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Table of ContentsIntroductionWhy i am interested?Why i want to learn more about itHistory of BoraxWhere it came fromWhy it was important in the middle ageswhy water is importantWhy we need waterThe process of forming crystalsA short paragraph on borax and water equationsThe definition of forming crystalsHow crystals grow in natural wayHow they grow artificiallyHistory of crystalsMythologyMiddle AgesNow My hypothesisCrystalsThe reason I wanted to grow crystals is that while I was learning about space with my class we learned that on the ISS they grow chemotherapy crystals on the spaceship.  They grow the crystals on the ship because the micro-gravity helps the crystals grow perfectly. They grow these crystals to manipulate the monoclonal antibody.  The monoclonal antibody crystal work as a targeting and binding agent, the task they want to use this for is to cure immunological disease.  {https://www.}So since I can’t grow monoclonal antibody crystals I thought that maybe it would be cool to make borax crystals.

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 Also crystals are really pretty and I think it is cool how the form and come together.When I found out we were going to have to do the science fair I decided it would be a perfect time to grow the crystals.  Also since I am making borax crystals I could also should learn about the history behind borax or sodium tetraborate.  Borax or sodium ttraborate plays a big role in my science project so knowing the history and science behind it is important so in the next few paragraphs I will talk about the history and science behind Sodium Tetraborateborax.

In the middle ages borax was important because it cleaned things and it was used as a cleaner for metals that were soon going to be joined together.When they first started using it was a big question, they didn’t know why it was a good cleaner where to find it or really anything about it.  Italy was the main source until the 1860’s when they started finding it in desert areas in now day chile.

 As america started its western expansion, they found borax. They found it in colorado,nevada,and some in california. Borax became all the “rage” because it was so useful. They even started production in 1880 in death valley on the famous twenty-mule-team wagons.

{} The chemical equation for borax is Na2B4O7·10H2O. Borax is used for many different reasons. One, is borax can turn into hydrogen peroxide which whitens things.  That is why a lot of people use it in their laundry.

Also some people mix it with sugar so it attracts the insects and when they eat it messes up their intestines and kills them. Some people put it down their sinks and it unclogs them. Some kids use it to make slime and floam as a craft.

{} Water is another big part of my science experiment which I can’t really go much into detail about   But it does a lot of things for us. An example for that is God showing us how great he is through it.

 We all need water to survive and so it is just basically a normal thing.  Some of us even take it for granted, like could you imagine having to walk miles and miles just to get a small pot of it.   Crystals form when the water cools down and the borax wants to escape the water forming crystals.  A better example would be when the water is dissolving the borax in case, the water molecules will spread out from each other.  After the borax can’t be dissolved anymore the water molecules come closer together again forming the crystals.{https://www.}The process of the water molecules coming together after the borax is dissolved is called nucleation. Nucleation is comes from the latin word nucle?tus meaning having kerenal or stone, which makes sense considering we are making crystals.

uk/science/week7.htm The process of crystals forming in nature is called crystallization. This happens when liquid cools/crystalize.  To make crystals the liquid has to cool slowly the slower the liquid cools the bigger it is.

 Most of the time the liquid that is cooling is called magma.  Basically it starts to crystalize as the molecules become stable.http://www.ducksters.

com/science/crystals.php Natural crystals take a lot longer to form and form more imperfect than artificial crystals.  Artificial crystals have been recorded as early as ancient egypt.

 They just colored glass and/or ceramic.  The first attempt to make crystals was in 1954 and they made diamonds with carbon.  The pressure had to be greater than 1.5 million pounds (100,000 kg)  and temperatures as great as 4,800 degrees fahrenheit (2,650 degrees celsius).  It resulted in small diamonds and they only used them for industrial purposes.

 Now days we actually melt the minerals in the crystals and let them cool in perfect molds.  (Lawrence, debbie and richard : Our Planet Earth, Petersburg 2008)When you take mythology behind crystals it is very interesting the way they thought these through  and the vivid details in the story.   Amethyst has an interesting story behind it. Dionysus, the god of wine was celebrating intoxication while being intoxicated he declared that he was tried of mortals crossing his road.  He decided that he would let tigers attack any mortals that crossed his path.  Then one day a beautiful woman named Amethysta was walking along the path to see diana.

 Dionysus had to leash his tigers apon she cried out to diana and diana turned her to clear quartz.  Once Dionysus realized what he had done he ran to Amethyst and cried tears of wine on her.  {

html} Golden topaz was as well thought to have a special power.  The royalty would wear it because they believed that it would change colour if it were near poisonous food or drinks. That is were it got its name from.  The true name of golden topaz is imperial topaz.   https://crystal-cure.

com/article-myths.html    There is a myth from the Inuit people of how the labradorite was formed.  If you have noticed the crystal has the colors of the northern lights. They have a folktale that one day a Inuit  soldier noticed that he couldn’t see the northern lights.  He found the rock labradorite which looks like the northern lights.

 He broke some of the rocks thinking he let the northern lights out. Onyx story is weird and kind of surprising.   I thought since it is black it would be about darkness.  One day Venus, goddess of beauty was taking a nap by a lake.

 Her son, cupid gave her a manicure and as he was cutting her fingernails they fell in the lake.  So that is the story behind onyx.  I thought it was a weird story considering onyx doesn’t even look like nails.

htmlHematite a pink colored crystal was used by the native americans.  They turned it into paint and believed it would make them invincible battle.  The romans believed the same thing and took them into battle.

They as well crushed it up and put the powder on their bodies to make them invisible.  During the medieval times there were different uses for crystals.

 One huge use for crystals were salt.  Salt during the medieval time  was very important it preserved food because they did not have fridges.  Also the more salt you had the higher up in society you were.

Salt was hard to come by because they didn’t mine back then.  They had to get it from the ocean most of they time and had to boil to get it.  Most Likely if you were rich you just bought it from a merchant.  Most merchants at the time were not polite so any time you bought it you were just hoping for more salt than sand. Also during the middle ages fortune telling was very popular therefore so was the crystal ball.

 Berly was what the crystal ball was made of because it was transparent.  Later they replaced the beryl with rock crystal, because they believed it was more effective.  Fortune telling was so popular that even some king and queens were interesting in it. Today we still use crystals in our everyday life and we don’t even notice it.  There are semiconductor crystals in every single chip in your phone to make it work.

 The led lights in your phone is made up of semiconductor crystals as well.  In fact most of our electronics have tiny crystals that we can’t see working our phones, laptops, and televisions.  https://cristales.fundaciondescubre.

es/?page_id=1833   We use crystals everyday and don’t notice them even if we don’t have electronics.  Like salt, when you put salt on your fries,any type of potato, or even eggs, you don’t think, oh am putting sodium chloride crystals on this, you just think I am using salt.  Same with sugar, because sugar is in a lot of things and you don’t notice it.

 When you eat or use sugar you don’t think I am using sucrose crystals.  So we use crystals alot in our daily lives.  https://www.thoughtco.

com/what-is-a-crystal-607656   Now that I have learned about crystals I want to form a hypothesis. I believe that my crystals will do better in the fridge then in the regular temperature room. I believe this because natural crystals from when cooling down.  I have also thought about how my hypothesis could be wrong because it might be better cooling down slowly because that is also how crystals form.  But to backup my hypothesis I am doing my crystals over a four week period and since that is a lot shorter than natural occurring crystals so the fact that the crystals need to cool faster is why I think that they will do better.  So in all I believe that the crystals will do better in the fridge.



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