The history of the precontact peoples of American comes through the scientists’ beliefs that they came from the humans crossing the ancient land bridge in Bering Strait that was situated between Asia and North America. Although the history of North America’s native inhabitants has various theories by the archeologists and the anthropologists, one of the fact that remains were that they migrated into the areas using the “ice-free” corridor. They later spread in the vast regions becoming the first American known as the Paleo-Indians. The Clovis were the first people to establish the first civilizations in America as the archeological evidence proves that they lived about 13, 000 years ago.
The early civilizations have both the social and economic activities that have made the anthropologists easier to identify and study their existence.The first significant characteristics of the early inhabitants before the arrival of the European settlers was various civilizations and the various social hierarchies that were evidenced by the first humans to settle in America. The new evidence supports that the early population in America were more diverse and scattered extensively.
Some of the early inhabitants that came to America shows that they were from the farthest lands in Asia more than the real Mongolians. The evidence depicts maybe they came from Japan and Polynesia. The early civilizations emerged from South America in areas situated in the modern day Peru and Mexico. The Incas were the most extensive empire that stretched along Western South America.
Another great civilization that emerged was the Meso-Americans that were organized in societies in the early 10, 000 BCE. A more sophisticated culture called the Mayan civilization emerged at around 800 CE in Central America. The Mayan had written the language, accurate calendar, and advanced agricultural systems. This civilization was followed eventually by the Meso-American tribes to form what was known as the Aztec who liked to identify themselves as the Mexica. The Meso-American cultures developed the religion like the other predecessors that was based on the belief of the human sacrifice.
The Meso-American civilizations remained the center for the civilized life in the North and Central America making it the hub of their cultures and the trade.The second main characteristics of the early involved the economic activities that they engaged for the survival. The nomadic life of hunting and gathering was the primary economic activity of the first civilizations. The Archaic people made spears that they used in hunting in the Great Plains of North America where they killed the bison. In the later period of the Archaic period, the people developed the new tools to hunt. They developed hooks for fishing and the traps to get the small animals.
Baskets were used to gather the nuts and wild fruits. Later the groups began farming with the corns being the main crop. The civilizations of North America built the sophisticated civilizations that involved hunting and fishing.
For instance, the Eskimos fished the seals, and they engaged in the big-game hunting where they lived the nomadic lives. Other societies developed and engaged in the primarily agricultural systems that involved the use of irrigation in the drylands. In conclusion, the two main characteristics of the early people before the Columbus involved diverse civilizations and hunting and gathering for economic activities.