The Individuals with defective immune responses are

Theimmune system acts as a defence mechanism to human body, constantly defendingit from invaders. When it is challenged by for example, a bacterial infection,it increases the activity of some components which act to eliminate the source.The immune system consists of two divisions: the innate and the acquired.Factors such as genetics, gender, age, nutrient status, and gut floracontribute to the variations in many immune functions. Every individual has avaried immune function (Abbas et al.2016). Innateimmunity provides a first line of defence against infectious agents.

It ispresent before exposure to pathogens and has no memory, therefore is notinfluences by prior exposure to an organism. It eliminates invading pathogensthrough phagocytic cells and natural killer cells. The acquired immune responseinvolves very specific lymphocytes, and antibodies that are specific for anindividual antigen. It becomes effective after a couple of days after theinitial activation.

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It develops immunological memory that is the basis for astronger and more effective immune response on re-exposure to an antigen (Calder 2007).Itis widely known that the interaction of microorganisms with the host immunesystem is required for a healthy body. The microbiome – ecological community ofcommensal, symbiotic, and pathogenic microorganisms – enriches the metabolismand synthesis of many essential compounds and nutrients in human body. Mammalianimmune system is shaped by microorganisms and many developmental aspects of theadaptive immune system are influenced by the composition of bacterialcolonization of the gut. Intestinal microbiota plays a main role in themetabolic, nutritional, physiological, and immunological processes of the humanbody (Thomas et al. 2017). Individuals with defective immuneresponses are more prone to infections and more likely to suffer frominfectious morbidity and mortality.

Individuals with immune function within the”normal” range may not benefit from increased immune function of just 1components but a sufficiently large change in some immune functions may improvehost defence (Corthesy et al. 2007).This research would focus onindividuals with defective immune responses found in patients. Immunodeficiencyis a state in which the immune system’s ability to fight infectious disease iscompromised.

Most cases of immunodeficiency are caused by extrinsic factorssuch as HIV infection, cancer, chronic infections, and other environmental andlifestyle factors. Clinical treatments sometimes suppress the immune functionsby either adverse or intended effect. This makes patients particularlyvulnerable to infections that would normally not cause any harm to a healthyindividual, and these are called opportunistic infections.

In that state theimmune system struggles to fight against pathogens and is unable to protect thebody from invasion. The decreased ability of the immune system to clearinfections may be responsible for causing autoimmunity in patients (Grammatikosand Tsokos 2012). This research would test changes inthe immune response after injecting the host with bacteria that is naturallyoccurring in a healthy individual. The results would help with the research anddevelopment of immunotherapies. Patients could benefit from a quicker recoveryand a better protection from infections. It could also provide a betterunderstanding of the connection between immune response and extrinsicmodulation, in this case the gut flora. Analysing the effect of extrinsicmodulators of systemic metabolism on immune parameters can offer a betterunderstanding on how immune functions adapt to systemic metabolic change(Giuseppe Danilo et al.

2015). Measurementof various leukocyte numbers in the bloodstream can be used for assessments ofthe immune system. This can be done by immunological staining procedures andassociated analytical techniques such as flow cytometry (Meydani et al. 1991).Null hypothesisThevariation of gut flora has no effect on the immune parameters and does notincrease the number of antibodies released after a vaccine strain is given.

Aims and objectivesTheaim is to test the effect of extrinsic modulator of systemic metabolism, thegut flora, on the immune parameters. The aim is to see a positive relationshipbetween the bacteria found in the gut flora and the antibodies in thebloodstream. Materials & methodsTheexperiment would include three groups of laboratory mice. One group is thecontrol that will not be injected with any bacteria. Second group will receiveone dose of strains of bacteria and the third group will receive two doses withan interval of one day between the first and second dose. All groups of micewill then be challenged with a vaccine strain of yellow fever virus (YFV-17D)and the number of antibodies in the bloodstream will be counted using flowcytometry. Thestrains of bacteria used to inject into mice will include: Streptococcus faecium, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillusrhamnosus, Propionibacterium freudenreichii, Bifidobacterium breve, Lactobacillusreuteri, Lactobacillus salivarium, Bifidobacterium infantis, Streptococcusthermophilus (Ford et al.2014).

Miceare easy to breed and economical to house in animal facilities. The use ofgenetically inbred strains reduces variability. The SPF – specificpathogen-free – husbandry enables microbial exposures to be controlled, furtherreducing variability (Tao and Reese2017).Laboratorymice lack differentiated memory T cells.

Feral and pet store mice have manymore differentiated memory T cells in lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissue, similarto adult humans. Mice with diverse environmental exposures have more matureimmune responses, similar to human adults. Whereas laboratory mice haveimmature immune systems that can more easily be controlled (Tan et al. 2016).Thedata will indicate whether the diverse microbial exposure the adaptive immunepathways, and possibly matures immune responses (Fourie et al. 2017).Measuringthe physical response to administration of antigen by measuring the changes inconcentration of antibodies in the bloodstream. The absolute response measuredmight be different at different time points because the responses beingmeasured are dynamic in nature.

The responses are related to the concentrationof the stimulant used to trigger the response (Calder 2007).Vaccinationresponses are very useful because they represent a coordinated, integratedimmune response to a relevant challenge (Taoand Reese 2017). EthicsHumanstudies would be limited by the ability to sample only blood and external secretionssuch as saliva (Calder 2007). Mice and their environment can becontrolled, however the use of animals in experimental research has to be ethical(Anon. 2016). This research would not use any inhumane treatment or procedureson the mice. ImportanceTheresearch can help to understand how immune parameters are altered through theuse of extrinsic modulators.

This can help in other fields of research such asimmunotherapy and immunogenetics. Theimmune system also plays a crucial role in tissue repair and its potential dysregulation(Laurent et al. 2017). Theimmune system plays an important role in the identification and elimination oftumour cells and in the response to injury and trauma (Thomas et al. 2017).

 

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