“The impact of entrepreneurship on entrepreneurial intentions”(Focusing on education sector)Base Paper Name:”A study on effect of entrepreneurship on entrepreneurial intension”(Focusing on ICT majors)Contribution:My contribution in this study is contextual base.Finalize Model:4762533020EntrepreneurshipInnovativenessRisk-TakingPro-Activeness00EntrepreneurshipInnovativenessRisk-TakingPro-Activeness18192751695450045529502730500046577259525Entrepreneurial intension00Entrepreneurial intension66675137160Leadership00Leadership19977101206500left294005Network00Network Independent Variables Dependent VariableGap:Many of the young graduates in Pakistan have variety of novel ideas in different fields. So the government of Pakistan enhance competitiveness of start-ups by promoting an appropriate start-up ecosystem to create more jobs.
The government of Pakistan also need to make effort basing on education sector, to expand the employment and also the number of young entrepreneur who have a proper entrepreneurship or a challenging spirit to contribute the national economy. So this study is conducted to determine what factors of entrepreneurship promote the entrepreneurial intension among education sector in Pakistan. Chapter 1:INTRODUCTION:Punch line:Innovative entrepreneurs are deliberately cultivated based on the saying, “entrepreneurs are not born but are trained through education” (Park, 2010).Background of the study:The complex phenomenon of entrepreneurship is generally considered relevant to the endogenous factors. The first concern the existing market structure, which incubates entrepreneurial opportunities, while the latter relates to the traits human potential that usually act in entrepreneurial way. (Shane and Venkataraman, 2000). Entrepreneurship education has grown rapidly in the recent decades with a variety of course offered throughout the world and across disciplines.
- Thesis Statement
- Structure and Outline
- Voice and Grammar
(Katz, 2003; Kuratko, 2005).According to the (McGrath and MacMillan, 2000) for various government agencies, entrepreneurship education aims to foster entrepreneurship mentality to induce an increase in start-ups. Entrepreneurial intent is an antecedent process of entrepreneurial action that involves recognizing opportunities, seeking information, seeking resources, and establishing business strategies (Boyd and Vozikis, 1994; Krueger and Carsrud, 1993; Lee et al., 2011).Entrepreneurial activities not only promote technological innovation but also provide employment opportunities and enhance competitiveness (Zahra, 1999; Thurik and Wennekers, 2004).Entrepreneurial education aims to provide students with knowledge skills and motivation to encourage entrepreneurial success in a verity of context. People who are concerned about continuing education in management and entrepreneurship education are more innovative. In addition, indirectly, through the relationship between innovation and success, entrepreneurship-specific education contributes to better business outcomes.
However, having high levels of formal education makes entrepreneurs less compliant with respect to innovation activity. The existence of a direct effect of innovative behavior on the success of the company is confirmed.Because of the diversity of entrepreneurial opportunities, individuals perceive certain types of firms to be more attractive than others (Baron, 2006) because of value preferences (Schwartz, 1992). Many existing studies have found that entrepreneurship education contributes to entrepreneurial behavior. For example, Farahshah (2013) indicated people who took an entrepreneurship course would likely have a higher entrepreneurial intention.
There are different dimension of entrepreneurial orientation (innovativeness , proactivity, competitive aggression) are used to determine levels of entrepreneurship in an organization (Dess et a, 1996) innovation refers to the tendency of the company to create and experiment with new ideas that could lead to new product and processes something. Risk taking is the extent to which a person or a company is willing to commit to making significant resource commitments or a change of action. Proactivity is determined the ability of a group to anticipate future goals or need to act accordingly.Lumpkin and Dess created the five dimensions of Entrepreneurial orientation to help determine levels of entrepreneurship within organizations, which would then help determine their market performance. Leadership can be understood in a verity of ways; as a trait, as a behavioral practice, or as a skill that can be learned and developed through experience and learning (Fayolle 2005, Kuratko 2005)Entrepreneurship programs can improve leadership skill through impact on personal and functional competencies (Bagheri and Lope Pihie, 2013).Social networking has long been regarded as an important enabler of entrepreneurship (Burt, 1992, Aldrich and Zimmer, 1986). The network approach, focused in the entrepreneurs and other actors, has added considerable power to the interpretation of the entrepreneurial process.Networks can provide access to a wide range of resources (Garnsey, 1998), which are sometimes accessible only to privileged circle (Starr and MacMillan, 1990).
Global context:The nature, scope and structure of entrepreneurial education vary greatly from one university to another. Hills (1988) described it as an evolutionary field that was an “embryonic stage” in the late 1980s and emphasized the variety of educational goals among universities.The policy implications of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM, 2001) indicate that people with limited education are less likely to participate in entrepreneurial initiatives. According to Garavan and O’Cinneide (1994), the different stories of successful entrepreneurs stimulate the debate about the famous paradigm “entrepreneurs are made or born”.Parallel to the world, there is a growing interest in entrepreneurship education in Turkey. However, as Gu ¨rol and Atsan (2006) have pointed out, this is far from being a matter of national policy.
The review of the curricula of Turkish business schools in 2006 showed that 15 of the 53 public universities have an elective entrepreneurship course, while 7 out of 23 private universities offer entrepreneurship services and only one offers entrepreneurship training. (Gurol and Atsan 2006, page 27).Local context:Entrepreneurship development has developed as a university function. Universities produce the future pool of Entrepreneurs. As a result, the entrepreneurial qualities of university students have become a big deal Concern, concern.
Entrepreneurial attributes include: finding opportunities, taking initiative, making decisions, See things through, identify problems and find creative solutions (Swain, 2008).Pakistan is a small country in a large competitive global market. It is becoming increasingly important to develop a strong and dynamic entrepreneurial community (Institute of Business Management, 2007). A lot of International surveys show that Pakistan has great potential to be an entrepreneurial nation, but there are problems it prevents him from being so.Policy agencies have shown serious concerns about entrepreneurial promotion in Pakistan the universities. The Higher Education Commission emphasized that universities not only develop the mastery of the subject, but also the ability to think critically, to innovate, to communicate, to work effectively in a team and develop entrepreneurship opportunities and flexibility among their graduates. Universities should play a role key role in the national development process, creating, using and disseminating new knowledge creation of technology parks and business incubators, and enable access to venture capital other similar systems (Rahman, 2008).There are over 3 million students enrolled in grades 13 through 16 in Pakistan’s 1,086 degree colleges and 161 universities, according to Pakistan Higher Education Commission report for 2013-14.
The 3 million enrollment is 15% of the 20 million Pakistanis in the eligible age group of 18-24 years. In addition, there are over 255,000 Pakistanis enrolled in vocational training schools, according to Technical Education and Vocational Training Authority (TEVTA). The effectiveness of the entrepreneurial class is usually evident in the entrepreneurial attitudes of university students. However, no considerable research work on the entrepreneurial intention of the university students has so far been published from Pakistan. This research will investigate entrepreneurial intension among the universities students in Pakistan.Problem statement:What is the impact of entrepreneurship on entrepreneurial intention major focus on education sector?Research questions:What is the impact of innovativeness on entrepreneurial intension?What is the impact of pro-activeness on entrepreneurial intention?What is the impact of risk-taking on entrepreneurial intension?What is the impact of leadership on entrepreneurial intension?What is the impact of network on entrepreneurial intension?Theoretical significance:This study indicate that how much university students shows their intension to take up business and are very positive to become entrepreneurs. Also help to know about that how much the entrepreneurial intention of university students have positively influence by their capacity for action and innovation.
This study has confirmed the importance of entrepreneurial orientation at the individual level. In practice, it suggested that higher education should pay particular attention to the design f their entrepreneurship education curriculum. Especially entrepreneurship training should focus on improving students ability to pursue entrepreneurship orientation and increasing entrepreneurship intensions.Chapter 2:Literature Review:Entrepreneurship:Entrepreneurship is defined as having a passive and active component with propensity to include changes oneself, but also the ability to welcome and support innovation brought by external factors by welcoming change, taking responsibility for one’s actions, positive or negative, to finish what we start, to know where we are going to get objective and meet them, and have the motivation to succeed (shapero-sokol, 1982)Entrepreneurship is the main antecedent of entrepreneurship (lee ; wong, 2004).this is expected result for expected behavior. Swiercz and Lydon (2002) proposed that the entrepreneurial revolution has changed the economic landscape of the United States. The study of entrepreneurship has gained popularity research when large, established organizations have begun to see the value of traits associated with entrepreneurs, entrepreneurial orientation has been developed as a theory to describe this phenomenon .proactive, risk taking and innovation have become the defining features of EO(Covin ; Slevin ,1999).
Covin and slevin have proposed a model entrepreneurship at the organizational level where an entrepreneurship posture and performance of the company are mediated by Environmental condition. This model has changed the contemporary conversation of entrepreneurial activity being sequestered to small start-up organization.Innovativeness:Because entrepreneurship ten to dissatisfied with regularity and routine, entrepreneurs become more innovative (butter ; Gryeskiewicz, 1993) and often develop new ideas (Bajaro, 1981).
Van de Ven (1992) has defined innovation as the most critical element of entrepreneurship and is an organizational and cultural management that recognizes the need for new ideas and behaviors, while Lumpkin et al. Dess (1996) support innovation. Technological leadership, R; D for new methods and creativity. Kang (2011) suggested that innovation is one of the elements of entrepreneurial strategies that can be as important way to promote investment for new technology development and product improvement to gain competitive advantage.Risk taking:Risk is defined as “the perceived probability of receiving rewards associated with the success of a situation required by the consequences associated with failure, the alternative situation offering less reward and consequences less serious than the proposed situation (Brockhaus, 1980).
“Much of the economic and entrepreneurial literature includes risk –taking as a major feature (Palmer, 1971, Kilby, 1971, Sarachek, 1978, Mill, 1984, Cunningham and Lischeron, 1991, Ho and Koh, 1992, Koh, 1996, 2000).Risk taking should therefore have a positive influence on the entrepreneurial intention.While low risk entrepreneurs tend to avoid risk or make decisions with caution, those who tends to take high risk tend to make decision faster to seize opportunities (Park, 2002).
Meanwhile, Sexton and Bowman-Upton (1986) argued that precautionary measures reflected the company willingness to respond or appreciate uncertainties. Risk taking only makes senses if a contractor is proactive in finding an opportunity, not in accepting.Pro-activeness:Pro-activeness is a forward looking provision that allows an entrepreneurs to plan for future when he or she is expected to make a strategic decision. The entrepreneur takes active behaviors after predicting future opportunities and market demands. Covin and Slevin (1991) argued that proactive entrepreneurs are more aggressive than others. This means that they are not to content to simply prevent competitors, but are constantly trying to introduce new product and service development and management techniques into their business.
That is pro-activeness can be defined as a trend or behavior that participates in market changes as a result of competitor (Kim, 1994).H1. Entrepreneurship has an impact on entrepreneurial intention.H1-1. Innovativeness has an impact on entrepreneurial intention.H1-2.
Risk-taking has an impact on entrepreneurial intention.H1-3. Pro-activeness has an impact on entrepreneurial intention.Leadership:Entrepreneurs are leader of organization but has been a lack of research in entrepreneurship context (Timmons ; Spineli,2004).Fernald, Salomon and Tarabishy (2005)postulated that “the organizational archetype of the future will be entrepreneurial (page.4)with paradigm shifts within organization because of economic, political and technological forces, a new type of leadership is needed in eho manage the change as a result leadership research in entrepreneurial context can give an overview of the leadership style that increase or support business performance in the organization.H2.
Leadership has an impact on entrepreneurial intention.Network:Entrepreneurial activity is integrated into networks of interpersonal relationships. According to Hoang and Antoncic (2003) these networks are defined by a set of actors (individual & organizations) and a set of links between them, and they give access to a variety of resources for entrepreneurial results.
A professional network, as an important type of social networks contains individuals who can be potential buyers, product supplier or employees for entrepreneurs. It is a good source of information, support, advice, and trust.Networks is a tendency to have a relationship and to interact with other people. Is is considered social behavior and is considered a psychophysical variable personality (Taormina and Lao, 2007). Chen, et al. (2010) argues that social networking is linked to the ability to manage relationships well to succeed.
Social networking plays a very important role in the development of entrepreneurship and is an important factors for success (Zafa,Yasin dan Ijaz ,2012)a number of researchers have known that social networking is one of the entrepreneurial characteristics. It is positively correlated with the motivation to start a new business (Taotmina dan Lao, 2007).Chen et al.
(2010) indicates that most universities students do not have social experience. They don’t pay attention to networks. In conclusion they have a lower value in social networks than the business model. So, social networks is a tendency to like to establish and maintain social relationships to ask for help, suggestions for success.H3. Network has an impact on entrepreneurial intention.Entrepreneurial intention:Entrepreneurship is a complex process that involves several steps one ot them being the formation of entrepreneurial intent (hisrich et all, 2013).
entrepreneurship is intentional and planned behavior (Krueger et all, 2000). It is thus thought that entrepreneurial intent precedes any entrepreneurial behavior and is a reliable predictor of entrepreneurship. As such, understanding the individual’s intension towards entrepreneurship is important for developing a large number of entrepreneurs in the country because entrepreneurs are made, not born (Boulton and Turner, 2005, Mellor at al, 2009).individuals will only engage in entrepreneurship. In addition it is worth studying entrepreneurial behavior and measuring the actual entrepreneurial behavior is difficult (Wu, 2010).
Chapter 3:Methodology:Research Philosophy:A paradigm is a “systematic study of the world, which provides a philosophical and conceptual framework of interrelated assumptions about the social world set” (Filstead, 1979, p. 34).All the researchers a basis for the analysis and research is needed to study these examples need to be aware of.
Various research methods allow us to understand different phenomena and different reasons. (Deetz, 1996) the paradigms chosen depend on what one is typing. There are three world views/paradigms use in research. Positivism, interpretivist, and pragmatism.
In my study I use the positivism paradigm.Positivism, social as well as natural sciences derived from sensory experience, knowledge, and logical and mathematical treatment and report such data, together with the exclusive source of all authority that is based on the philosophy of science, (j.macionuis). A Positivist approach to research observable experience ‘positive’ rather than confirming, for example, based on knowledge gained from analysis or intuition is.
Testing or experimental scientific methods are the best way to achieve this knowledge. This approach is broader context modern motion (Cohen, 2006)Research Approach:A research approach considerably depending on what is to be researched, if it is a scientific method, it would be appropriate to research similar methods or other scientists who have attempted the experiment. However, if the research was in to social policy for example, it would be better to carry out surveys, look into past surveys etc. My study is based on quantitative research approach. Qualitative research shares these qualities. Moreover, this approach involves the local population in a given research problem or topic to understand. Qualitative research in particular social contexts of the population to obtain specific information about culture values, opinions, behaviors, is particularly effective 1Qualitative research is a situated activity that locates the observer in World.
The descriptive material contains a set of methods that make world observable. These practices transform the world. Change the World Representations, including field notes, a series of interviews, debates, Own pictures, recordings and notes. At this level, the quality Descriptive study of the world, natural approach is required.
The Qualitative researchers study things in their natural environment means that as phenomena attempt to understand or interpret Meanings people bring with them. (Denzin & Lincoln, 2005, p. 3) Qualitative researchers, want to understand, the meaning which people Construct, that people have a sense of their world and how it Experiences in the world (Merriam, 2009, p. 13)Research Strategies:The research strategy which is used in this study is survey.
Because survy is useful in describing the characteristics of a large population no another research method can provide this broad capability , which ensure a more accurate sample to gather targeted results in which to draw conclusion and make important decision.(Fowler, 200 Time Horizon:This study is cross-sectional. Cross-functional research design is one of the most popular research designs among other research designs and also known as social survey design. According to (Easterby-Smith et al., 2008, Robson, 2002), define the cross-sectional design for the survey strategy. In addition (Bryman and Bell, 2007), it states: “A cross-sectional design involves collecting data on more than one case and at a given time to collect a set of quantitative or quantifiable data related to two cases. Or more variables, which are then examined to detect association patterns.
“The cross-functional search design is the selection of a specific variation (nation, people, organization, or state) from that data is collected in order to respond to the research objective and the research question and it is called cross-functional research design.Data Collection Method:To measure the impact of entrepreneurship on entrepreneurial intention questionnaire was adapted. Questionnaire are useful option to consider when conducting a postal survey. Questionnaire covering a wide range of conditions and therapy ares as well as quality of life instruments and satisfaction measure. There are abvious advantage to using Questionnaire, that including the fact that many of these have already been well validated and tested for reliability, and there may be normative data available as a baseline for you to compare your results with.