The primary purpose of the impervious central clay core is to minimize water losses through the embankment dam. However, sufficient impervious material is properly available to result in reducing seepage losses through the embankment. Therefore, the number of seepage losses through the foundation and abutments may be more significant than the quantity passing through the central core.
A core material of very low permeability may be required when the reservoir is used for long-time storage and a core material of medium permeability may be utilized when the reservoir is used for flood control. The erosion resistance of core material is important in evaluating piping potential as well as the tensile strength of the core material is important in evaluating the cracking resistance through the core (Hordofa, 2015).