The calculus was the culmination of centuries of

formal study of calculus had begun from the 17th century by well-known mathematicians
and scientists in the world, Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz. The history
itself of the calculus didn’t begin with Newton’s and Leibniz’s findings but
their calculus
was the culmination of centuries of work by other mathematicians and
contributors; it is possible that it has been at use
as early as the Greek era since its elements have appeared in ancient Greece, then in China
and the Middle East, and still later again in medieval Europe and in India. Einstein’s and

Some of the ideas that had led to integral calculus were presented
and introduced in the ancient times. These ideas seemed to be that they were
not developed systematically and rigorously. Though some of the formulas lacked
major concepts and components and were simple to begin with, calculations of
volume and area were introduced and could be found in the Egyptian Moscow
papyrus. From the period
of Greek mathematics, the method of
exhaustion was used by Eudoxus, which foreshadows the concept of the
limit, to calculate areas and volumes, eventually made Archimedes  develop this idea
further, inventing heuristics which resemble the methods of integral
calculus. The method of
exhaustion was then
discovered in China by Liu Hui and Zu Gengzhi independently.

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Pierre de Fermat,
the first credited mathematician because of his discovery of the process and
power rule for differentiation, had made a more logically enough way for
calculating integrals. He was one of the many that had noticed the polar
relationship between derivatives and integrals, but not the importance of this
relationship. By the early seventeenth century, here came the said two well­-known
mathematicians and scientists that made everything in place in calculus.

The controversy in
calculus came up largely due to these men’s publications. While Newton had made
his discoveries and researches, his findings were not published until 1693.
Meanwhile, on the other hand, Leibniz made his discoveries after Newton and his
works were published in 1684 and 1686, before Newton. The mathematical
community discovered the differences between the dates of their discoveries and
their publications, that eventually led them asking their selves if Leibniz
truly stole Newton’s ideas and made them as if those were his own, or if they discovered
it independently.

People from the
two nations where Newton and Leibniz lived in realized that credit for the
discovery of calculus was at stake, and each party wanted their nation to be credited
from this. In 1711, this controversy was brought to court. After countless
feedbacks, reviews, findings, reasoning, and critical judgments, the
mathematical community had now realized that Newton and Leibniz had made their
discoveries independently. After Leibniz’s death, Europe continued to use
Leibniz’s notation and methods that are easy, while on the other hand, England
remained loyal to the complicated methods and notation of Newton. Because of
this, England became far behind the rest of the countries in the entire 18th


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