The incident of its kind. Other incidents

The military wants favourable coverageof the several military operationsundertaken in parts of KhyberPakhtunkhwa and Fata, but reporters havedifficulties dealing with theiruniformed hosts.

Gen Pervez Kayani’s visit to Swatsome time ago highlights the issue. Localjournalists were informed about thevisit on May 22, and they rushed to Bari Kotwhere the army chief was inaugurating abridge on the River Swat.What followed, however, was irritating.Only 10 journalists were allowed to attendthe high-profile event, which the restfound unacceptable. Eventually, journalistsleft the venue, leaving their cameramento cover the event.

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The token strikecontinued for a couple of weeks untilan ISPR official regretted the incident.This was not the only incident of itskind. Other incidents have ended in violence.Last September, some army personnelallegedly thrashed a private televisionchannel’s reporter as a result ofwhich he ended up in hospital with head injuries.This was followed by a three-monthboycott by journalists, which ended after anarmy official visited the local pressclub to mend fences.Traditional interventions such as theseas may work, but the security forces haveyet to learn how to handle journalistsprofessionally and responsibly. As a Swatjournalist told this writer withreference to one event, “Journalists were issuedspecial passes only after repeatedrequests, and I felt quite embarrassed when asoldier at a check point threw away mypass and told me to go back.”By and large, militaries feel ill atease when media personnel are around.

Duringthe Iraq war, the US military embeddedjournalists in tactical units; theexperiment was considered a success.Articles 2 .Since Pakistan has been indulged in warfor past 10 years, it created a space fora very significant debate in many areasof Pakistan on requirement for the construction ofcounter-extremist narrative. Apart fromgiving credit to the people involved in the process,one must understand and know theper-requiste for the success of this process . There are alot of questions that could be askedand the process but most importantly it must beinvestigated that whether the NGOs.could create such a discourse which could inculcatethese narratives among the masseswithout the help of the state.1. It is known all over the world thatproper policies are required in order to make animpact on individuals or groups toempower them or suppress them and thereschemes creates narratives forindividuals or groups in that society that later moveon.

In order to create a basic orwell-established information among the masses, it ismore effective to use institutionswhich would construct knowledge and give propertools to spread information which wouldhelp in building a proper narrative. Forpast many years, different states havecreated and found ways to create dominantinstitutions with greater capacity andmonopolized their knowledge to spreadorganized and self-interestedinformation to carry out their motives.As a student of History, one canspeculate and analyze the pre-dominant narrativescreated in Pakistan right after it’screation. To get political legitimacy, defining anationhood and concentration ofresources, the political leaders created ahomogeneous religious narrative amongthe masses, which homogenized theinterpretation of Islam, making it morerigid. This not only initiated objectificationof women, suppression of minorities,marginalization of religious groups but alsogive legitimacy to the people in thepower.

Nationalization was another narrativecreated right after creation which is still themain seed of our roots. A specificinterpretation of nationhood has been enforced onthe masses which was inclined moretowards the terrritorial integrity, power politics,concentration of power and security dialemma that further gave space to the lawsthat exempted the social, cultutral,historical identities but gave a single nationalisticidentity which was created bymanipulatory the history, created a single isolatedworldview and developed eliotoligarchy. Suppression of political movement,Vacuming the voices of the minoritiesand pushing of democratic process under theblanket was justified through thenarrative.It is very easy for a reasonable personto observe, print out and understand theimpact of these narratives on thebehaviour of the society, media and mostimportantly on the state policies. Allthese narratives are easily permeated throughthe use of media.

In mass communication studies we findthis concept of media framing in well-established form. Media has always beenplaying the most important in constructinga specific public opinion and this facthas been proved in many researches said byHerman and Chomsky in their books inLippmann, West and Turner. In years of research regarding mediasignificantly very little focus has beengiven on framing of news and mostimportantly the political consequences of thisframing.The political stakeholders likepoliticians, political parties etcplay pivotal role in representativedemocracy through maintaining linkbetween people and those havingpolitical powers. In this way,establishment of political powerstructure and various interests ofcitizens are balanced. Formation ofpublic opinion and mobilization arecaused due to involvement of media,political institutions and othernetworks.


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