THE IMPORTANCE OF VERBAL COMMUNICATION IN ADVERTISING A project work submitted in partial fulfilment of the choice based General English Programme

THE IMPORTANCE OF VERBAL COMMUNICATION IN
ADVERTISING

A project work submitted in partial fulfilment of the choice based General English Programme,

17UEL3GE03 EXECUTIVE COMMUNICATION

S. ARAVIND VIKRAM
17-UCO-567

Project guide :
Dr.S.Arockia Anto Anita , M.A.M.Phil.,Ph.D.,M.A.(MC&JR)

DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH
LOYOLA COLLEGE (AUTONOMOUS)
CHENNAI – 600034

Dr.S.Arockia Anto Anita , M.A.M.Phil.,Ph.D.,M.A.(MC&JR)

Loyola College (Autonomous)
Chennai – 600034

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the project titled “The importance of Verbal Communication in Advertising’ is a bonafide work of Mr. S. Aravind Vikram, 17-UCO-567 of Commerce Department, Loyola College (Autonomous), Chennai – 34, during the period of his study in the Academic year 2018-2019.

Project Guide’s Signature,

_____________________

DECLARATION

I solemnly declare that this project titled ‘The importance of Verbal Communication in Advertising’ is an original work of mine and does not form part of any previous Certificate/Diploma/Degree.

PLACE _________ SIGNATURE ____________
DATE _________ NAME _________________

CONTENTS

No. Title Page No.
Chapter 1 Introduction 5
Chapter 2 Definitions, Importance 5-9
Chapter 3 Objectives 10- 22
Chapter 4 Dagmar Approach 22-30
Chapter 5 Conclusion 30

Advertising is a means of communication with the users of a product or service. Advertisements are messages paid for by those who send them and are intended to inform or influence people who receive them, as defined by the Advertising Association of the UK.
Advertising is always present, though people may not be aware of it. In today’s world, advertising uses every possible media to get its message through. It does this via television, print (newspapers, magazines, journals etc), radio, press, internet, direct selling, hoardings, mailers, contests, sponsorships, posters, clothes, events, colours, sounds, visuals and even people (endorsements).

The advertising industry is made of companies that advertise, agencies that create the advertisements, media that carries the ads, and a host of people like copy editors, visualizers, brand managers, researchers, creative heads and designers who take it the last mile to the customer or receiver. A company that needs to advertise itself and/or its products hires an advertising agency. The company briefs the agency on the brand, its imagery, the ideals and values behind it, the target segments and so on. The agencies convert the ideas and concepts to create the visuals, text, layouts and themes to communicate with the user. After approval from the client, the ads go on air, as per the bookings done by the agency’s media buying unit.

Definitions of Advertising:
1. We can define term ‘advertising’ as:
Advertising is a paid form of mass communication that consists of the special message sent by the specific person (advertiser or company), for the specific group of people (listeners, readers, or viewers), for the specific period, in the specific manner to achieve the specific goals.
2. More clearly, advertising can be defined as:
Advertising includes oral, written, or audio-visual message addressed to the people for informing and influencing them to buy the products or to act favourably toward idea or institution.
3. Philip Kotler:
“Advertising is any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of goods, services, or ideas by an identified sponsor.”
4. Frank Presbrey:
“Advertising is a printed, written, oral and illustrated art of selling. Its objective is to encourage sales of the advertiser’s products and to create in the mind of people, individually or collectively, an impression in favour of the advertiser’s interest.”
5. William Stanton:
“Advertising consists of all activities involved in presenting to a group a non-personal, oral or visual, openly sponsored identified message regarding a product, service, or idea. The message, called an advertisement, is disseminated through one or more media and is paid for by the identified sponsor.”

Importance
Without perception in advertising, businesses may find it harder to make their products appeal to consumers. Advertising often works by appealing to consumer tastes, desires, fantasies and wants. Perception can be an important tool in advertising to make consumers feel like they can be a certain person, look a certain way or feel a certain feeling when using a specific product. For example, a beer commercial set on a sunny, tropical beach may make you feel that you can relax and unwind if you drink the beer.

Exposure
One major element of consumer perception related to advertising is exposure. Exposure consists of how often consumers are exposed to a product. Perception is often based on how “exposed” people are to the ads around them. For example, if you aren’t shopping for a home, you may not notice home ads on television, billboards and in magazines. On the other hand, if you are actively searching for a home, you may “tune in” more when you see home ads. This affects whether the ad in question will receive your attention and allows the next step of perception to take place.
Perception
Advertising is an important way for a company or organization to get the word out about a product or service and grow a customer base, which usually translates to increased sales and higher profits. The psychology of advertising includes many different elements such as visual appeal and message, but one of the major factors to keep in mind while creating an advertisement is perception.

Perception in advertising relates to a consumer’s impression of a product or service that may not be rooted in truth. For example, a soda commercial using a thin movie star drinking the product may skew consumer perception of the brand and what they may look like after drinking it. This perception through advertising works to encourage more demand for the product. Unlike a product’s true characteristics, that may be defined by research and statistics, the perception of a product can be impressionable and more ephemeral.
Ways to Alter Perception
There are certain ways you can go about altering your consumers’ perception of your product. You could appeal to your base’s emotional perceptions of a product by incorporating symbols or story lines into your ads that touch on specific emotions. For example, if you own an instant pasta company, your ad may revolve around a mother cooking the pasta for her kids, which may encourage your customers to perceive that your product is as good as a home-cooked meal. Another way to alter consumer perception is by using the bandwagon approach, which involves making customers feel they are “missing out” on something or not part of the group if they don’t use your product.
Companies have a lot of objectives when investing in advertising. Each one typically relates to the company’s stage of business or product evolution and its current position in the marketplace. The key for your business is to pick a specific, quantified and measurable goal that aligns with your business and marketing objectives.
Awareness
Building brand awareness is a common starting point when a new business enters the market or when a business launches a new brand or product. Before you can move on to more distinct objectives, your target market must first recognize that you exist. Established companies routinely use advertising to maintain brand awareness and achieve top-of-mind awareness, which means customers think of you first within your product category. The Super Bowl is loaded with commercials from companies like Coca-Cola, Budweiser and E-Trade, fighting for top-of-mind recognition.
Persuasion
Once customers are aware of your brand, the next step is to persuade them of the values of your products or services relative to the competition. This may include instilling positive beliefs about your product quality or unique attributes, service capabilities, wholesome values or low cost. For established companies who have experienced negative publicity or misconceptions, this objective is used to change consumer attitudes from negative to positive. Microsoft focused heavily on changing attitudes followings its rampant state-based anti-trust lawsuits in the early 21st century.
Purchase Objectives
Several objectives that relate to driving purchase intent are common as well. The most straightforward is simply to motivate core consumers in your target market that they need to buy your product for emotional or functional reasons. Getting customers to try your brand through a free promotion, trial offer or related inducement is a goal for companies trying to increase market share. Once you get a customer to try, a follow-up objective is to convert him to a repeat purchaser. Coupons for a discount in the next purchase are a common strategy toward that end. A final, major purchase-related objective is to get customers to switch from a competing brand to yours. This is a challenging goal, but it is very common in highly competitive industries. The “Pepsi Taste Challenge,” used for research and commercials by Pepsi soft drink since 1976, has a primary aim of getting Coke drinkers to switch brands.
Sales Growth
All the aforesaid objectives are generally known as communication goals. Their overriding aim is to build your brand, market share and profits over time. Sales objectives are distinct and have a much more short-term orientation. Promotions, such as coupons, discounts, buy-one-get-one free and rebates are examples of advertising tactics contributing to sales objectives. The purpose of sales goals is to drive revenue or generate cash flow in the near-term.
11 Objectives of Advertising:
1) Introduce a product
The most common reason Advertising is used is to introduce a new product in the market. This can be done by existing brands as well as new brands. Have a look at the latest iPhone in the market or a Samsung smartphone and you will find a lot of advertisement for these new products. The objective of advertising here is to tell customers – “Here is the new product we have launched”.
2) Introduce a brand
There are many start-up’s in the market today and many of them are services. Services are generally marketed as a brand rather than marketing their individual service product. Thus, Uber will market its own brand and introduce that Uber has started servicing customers in a new market. Same goes for Oracle or Accenture – Companies which market their brand and their presence in the market rather than marketing an individual product.
3) Awareness creation
According to the (Attention, Interest, Desire, Action) AIDA model, the most important job of advertising is to get attention which is nothing but Awareness creation. Advertising needs to capture the attention of people and make them aware of the products or their features in the market.
Example – Most of the Bank ads that you see are awareness campaigns. The ads that advertise the benefits of savings / mutual funds or benefits on credit and debit cards are all awareness creation ads.
4) Acquiring customers or Brand switching
One of the major objectives of advertising and the first objective of many advertising campaigns is to acquire more customers. This is also known as making the customers switch brands. This can happen by passing on a strong message so that the potential customer leaves the brand which he is tied up with and comes to your brand.
Example – Most telecom companies launch plans and strategies just to acquire customers and then advertise these strategies in the market so that the customer switches brands. There is hardly any differentiation in the telecom market – thus advertising is a major way to acquire customers. The Vodafone Zoo zoo campaign was just that – Influence the customers and create passion in such a way that they do brand switching.
5) Differentiation and value creation
The most important aspect of Advertising is to differentiate the product or the service from those of the competitor. A customer can only differentiate between services based on the value the firms provides over that of competitors.
If a competitor is just advertising the features, whereas your firm advertises the promises and commitments that it will keep, naturally more customers will “trust” your brand over others. This is the reason that advertising is used commonly to create value and to differentiate one brand from another.
Coca cola, Toyota, Amazon are some of the most trusted brands in the market. It is no doubt that these brands are also amongst the top advertisers in their respective segments. These brands target value creation as well as differentiation via their advertising campaigns.

6) Brand building
When a brand regularly advertises and delivers quality products and fulfils the promises it makes, automatically the value of the brand is built. However, there are many other aspects of brand building. One of the first ones is to advertise via ATL and BTL campaigns etc.
Brands have different objectives of Advertising. Brands like P&G and HUL regularly invest funds in building a good brand value for the parent brand. By doing so, even if one brand is affected, the parent brand is untouchable.
Recently we observed the problems of Maggi in India where Maggi was banned completely due to high lead content. However, this did not affect the parent brand Nestle much and neither affected its other brands like Nescafe which had done their own brand building and were independent of the parent brand. This brand was built by good products and constant advertising towards building brand equity and making a connect with the audience.
7) Positioning the product – Product and brand recall
One of the key factors in the actual purchase of a product is the products recall and the brand recall at the time of purchase. Amongst the objectives of advertising, one objective is to correctly position the brand in the minds of the customer.
Examples include premium brands like Ralph Lauren, Gucci, Hermes or others which are clearly positioned premium. This position is achieved by first having a very premium product line which is high priced, but it is also achieved by buying premium advertising and placing the ads in media vehicles which are very premium.
Besides premium marketing, we can also look at niche marketing. Kent is a company which has focused all its advertising on its purification capability. They claim they are the Master of Water purifiers. Their repeated advertising creates a high product and brand recall in the minds of the customers thereby positioning them as the top purchased brand in the water purifier segment.

8) Increase sales
Naturally, with so many steps being taken to advertise the product, it is no doubt that one of the objectives of advertising is to increase sales. Many a times this objective is achieved via advertising. However, if the campaign is improper or the audience is not targeted properly, then advertising can fail in its objective.
Nonetheless, there are many seasonal products wherein an immediate increase in sale is observed due to advertising. The best example is Ice cream brands which advertise heavily during the summer months because they know that advertising will immediately influence the sales figures. They do not waste money in advertising during the winter season at all.
Similarly, you will see many ads of raincoats during rainy season and ads of winter wear during winter seasons. All these ads are placed to increase the sale of the product immediately.

9) Increase profits
With the value being communicated and the brand being differentiated as well as sales being increased, there is no doubt that advertising can contribute a lot to increasing profits. Advertising should never be looked at as an expense or a liability. In fact, it is an investment for a firm just like a brand is an investment.
Look at the likes of Siemens or Bosch – Brands which have invested heavily in positioning themselves based on their German engineering. As a result, today they demand high profits in whatever segments they operate in or whatever products they sell.
10) Create Desire
Again, referring to the AIDA model, one of the key factors in advertising is to create a desire for the product so that the customer wants the product. Brands which are known to do this are BMW, Audi, Harley Davidson, Adidas and others. These brands are Master of Advertising where they create so much desire for the product that the customer absolutely wants a product even if he doesn’t need it.
There are many stories of Harley Davidson as a brand wherein customers have saved money for years to buy a bike of Harley Davidson. Same stories can be heard about an Audi or a BMW. A unique example in this case are the bottles of Absolut Vodka. Absolut Vodka is so famous for its bottles that there are collectors who desire to collect all different bottle types of Absolut Vodka. Such desire creation is an effect of advertising + brand building + the fan following over time.
11) Call to action
One of the most common objectives of digital advertising and digital marketing is to get a call to action. Brands invest in banner ads, link ads as well as social ads to get their potential customers to take an action. This action can be filling up an Email form, clicking on a link, watching a video, giving a survey or what not.
There are brands which have done ATL (above the line) advertising and shown half the ads and then attracted customers to their YouTube channel so that they could track their viewers and get them to take some action. Call to actions are also one of the objectives of advertising in which case the actions differ from time to time based on what the marketer wants to achieve.
The above are the different types of Objectives of Advertising. Naturally, a firm can have 2-3 objectives for advertising their products or services.
Some of these objectives might be short term like advertising to increase seasonal sales whereas other objectives might be long term like Brand building and increasing profits. Depending on the current standing of the firm in their market, they can choose their advertising objective and come up with an advertising campaign.
“Advertising consists of all activities involved in presenting to a group a non-personal, oral or visual, openly sponsored identified message regarding a product, service, or idea. The message, called an advertisement, is disseminated through one or more media and is paid for by the identified sponsor”-William Stanton.

The world has become a global market. Modern market is more dynamic, competitive, and consumer-oriented. Entire marketing process is aimed at satisfying consumers more effectively than competitors. Consumer satisfaction can be achieved by receiving information from market and sending information to the market.
To inform, attract, and convince the valued customers, a marketer undertakes several promotional means. Advertising is one of the powerful means to inform about company’s total offers. Advertising is a dominant element of market promotion. Many times, the entire promotional efforts are replaced by advertising alone.
Major portion of promotion budget is consumed by advertising alone. Advertising is so powerful and popular that it is taken as equal to marketing!! Mass media are used intensively to advertise various products. Marketing without advertising seems to be impossible. Advertising works like a magic stick to actualize marketing goals!
Advertising provides a direct line of communication to your existing and prospective customers about your product or service. The purpose of advertising is to:
i. Make customers aware of your product or service;
ii. Convince customers that your company’s product or service is right for their needs;
iii. Create a desire for your product or service;
iv. Enhance the image of your company;
v. Announce new products or services;
vi. Reinforce salespeople’s messages;
vii. Make customers take the next step (ask for more information, request a sample, place an order, and so on); and
viii. Draw customers to your business.
Your advertising goals should be established in your business plan. For example, you may want to obtain a certain percentage of growth in sales, generate more inquiries for sales, or build in-store traffic. The desired result can simply be increasing name recognition or modifying the image you’re projecting. Objectives vary depending on the industry and market you’re in.
All products and businesses go through three stages, with different advertising goals for each one.
1. The start-up business. You’re new in the market and need to establish your identity. Your company needs high levels of promotion and publicity to grab consumers’ attention.
2. The growing business. Once your identity is established, you need to differentiate yourself from your competition and convince buyers that yours is the service or product to try.
3. The established business. The purpose at this point is to remind consumers why they should continue buying from you.
No matter which stage your business is in, advertising follows four steps, according to the industry mnemonic, “AIDA: Awareness, Interest, Desire, Action.” Your job is to make prospective customers aware that your product or service exists, pique their interest in what your product or service can do for them, make them want to try your product or service, and finally act, by asking for more information or buying the product.

When developing an advertising campaign, complete the following four-step procedure:
1. Define your market:
Determine who your target market is (those customers most likely to buy your product or service). One magazine that’s fun to read, interesting and helpful in this regard is American Demographics.
2. Establish your budget:
Know what you can afford to spend to reach your target audience.
3. Plan which media you’ll use:
Figure out what are the best ways to reach your prospective customers with your message.

4. Create an advertising strategy:
Choose the most effective message and visuals for your advertising campaign.
Characteristics of Advertising:
Above stated definitions reveal following features:
1. Tool for Market Promotion:
There are various tools used for market communication, such as advertising, sales promotion, personal selling, and publicity. Advertising is a powerful, expensive, and popular element of promotion mix.
2. Non-personal:
Advertising is a type of non-personal or mass communication with the target audience. Many people are addressed at time. It is called as non-personal salesmanship.
3. Paid Form:
Advertising is not free of costs. Advertiser, called as sponsor, must spend money for preparing message, buying media, and monitoring advertising efforts. It is the costliest option of market promotion. Company must prepare its advertising budget to appropriate advertising costs.
4. Wide Applicability:
Advertising is a popular and widely used means for communicating with the target market. It is not used only for business and profession, but is widely used by museums, charitable trusts, government agencies, educational institutions, and others to inform and attract various target publics.

5. Varied Objectives:
Advertising is aimed at achieving various objectives. It is targeted to increase sales, create and improve brand image, face competition, build relations with publics, or to educate people.
6. Forms of Advertising:
Advertising message can be expressed in written, oral, audible, or visual forms. Mostly, message is expressed in a joint form, such as oral-visual, audio-visual, etc.
7. Use of Media:
Advertiser can use any of the several advertising media to convey the message. Widely used media are print media (newspapers, magazines, pamphlets, booklets, letters, etc.), outdoor media (hoardings, sign boards, wall-printing, vehicle, banners, etc.), audio-visual media (radio, television, film, Internet, etc.), or any other to address the target audience.
8. Advertising as an Art:
Today’s advertising task is much complicated. Message creation and presentation require a good deal of knowledge, creativity, skills, and experience. So, advertising can be said as an art. It is an artful activity.
9. Element of Truth:
It is difficult to say that advertising message always reveals the truth. In many cases, exaggerated facts are advertised. However, due to certain legal provisions, the element of truth can be assured. But, there is no guarantee that the claim made in advertisement is completely true. Most advertisements are erotic, materialistic, misleading, and producer-cantered.
10. One-way Communication:
Advertising involves the one-way communication. Message moves from company to customers, from sponsor to audience. Message from consumers to marketer is not possible. Marketer cannot know how far the advertisement has influenced the audience.

Key Decisions in Advertising:
Advertising is one of – but popular and powerful – tools of market promotion. It involves a several decisions.
Some experts explain advertising decisions and activities in form of six ‘M’s as under:
1. The first ‘M’ stands for Mission – Advertising Objectives.
2. The second ‘M stands for Money – Advertising Budget.
3. The third ‘M’ stands for Message – Creating Advertising Message and Copy.
4. The forth ‘M’ stands for Monitoring – Managing (organising) of Advertising Efforts.
5. The fifth ‘M’ stands for Media – Advertising Media Selection and Media Scheduling.
6. The sixth ‘M’ stands for Measurement – Measuring and Evaluating Advertising Effectiveness (MEAE).
However, most of experts agree that advertising consists of mainly eight decisions as shown in figure 1. Manager concerns with taking decisions on these areas of advertising.
DAGMAR Approach: Definition, Advantages, Examples
DAGMAR is a marketing expression that stands for “Defining Advertising Goals for Measured Advertising Results”. It is a marketing tool to compute the results of an advertising campaign. DAGMAR attempts to guide customers through ACCA model. According to this approach, every purchase encounter four steps; Awareness, Comprehension, Conviction, and Action. DAGMAR method is an established technique of creating effective advertising.
HISTORY
DAGMAR is an advertising model proposed by Russell Colley in 1961. Russell Colley advocated that effective advertising seeks to communicate rather than to sell. Advertisers discover whether their message conveyed enough information and understanding of a product to their consumers and its respective benefits from clear objectives.
The Dagmar Model
1. Awareness
Awareness of the existence of a product or a service is needful before the purchase behaviour is expected. The fundamental task of advertising activity is to improve the consumer awareness of the product.
Once the consumer awareness has been provided to the target audience, it should not be forsaken. The target audience tends to get distracted by other competing messages if they are ignored.
Awareness must be created, developed, refined and maintained according to the characteristics of the market and the scenario of the organization at any given point of time.
The objective is to create awareness about the product amongst the target audience.
2. Comprehension
Awareness on its own is not enough to stimulate a purchase. Information and understanding about the product and the organisation are essential. This can be achieved by providing information about the brand features.
Example: To persuade people to budge for a new toothpaste brand, it may be necessary to compare the product with other toothpaste brands, and provide an additional usage benefit, such as more effective than other toothpaste because it contains salt or that this toothpaste is a vegetarian toothpaste, which will, in turn, attract more customers.
The objective is to provide all the information about the product.
3. Conviction
Conviction is the next step where the customer evaluates different products and plans to buy the product. At this stage, a sense of conviction is established, and by creating interests and preferences, customers are convinced that a certain product should be tried at the next purchase.
At this step, the job of the advertising activity is to mould the audience’s beliefs and persuade them to buy it. This is often achieved through messages that convey the superiority of the products over the others by flaunting the rewards or incentives for using the product.
Example: Thumbs up featured the incentive of social acceptance as “grown up”. It implied that those who preferred other soft drinks were kids.
The objective is to create a positive mental disposition to buy a product.
4. Action
This is the final step which involves the final purchase of the product. The objective is to motivate the customer to buy the product.
Advantages of DAGMAR Approach:
A major contribution of Colley’s DAGMAR approach was a specification of what constitutes a good objective.
According to Russell Colley, there are various advantages of well-founded objectives. These are:
? Be concrete and measurable
? Have a well-defined target audience or market
? Identify the benchmark and the degree of change
? Specify a time frame to accomplish the objective
TARGET AUDIENCE
DAGMAR claims the target audience is well defined. A group of potential customers, who have the highest likelihood of purchasing the product, is the target market. Identifying the target market includes the process of demographic, geographic, and psychological segmentation. Target markets can be segmented into Primary and secondary groups.
Primary markets are the main target audience, on whom the marketing efforts are mainly focused.
Secondary markets are the target audience on whom the marketing efforts will focus after the primary market goals are achieved. After identifying the target audience, the organization devises objectives for advertising and later the objectives for communication.
CONCRETE AND MEASURABLE
The objective of communication should be a precise and clear statement of whatever message the advertiser wants to communicate to the target audience. The specification must include all the details and descriptions of the measurement procedure.
SPECIFIED TIMEFRAME AND BENCHMARKS
A good objective has a specified time frame, during which the objective is to be achieved. Understanding the specifications enables advertisers to define goals that will yield the best result.
Setting a specific timeframe assures effective evaluation of results. The timeframe should be realistic to prohibit skewed results from static marketing.
Creating the benchmark is essential for an appropriate measurement of the effectiveness of the advertisement.
WRITTEN GOAL
The goal should be committed on a paper. When the goals are clearly written, basic shortfalls and flaws are exposed, it becomes eventually easy to determine whether the goal contains the crucial aspects of the DAGMAR approach.
OBJECTIVES OF DAGMAR APPROACH
? Persuade a prospect to visit the showroom.
? Growth in market share.
? Improve sales turnover.
? Perform complete selling function.
? Advertise a special reason to buy.
? Stimulate impulse sales.
? Remind people to buy.
? Create awareness about the product and brand existence.
? Create favourable emotional disposition towards the product.
? Impart information regarding benefits and distinctive features of the product.
? Combat and offset competitive claims.
? Correct false impressions, wrong information and other hindrances to sales.
? Aid sales force with sales promotion and selling activities and boost their morale.
? Establish brand recognition and acceptance.
EXAMPLE OF DAGMAR APPROACH
Let’s suppose that an ABC company wants to evaluate the effectiveness of marketing campaign for its latest product launched. The company starts evaluating the commercial that is designed to persuade potential consumers through the four stages of the buying process:
1st. In the AWARENESS stage, company ABC spreads awareness among the consumers about its new product launched in the market.
2nd. In the COMPREHENSION stage, company ABC portrays to its consumers the features and distinctiveness of the new product and reminds the consumers of the company ABC’s logo and brand name.
3rd. In the CONVICTION stage, company ABC attaches the consumer emotionally to the new product so that the consumer establishes an emotional preference for the company ABC’s brand.
4th. In the ACTION stage, company ABC makes sales.
Company ABC then evaluates the success of the marketing effort using DAGMAR. The company measures that how fast the customer processed through the four stages of the purchase and how many sales were generated. In cases where the customer is distracted and deviated from buying the product, and the company doesn’t meet sales goals, the company needs to change its ad campaign.
Advertising is strongly associated with economic cycles across major world economies. The DAGMAR method is a long-established method of creating effective advertising. The idea behind the method is to “communicate rather than sell”.
Advertising Objectives:
Introduction:
Advertising is aimed at achieving various objectives. Objectives may be commercial or social in nature. Prof. Kelly gave the concept of DAG MAR – Defining Advertising Goals for Measuring Advertising Results – in relation to advertising objectives. Broadly, advertising objectives can be categorized into three classes, such as informative objectives, persuasive objectives, and reminder objectives.
Prof. Sew and Prof. Smith have classified objectives as:
? Sales objectives
? Aiding sales force
? Competition-related objectives
? Brand loyalty and reputation-related objectives
However, we will consider the following major objectives:
To Inform Buyers:
This objective includes informing customers regarding product’s availability, price, features, qualities, services, and performance. Besides, it also includes informing them about changes made in the existing product and introduction of new products. Company also highlights its location, achievements, policies, and performance through advertising.
To Persuade or Convince Buyers:
Company uses advertisement to persuade or convince the buyers about superior advantages offered by its product. Company communicates competitive advantages the product offers to induce customers buy it. Comparative advertising is used to prove the additional benefits of product at a given price.
To Remind Buyers:
Marketer uses advertising to remind the buyers regarding existence of company, products, maintenance of quality, superior services, and chasing customer-orientation. Mostly, the existing firms aim their advertising for this objective.
Here, the purpose is to inform that the company is still in existence and serving customers in a better way. Due to huge information bombarded by several companies, customers are more likely to forget name of company and/or products and services it offers.
To Face Competition:
Advertising is treated as the most powerful weapon to fight with competitors effectively. Advertising enables the firm to respond the competitors strongly. It helps the firm to distinguish its total offerings from competitors.
In brief, the firm can face competition, can prevent the entry of competitors, or can remove competitors away from the market. In competitive marketing environment, the firm cannot survive without an effective advertisement.
To Achieve Sales Targets:
Increase sales volume is one of the major advertising objectives. A company can advertise its products in various media to attract customers situated in different parts of the world. National and international marketing is the result of advertising. Even, non-users can be converted into users and usage rate can be increased. Thus, company can achieve its sales objectives by advertisement.
To Build and Improve Brand Image:
Advertising is used for brand recognition and acceptance. A company can distinguish its brand by magnifying major benefits the product offers. Advertisement attracts customers toward the brand; they try it and accept it over time. In the same way, bad image related to brand can be changed by systematic presentation of facts and scientific evidences and removing misunderstanding.
To Help or Educate People:
Advertising is not always used only for company’s benefits. It is meant for helping customers to make the right choice of product. It educates people about availability of new products, its features and qualities, price, services, and other related aspects. Such information is instrumental for purchasing suitable products. Thus, it guides customers to choose the most appropriate product.
To Build Company’s Image and Reputation:
A company opts for advertisement to build prestige and reputation in the market. Most of the companies, though they are satisfied with the volume of sales, go for advertising to acquire fame in the market. Many companies advertise its policies, activities, and achievements to make a permanent place in the mind of people.
To Assist Sales Force and Middlemen:
Advertising is an aid to middlemen and salesmen. Advertising also popularizes the name of dealers. Likewise, advertising provides necessary information to the buyers. Middlemen and salesmen are not required to do the same. It eases the task of sellers. In the same way, advertising encourages sales force.
There are certain minor objectives of advertising, such as:
? To promote new products.
? To build long-term relations.
? To remove misunderstanding.
? To expand of market.
? To gain confidence of buyers.
? To request customers to compromise with unavoidable circumstances.
? To seek apology of the buyers for any undesirable events, etc.
Company must select one or more objectives based on its situations. It should be clarified that the list is not exhaustive. New advertising objectives may emerge as per change in situations. However, the main objective of advertising is to increase sales and earn profits. Company must define it advertising objectives clearly and precisely.

The following are the steps involved in the process of advertising:
Step 1 – Briefing: the advertiser needs to brief about the product or the service which must be advertised and doing the SWOT analysis of the company and the product.
Step 2 – Knowing the Objective: one should first know the objective or the purpose of advertising. i.e. what message is to be delivered to the audience?
Step 3 – Research: this step involves finding out the market behaviour, knowing the competitors, what type of advertising they are using, what is the response of the consumers, availability of the resources needed in the process, etc.
Step 4 – Target Audience: the next step is to identify the target consumers most likely to buy the product. The target should be appropriately identified without any confusion. For e.g. if the product is a health drink for growing kids, then the target customers will be the parents who are going to buy it and not the kids who are going to drink it.
Step 5 – Media Selection: now that the target audience is identified, one should select an appropriate media for advertising so that the customers who are to be informed about the product and are willing to buy are successfully reached.
Step 6 – Setting the Budget: then the advertising budget must be planned so that there is no short of funds or excess of funds during the process of advertising and there are no losses to the company.
Step 7 – Designing and Creating the Ad: first the design that is the outline of ad on papers is made by the copywriters of the agency, then the actual creation of ad is done with help of the art directors and the creative personnel of the agency.
Step 8 – Perfection: then the created ad is re-examined, and the ad is redefined to make it perfect to enter the market.
Step 9 – Place and Time of Ad: the next step is to decide where and when the ad will be shown.
The place will be decided according to the target customers where the ad is most visible clearly to them. The finalization of time on which the ad will be telecasted or shown on the selected media will be done by the traffic department of the agency.
Step 10 – Execution: finally, the advertise is released with perfect creation, perfect placement and perfect timing in the market.
Step 11 – Performance: the last step is to judge the performance of the ad in terms of the response from the customers, whether they are satisfied with the ad and the product, did the ad reached all the targeted people, was the advertise capable enough to compete with the other players, etc. Every point is studied properly, and changes are made, if any.

Conclusion: Although advertising has some disadvantages, the role of advertising in promotion and launch of a product is immense. Today, Indian advertising industry is preparing itself to welcome the new 21st century. With its vast potentials on one hand and self regulation on the other, it is going to flourish in a big way. It will be welcomed as a profession with its impact on Indian cultures and subcultures. Advertising is a rich source of revenues for the government and this milking cow should not be made to starve. It should be granted special tax concessions for its self-growth and the growth of this creative advertising industry. At the same time, the Indian advertising industry should struggle hard to keep up its image through self-regulation than governmental intervention.

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