a lot of blood.

In addition, if bleeding follows a head injury, the blood may appear thin and watery.The latter is a very serious sign because it indicates that the skull is fractured and fluid is leaking from around the brain. Your alms TO control blood loss. To maintain an open airway. Ask the casualty to sit down.

Advise them to tilt their head forwards to allow the blood to drain from the nostrils. Ask the casualty to breathe through their mouth (this will also have a alming effect) and to pinch the soft part of the nose. Reassure and help if necessary.

Tell the casualty to keep pinching their nose. Advise them not to speak, swallow, cough, spit or sniff because this may disturb blood clots that may have formed in the nose.After 10 minutes, tell the casualty to release the pressure. If the bleeding has not stopped, tell them to reapply the pressure for two further periods of 10 minutes. Once the bleeding has stopped and with the casualty still leaning forwards, clean around their nose with lukewarm water. Advise the casualty to rest quietly for a few hours.

Tell them to avoid exertion and in particular, not to blow their nose, because these actions will disturb any clots. Foreign objects in the eye x ref016 outcome 3 ( 1,2) A speck of dust, a loose eyelash, or even a contact lens can float on the white of the eye.Usually, such objects can easily be rinsed off. However you must not touch anything that sticks to the eye, penetrates the eyeball, or rests on the coloured part of the eye (iris and pupil) because this may damage the eye. Instead, make sure the casualty gets medical attention quickly.

Recognition features There may be: Blurred vision. Pain or discomfort. Redness and watering of the eye. Eyelids screwed up in spasm.

Your aim is to prevent injury to the eye. Sit the casualty down facing the light. Stand behind the casualty and gently separate the eyelids with your finger and thumb.Ensure you examine every part of the eye, ask the casualty to look up, down, left and right. If you can see an object on the white of the eye: Wash it out with clean water poured from a glass or a sterile eye-wash bath. Incline the casualtys head towards the injured side and place a towel or pad on the shoulder. Pour the water from the bridge of the nose allowing it to run hrough and flush the eye out.

If this is unsuccessful then lift the object off the white of the eye with a moist swab, the damp corner of a tissue or a clean hanky for example. If this is still unsuccessful then seek medical help.Objects under the upper eyelid: Ask the casualty to pull the upper lid down over the lower lid. The lower lashes may brush the object clear. Caution: Do not touch anything that is sticking to or embedded in the eyeball or the iris, the coloured part of the eye. Place an eye pad over the eye.

Take or send the casualty to hospital. outcome Shock Pale face Cold, clammy skin Fast, shallow breathing Rapid, weak pulse Yawning Sighing In extreme cases, unconscious Treat any possible causes of shock Help them to lie down Raise and support their legs Loosen tight clothing Keep them warm.Call 999/112 for emergency help. Anaphylactic shock A severe allergic reaction will affect the whole body, in susceptible individuals it may develop within seconds or minutes of contact with the trigger factor and is potentially fatal. Possible triggers can include skin or airborne contact with particular materials, the injection of a specific drug, the sting of a certain nsect or the ingestion of a food such as peanuts.

Recognition features Impaired breathing: this may range from a tight chest to severe difficulty There may be a wheeze or gasping for air. Signs of shock. Widespread blotchy skin eruption.

Swelling of the tongue and throat. Puffiness around the eyes. Anxiety.

Your aim is to arrange immediate removal of the casualty to hospital. Dial 999 or 1 12 for an ambulance. Give any information you have on the cause of the casualty’s condition. Check whether the casualty is carrying any necessary medication. If they are, help them to use it. If the casualty is conscious: Help them to sit up in a position that most relieves any breathing difficulty, this is usually sitting up and leaning forward slightly.

If the casualty becomes unconscious: Open the airway and check breathing.Be prepared to give rescue breaths and chest compressions. Place them into the recovery position if the casualty is unconscious but breathing normally. 016 outcome 1 Fractures Swelling unnatural range Of movement Immobility Grating noise or feeling Deformity Loss of strength Twisting Shortening or bending of a limb. Support the injured limb Immobilise the affected part.

Dial 999 or 1 12 for an ambulance Treat for shock Outcome 2 Head injuries All head injuries are potentially serious and require proper assessment because they can result in impaired consciousness.Injuries may be associated with damage to the brain tissue or to blood vessels inside the skull, or with a skull fracture. A head injury may produce concussion, which is a brief period of unconsciousness followed by complete recovery. Some head injuries may produce compression of the brain (cerebral compression), which is life-threatening.

It is therefore important to be able to recognise possible igns of cerebral compression – in particular, a deteriorating level of response. A head wound should alert you to the risk of deeper, underlying damage, such as a skull fracture, which may be serious.Bleeding inside the skull may also occur and lead to compression.

Clear fluid or watery blood leaking from the ear or nose are signs of serious injury. Any casualty with an injury to the head should be assumed to have a neck (spinal) injury as well and be treated accordingly. Spinal Check child is not moved Support the head Check breathing Call 999 016 outcome 4 (1 Meningitis Classic symptoms: headache stiff neck dislike of bright light Other symptoms can include: difficulty supporting own weight feve r vomiting and diarrhoea confusion and drowsiness The symptoms of pneumococcal meningitis are the same as meningococcal meningitis.Meningococcal septicaemia Common symptoms: aching limbs (particularly leg pain) cold hands and feet a rash which starts like pin prick spots and develops rapidly into purple bruising Other symptoms may include: difficulty breathing change in skin colour Do the tumbler test Important: Someone who becomes unwell rapidly should be examined articularly carefully for the meningococcal septicaemia rash. The majority of people (over 50%) with meningococcal septicaemia develop a rash of tiny ‘pink prick’ spots which can rapidly develop into purple bruising.To identify the rash, press a glass tumbler against it and if the rash does not fade, it could be meningococcal septicaemia.

On dark skin, check for the rash on lighter parts of the body, eg. inner eyelids or finger tips. Babies and toddlers In addition to the symptoms mentioned above, other symptoms to look out for in babies include: blotchy skin, quite pale or turning blue ense or bulging soft spot (fontanelle)on the baby’s head poor feeding high pitched cry/irritable (especially when being held) It is particularly hard to tell when babies and toddlers are ill and what their symptoms are.

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