The first research question attempts to investigate the factors contributing to disaffection and engagement among students during English lesson. Through the online questionnaire, respondents were asked to rate the statements by indicating their level of agreement or disagreement by using five-point Likert scale according to sections: cognitive, behaviour, affective, language activities, and student-teacher relationship. To examine the first research question, descriptive analysis was used to calculate frequency, means, and standard deviations.
From Table 8, the item with highest mean score for cognitive factors is ‘I know that English lesson is useful for the real world’ (M = 4.33, SD = 1.159) with 19 students agree and 92 students strongly disagree. Similarly, the item with second highest mean score (M = 4.10, SD = 1.
- Thesis Statement
- Structure and Outline
- Voice and Grammar
132) is ‘I want to be proficient in English’ with 36 students agree and 66 students strongly agree. For the item ‘I am willing to work hard to be good in English’, 41 students agree or 61 strongly agree with the mean score of 4.08, SD = 1.079. Besides that, about 18 students, disagree or strongly disagree with the item ‘I relate what I learn during English lesson with my own experience’, which imply it as the second lowest mean score (M = 3.82, SD = 1.
190). 17 students disagree and 5 strongly disagree to item ‘I have a clear purpose in learning English’, thus, contributing to lowest mean score (M = 3.73, SD = 1.149). From Table 9, the mean score ranges from 4.33 to 3.73 for the five items in the cognitive factors indicate that students are engaged during English lesson.
These students have goals, willing participation, purpose, and seeking for mastery in learning English. This finding supports the idea of Deci & Ryan (2012) SDT component of competence which refers to students’ need to comprehend their tasks and responsibilities during English lesson. In agreement with research conducted by Walker & Greene (2009), cognitive engagement was predicted by personal achievement goals (mastery and performance approach). Other study also revealed that there is the need for closure and cognitive engagement is partially mediated by mastery goals (Harlow, DeBacker, & Crowson, 2011).?From Table 9, 54 students agree and 54 strongly agree to the item ‘I am very interested in learning English’ which contribute to highest mean score (M = 4.01, SD = 1.
054) affective factors. Likewise, 51 students agree and 46 students strongly agree towards the item ‘I enjoy learning new things during English lesson’, indicating it as the second highest mean score (M = 3.96, SD = 1.
085). For item ‘I am happy during English lesson’, 32 students agree and 56 students strongly agree with mean score 3.73, SD = 1.038.
Besides that, 9 students, disagree and 7 students strongly disagree concerning to item I feel enthusiastic during English lesson, which imply it as the second lowest mean score (M = 3.63, SD = 1.111). Nevertheless, about 9 students disagree and 13 strongly disagree for item I feel satisfied what I learn during English lesson, thus, contributing to lowest mean score (M = 3.61, SD = 1.
246). From Table 9, the mean score ranges from 4.01 to 3.61 for the five items in the affective factors indicates students are engaged during English lesson. The findings suggest that students felt interested, enthusiastic, joy in learning new things and satisfied of what they learn during English lesson. The results also coherent with a study conducted by López & Aguilar (2012) which found that emotional experiences had a significant influence on students’ engagement in language learning.
This finding supports the Wigfield & Cambria’s (2010) notion on having well-developed interest will encourage students to regulate their engagement in learning activities. Thus, students’ affective engagement during English is heavily directed by interest, mood and feelings.