He introduced introverted and extroverted behavior profiles al Eng with neurotic bias to the world of psychology and mental health. My paper will examine Ha ins Essence’s life and the history of his theories on criminal personality. Hans Essence was born March 4, 191 6 in Germany. His mother Helga Inland ere, born as Ruth Werner , was a starlet at the time of Hans’ birth, she later became a G reran silent film star, and married Anton Eduardo Essence, who was an actor, singer, and come Diana. His parents separated when he was about 4 year old, and then he went to live with his m eternal grandmother (Feisty, 1997).
Hans Essence life as a child was quite interesting. E yester grew up with very little parental discipline, adults in his life really did not care what he did or did not do, and his grandmother was rather permissive. Before (2006) states, “Essence to old his grandmother he was going to buy a pack of cigarettes expecting to be appear ended, and was startled when his grandma granted this behavior’. Essence believed situation s like this really had nothing to do with one’s personality and life development, instead he belie feed genetics played a much more substantial role in behavior than what one experienced as child.
His ill feelings toward Hitler and the Nazi party led him to move to England when h e was a young adult. Essence is quoted as saying “My hatred of Hitler and the Nazis, and all they stood for, was so overwhelming that no argument could counter it”(Before, 2006). Became use of his German citizenship, he found it difficult to find work in England. He attended college a ND eventually went on to earn a Ph. D in Psychology from the University College London in 1940 u ender the supervision of psychologist Cyril Burt, perhaps obsession for research on the heritability of intelligence(“Lavishly online,” 201 1).
During World 2, Essence worked as a research psychologist in Mill Hill Emergency Hospital. He later founded the psychology department at the University of London Institute of Psychiatry, where he continued his work unit 1 1983. He served as Professor emeritus at the school until his death in 1997. He was also an ext remedy dedicated writer. Over the course of his career, he published more than 75 books and o ever 1600 journal articles. Prior to his death, he was the most frequently cited living psychologist t (“Lavishly online,” 2011) .
While Hans Essence was certainly a controversial figure, his WI deranging search had a major influence on psychology. His work in personality and into elegance, also played a major role in establishing approaches in clinical training and psychotic harpy, which were firmly rooted in empirical research , data and science. Dry. Essence is so Mathew difficult to identify or classify. He supported a model of personality that is characterized by types and traits because he believes that the most fundamental personality characteristics AR e inherited.
His belief that both heredity and environment determine behavior supports his lee airing theory and the behavior therapies (Before, 2006). Essence cannot be neatly categorized as a theorist He has involved himself WI the such topics as the relation between smoking and health, criminality, the heritability of intelligence, educational theory and practice, sexual behavior, the effects of psychotherapy Y, and even astrology; in addition to personality theory and behavior therapy (Before, 200 6). Dry. Essence was considered the leader of the “London School” of psychology.
His noted w arks included The Biological Basis of Personality (1967) and Personality Structure and Measure meet (1968) established Essence as a rising figure in British psychology. In 1 993, he was ho Noreen with the U. S. Presidential award for Scientific Contribution; in 1 994, he received the Will lima James Fellow Award (American Psychological Society); and in 1996, was bestowed WI the the Centennial Award for distinguished contributions to clinical Psychology (Aimer can Psychological Society). His lifetime goal was to make psychology a true science.
At the time of his death at age 81, he had published about 80 books and over 1600 articles (Before, 200 6). Classifying Behavior Dry. Essence viewed people by their significant and measurable quail ties. He also lived that measurement is fundamental to all scientific development. In as histology, researchers are not yet sure what they should be measuring. Essence’s classic vocation of behavior, was an important first step. Measuring behavior and factor analysis is the best means of classifying behavior (Bartok & Bartok, 2005).
From the beginning of his career r, Essence was certain that most personality theories are too complicated and not formulate d. He had attempted to derive conceptions of behavior that are simple. His system is characterized by a very small number Of major dimensions and definitions. At the same time, his conception s reflect his study of many different figures in intellectual history, Hippocrates, Galen, screeches r, Jung Pavlov, hull, superman, and turnstone to name a few (Before, 2006). Dry.
Essence is most well known for his theory of personality and crime. His the error proposed that “criminal behavior is the result of an interaction between certain n environmental conditions and features of the nervous system” (Bartok & Bartok,2005). Essence KS emphasis is placed on the genetic predisposition toward antisocial and criminal behavior. Followers of his theory believe that each individual offender has a unique neurophysiology the t when mixed with a certain environment, can not help but result to criminality (Bartok & Bartok, 2 005).
It is important to note that Essence was not suggesting that criminals are born, rather that the e combination Of environment, neurobiology, and personality factors give rise to different types of crimes and those different personalities were more susceptible to specific criminal activity y. Essence derived his types, or dimensions, according to people he began studying during World war II (Bartok & Bartok, 2005). He studied soldiers who were treated at the hospital where he s revved as staff psychologist.
According to Bartok and Bartok (2005), in 1947 Essence published his first major work, where he studied some 700 military psychiatric cases, and it led to the I isolation of the two variables of introversionextraversion and neurotransmitters. These two FAA actors are the analysis of a large number of variables, many of which were traits ( anxiety, d pungency) but some of which were factual data (age, martial status). Much of Essence’s initial I database consisted of ratings by psychiatrists and lifestyle information.
Further explore rations, however, seed other kinds of data sources such as questionnaires and performance task KS (Before, 2006). The term ‘personality is generally used to refer to relatively stable characters tics of a person that make their behavior consistent across situations (but many other definitions are possible, depending on the approach being taken (Putdown & Samson, 2002 Hans Essence in 1 964 put forward a theory of criminal behavior based on a very influential t heron of personality he had earlier devised and which he continued to develop through hoot his career.
Although this theory is usually referred to as a Personality Theory of Offending , it is important to note that Essence’s theory conceives of criminal behavior as the outcome of I interactions beјen processes occurring at several different levels of explanation (Putt main & Samson, 2002).
To further understand this theory, Essence explains it as follows: It is n to itself, or criminality that is innate; it is certain peculiarities Of the central and autonomy c nervous system that react with the environment, with upbringing, and many other environment natal factors to increase the probability that a given person would act in a certain antisocial m manner (Essence & Godsons, 1989). Essence originally argued that the great variation between people’s personality sees could be reduced to just two dimensions which related to the underlying functioning g of the individual’s nervous system.
A person’s level Of extroversion (E), and neurotics (N) can b e measured using simple pencil endpapers questionnaires such as the Essence Personality Questionnaire (PEPS). People with High extroversion scores are sociable, active, lively and seen sanction seeking. Extroversion is determined by the overall level of arousal in the person’s centre al nervous system (CANS) and autonomic nervous system (MANS). High Scorers have a low level of arousal and therefore need more stimulation from their environment. People with high N scores are anxious, depressed and react very strongly to aversive stimuli.
Neurotics is determine De by the overall level of ability in the person’s CANS. Where Encores are low, the person has a s table, relatively unreceptive nervous system whereas a high N scores result in a high degree of instability. Essence later added a third dimension of personality, psychotropic People who score high on the Scale are aggressive, antisocial, cold and egocentric. Essence was less Lear on how Correlatives to the functioning of the nervous system. According to Essence k, E, N and P scores are determined largely by genetics. Each trait is normally seen in the p population.
That is, most people have moderate E, N and P scores. Extreme scores are rare and t he more extreme a score, the rarer it is (Putdown & Samson, 2002). E, N, p and criminal behave ROR In Essence’s theory, personality is linked to criminal behavior via the colonization processes Essence viewed criminal behavior as developmentally immature in that it is SE Fish and concerned with immediate gratification. The process of colonization is one in which children are taught to become more able to delay gratification and become more socially oriented (Putdown & Samson, 2002). This is accomplished primarily through conditioning.
When children act in immature ways, they are punished. Consequently, psychologists now associate e anxiety with antisocial behavior. Where this process is successful, even thinking about bee avian antisocially produces anxiety, so the person avoids doing it. Essence believed that people with high E and N scores had nervous systems that made them difficult to condition. As a result, they would not easily learn to respond to antisocial impulses with anxiety. Consequently, they would be more likely to act antisocially in situations where the opportunity presented itself (P twain & Samson, 2002).
Essence’s theory covers a great deal of ground, and there are aspects of it that t are not easy to test. However, it does make the basic prediction that compared with n nonferrous, offender populations should have higher E, N and P scores. Essence’s theory s dates three main factors for temperament are extroversion, neurotics, and psychotropic. A la urge majority of rime research today focuses precisely on the first two traits. Essence did not actually use psychotropic until later when he found a need to identify behavior that could not be explained as extroversion and neurotics.
Essence’s studies showed that the typical extrovert tends to lose his temper q quickly, becoming aggressive and unreliable (Bartok & Bartok, 2005). He then believed t hat extroverts need a higher level of excitement and stimulation, known as “arousal theory. ” The need for high amounts of stimulation then lead to more likely encounters with the law. Bart el and Bartok (2005) Tate enjoy pranks and practical jokes and find challenge in opportunity sees to do the unconventional, or even to engage in antisocial behavior. The physiological b asses of extroversion are related to the Reticular Activating System (RASA). The RASA are uses the cerebral cortex and keeps it alert to incoming stimuli (Bartok & Bartok, 2005). T he base Of neurotics is frequently linked to the emotional area of the brain. This area r seats to show how one successfully deals with stressful events. Whereas the extroversion center of the brain is linked to the central nervous system, neurotics relates to the autonomic nee Voss system (Bartok & Bartok, 2005).
Neurotic individuals are believed to achieve an emotion anal level quickly and then remain at that level for a longer amount of time than non- neurotic individuals (Essence & Godsons, 1989). As mentioned earlier, Essence used the word psychotics SMS as a definition to identify behaviors that can not be explained by neurotics and extravert’s on. Essence used his research to categorize [psychotic individuals as exhibiting cold, cruel, ENUM sectional, and insensitive characteristics, which is not the clinical definition of psychotic mea inning out of touch with reality (Bartok & Bartok,2005).
To sum up Essence’s Theory of Criminality, offenders as a whole will demons rate low levels of extroversion (cortical arousal), high levels of neurotics (autonomic arousal), and are thought to be tough- minded in the psychotic sense. Although there is much research that refutes this theory, researchers believe that if new data were modified, the the error as a whole may still be promising and useful (Bartok & Barstool 2005). His lifetime goal was tomato twentieth century human psychology a true science. At the time of his death at age 81 , he had published about 80 books and over 1 600 articles (Before, 2006).