The form of policing I believe is most effective is problem-oriented policing due to it being able to pinpoint exact solutions for certain situations. First defined by Goldstein (1979, 1990) that “problem-oriented policing required law enforcement to identify, research, and explore alternative solutions to a given problem, often having to rely on noncriminal justice–related resources” (p.141). Resulting in this way of policing to create a more proactive response rather than a reactive response. The proactive response resulted in more prescriptive and preventative interventions. Though problem-oriented often involve significant creativity, officers are expected to approach problems in a structured and disciplined way, often turning to the Scan, Analyze, Respond, and Assessment (SARA) model (J. Eck & Spelman, 1987). SARA requires officers to identify and prioritize problems, analyze the problems to design appropriate responses, implement the interventions, and assess what worked and what did not (J. E. Eck & Spelman, 1987).
Police agencies have several creative problem-oriented policing approaches from addressing street-level prostitution, and gang graffiti, to homeless outreach teams. Specific tactics, like increasing presence through mini-substations, police patrol routes, and narcotics intelligence to decrease drug, property, and violent crime. Techniques used to supplement and improve traditional policing measures through a combination of civil remedies, environmental design (CPTED), and situational crime prevention techniques have also indicated progress. The most robust of existing POP evaluations in low-income housing, found that strategies such as altering public phone access, providing additional lighting, increasing surveillance, and the identification of ”nuisance apartments” with high call volumes did reduce crime. Overall, these scholars concluded that as the number and variety of techniques increases, the greater the impact on calls for service and related crime.
This study presents findings from an analysis of POP in the Colorado Springs Police Department, one of the national leaders of POP in the United States. The principal form of evidence is a systematic content analysis of case summaries and reports completed by police officers in 753 POP cases in Colorado Springs. The results point to a set of common roadblocks in the implementation of POP, as well as more general patterns that seem to influence the implementation of police reform. ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR. The primary source of evidence used in this article is a systematic content analysis of case summaries and reports completed by police officers in 753 POP cases in all three of the department’s
geographic divisions2 from 1995 to 1999. The content analysis findings are augmented with evidence derived from other sources, including interviews, observations, and historical documents.