Studies regarding Emotional Intelligence and Personality
• Nawal G. Alghamdi, Muhammad Aslam, and Khushnoor Khan, 2017, Personality Traits as Predictor of Emotional Intelligence among the University Teachers as Advisors: A study which was conducted to investigate personality traits as the predictor of emotional intelligence (EI) among the university teachers working as student advisors. A sample of the study comprised 100 student advisors (male = 50; female = 50). The age range of the sample was 21– 40 years. Schutte Emotional Intelligence Scale (SEIS) and Big Five Inventory (BFI) were used to measure emotional intelligence (EI) and personality traits. For the statistical analysis of the data, -test and regression analysis were computed. The findings revealed that three personality traits, extraversion, agreeableness, and openness to experience, emerged as significant predictors of EI. The findings also revealed that conscientiousness and neuroticism have no impact on EI. -tests indicated that there are no gender differences in EI. Considering the implication of personality traits on EI among university teachers/student advisors, the current research may assist in augmenting the organizational behavior in general and boost the productivity in particular which are both essential ingredients for the deliverance of services to all the stakeholders linked with the educational system in Saudi Arabia.
• Dr. Sampath Kappagoda, 2013, The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Five Factor Model of Personality of English Teachers in Sri Lanka: Quality teachers are the valuable asset of any country. Emotional intelligence and personality of the teachers are two important concepts in developing their quality. These two concepts have correlated with work outcomes, work attitudes and behaviors in several research. However, the research on the relationship between emotional intelligence and personality were limited. This association has not been investigated comprehensively in the context of Sri Lankan education sector. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between emotional intelligence and five factor model of personality of English teachers in Sri Lanka. The data were randomly collected from a sample of 470 English teachers 58 from North Central province, 250 Western province and 162 Southern province. A questionnaire with two instruments was administered among the English teachers to measure their emotional intelligence and five factor model of personality. The collected data were analyzed using correlation coefficient and regression analysis. The results of the study indicated that the English teachers’ emotional intelligence had significantly and positively correlated with personality types of extraversion, agreeableness and openness to experience but it had not significantly correlated with conscientiousness and neuroticism. It can be concluded that emotional intelligence had strong influence on five factor model of personality of English teachers.
• Jose L. Antoñanzas, Carlos Salavera, Pilar Teruel, Carmen Sisamon, Ana I. Ginto, Alfonso Anaya, Diego Barcelona, 2004, Emotional intelligence and personality in student teachers: Emotional intelligence and personality traits are associated with personal satisfaction experienced by the subjects, according to Certain studies. In turn, the relationship between personality factors, emotional intelligence and teacher self-sufficiently is also important. A study on emotional intelligence was carried out with 160 students from the Faculty of Education at the University of Zaragoza, specializing in the areas of physical education, primary education, foreign language and special education, measuring levels of emotional intelligence and personality traits. The results demonstrated how students with specialties that require a more vocational profile differ from other students who are studying other specialties.
• Mohsin Atta, Muhammad Ather, Dr Maher Bano, 2013, Emotional Intelligence and Personality Traits among University Teachers: Relationship and Gender Differences: A study which was conducted to examine relationship pattern between personality traits and emotional intelligence (EI), besides exploring the gender differences. Sample of the study was comprised 163 university teachers. Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (2002) and NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) developed by Costa ; McCrae (1992) were used to measure EI and personality traits accordingly. Correlational analysis showed that EI was positively correlated with extraversion, conscientiousness, openness to experience and agreeableness, and negatively with neuroticism. T-test analysis demonstrated that there were no gender differences in EI, openness to experience and agreeableness, whereas significant gender differences were demonstrated on extraversion, conscientiousness and neuroticism.
• Betty-Ruth Ngozi Iruloh, Mr. Hanson Manuabuchi Ukaegbu,2015, big five personality traits as predictors of emotional intelligence of secondary school teachers in rivers state of Nigeria: A study which was conducted to investigate Big Five personality traits as predictors of emotional intelligence of secondary school teachers in Rivers State of Nigeria. Two research questions and two corresponding hypotheses were formulated to guide the conduct of the study. The participants in the study were 770 teachers drawn from public secondary schools in Rivers State, Nigeria. Cluster sampling technique was used to draw the sample of the study. Two instruments were used for data collection. They are: Emotional Intelligence Behaviour Inventory (EQBI) by Akinboye and NEO Five Factor Inventory by Costa and McCrae adapted from Ata, Ather and Bano (2013). Data were analyzed using multiple regression analysis. The hypotheses were tested at 0.05 alpha levels. Results of the study showed that: Big Five personality traits taken together statistically significantly predicted emotional intelligence of secondary school teachers; the relative contribution of agreeableness and extraversion personality traits in the prediction of emotional intelligence of secondary school teachers was statistically significant while the reverse was the case for others (conscientiousness, openness and neuroticism). Based on the findings, conclusions were drawn and recommendations made accordingly.
• Cavins (2005) has measured emotional intelligence, leadership practices, and performance of students enrolled in a four–?year leadership development program. Moderate and strong Positive relationships were among the EI skills of self–?actualization, social responsibility, empathy, stress tolerance, problem solving, and optimism and subscales of the Student Leadership Practices Inventory. In particular, the top performers scored higher on 11 of the 21 areas of the emotional intelligence assessment compared with middle and bottom performers. Top and middle performers scored higher than bottom performers on modeling the way, challenging the process, and inspiring a shared vision.
• Schutte, Malouff, ; Hine (2011) has found that, College students were more likely to engage in more frequent heavy episodic drinking and have more alcohol–?related problems if they had lower emotional intelligence.
• Pop-Jordanova N, Stoimenova-Canevska E.2014, Emotional intelligence and big-five personality factors in female student sample: This study was conducted to figure out possible connectedness between emotional intelligence and five big personality factors in female students selected from social sciences faculties. The evaluated sample comprised 66 healthy students, of Macedonian nationality, mean age 18.9 ± 0.63 years. As psychometric instruments, we used the EI-test and NEO-PI-R, both with eligible metric characteristic and already used in the Republic of Macedonia. Statistical analysis was performed using Sta17, both descriptive and inferential statistics including medians, standard deviations, and two-tailed Pearson’s correlation. The obtained results for emotional intelligence showed an average anxiety level (M = 77.35), extraversion (M = 50.91) and a realistic outlook on life (M = 81.64), high self-confidence (M = 44.44) and generally satisfactory empathy (M = 85.39). Personality characteristics obtained with NEO-PI-R showed high extroversion (M = 123. 70), low agreeableness (M = 105.82) and consciousness (M = 104.67), as well as mild neuroticism (M = 91.33) and openness (M = 117.45). The results confirmed a high positive correlation between anxiety, optimism, and empathy; and between self-confidence and empathy within the EI test. Within NEO-PR-R there was a positive correlation between factors Extroversion and Openness to Experience and a negative correlation between the factors Extroversion and Agreeableness. However, just one negative correlation is noted, between Extroversion from EI and Openness to experience from NEO-PR-R (-0,25; p < 0.05). We concluded that similar facets measured with different psychometric instruments have different basic concepts. The obtained results, although they figure out some support from other research, also differ from other studies. It is important for us to follow the obtained results and to provoke further research on a bigger and more diverse sample.
• Hari Krishnan Andi,2012, Emotional Intelligence and Personality Traits: A Correlational Study of MYEIT and BFI: This paper was conducted to study the relationship between Emotional Intelligence (EI) and the personality traits using Malaysian Youth Emotional Intelligence Test (MYEIT) and Big Five Inventory (BFI). MYEIT is a newly developed measures to meets the need of a reliable instrument to measure EI among Malaysian samples. The dimensions of this newly developed MYEIT are similar to the well known SSEIT and TEIQue and however the items have been designed to suit the Malaysian socio-politics and cultures. Although MYEIT is new instrument but, it’s has the capacity to linked to mainstream scientific models in differential psychology such as Big Five. The finding of this study is shows that there are strong relationships between EI and Big Five, consistent with previous studies. Conscientiousness and Agreeableness strongly correlates with EI, followed by Extraversion, Openness and Neuroticism. Regression analyses further confirm that EI measured by MYEIT is overlap with the higher–order personality dimensions.
• Bibinaz Ghiabi, Mohammad Ali Besharat, 2010, An investigation of the relationship between Personality dimensions and emotional intelligence: A study which was conducted to examine the relationship between personality dimensions and emotional intelligence (EI) in a sample of students from the University of Tehran. A Correlational analysis was performed to assess the kind of association that exists among five personality dimensions including neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, conscientiousness and emotional intelligence. Four hundred and fourty three students (237 females, 206 males) were included in this study. All participants were asked to complete Emotional Intelligence Scale (EIS) and Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R). Analysis of the data involved both descriptive and inferential statistics including means, standard deviations, t-test and pearson's correlation coefficients and regression analysis. The results revealed that (EI) could positively and negatively predicted by extraversion and neuroticism, respectively. Associations of the two constructs could be explained by “affect regulation”, “tendency to have positive experiences”, and “tendency to have negative experiences.”
• K.V. Petrides, P.A. Vernon , J.A. Schermer , L. Ligthart , D.I. Boomsma , L. Veselka,2010, Relationships between trait emotional intelligence and the Big Five in the Netherlands: This study was conducted to investigate the relationships between trait emotional intelligence the Big Five personality dimensions in two Dutch samples. Results were consistent with studies conducted with the full forms of the inventories in North America and Britain. Neuroticism was the strongest correlate of trait EI in both samples, followed by Extraversion, Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, and Openness. Regression analyses confirmed that the overlap between trait EI and the higher-order personality dimensions exceeds 50%,b even when the constructs are operationalized via shortened assessments. These results are not only fully in line with trait EI theory, but also support the cross-cultural validity of the TEIQue-SF, and its suitability for the rapid assessment of global trait EI and its four constituent factors.
• Abbas, Munir and Khan, Muhammad Nauroze, 2017, Big five personality factors and emotional intelligence among university students: A gender perspective: One of the assets of a country is Students. Personality traits and emotional intelligence are two important factors in study setting and also in career. Purpose of the study was to investigate the gender differences on big five personality traits and emotional intelligence of the university students. The data were collected from different institutes of Lahore, Pakistan. Sample size consists of (300) students in which 150 were male participants and 150 were female participants. Two questionnaires were administered, Wong and law Emotional Intelligence scale was used to measure emotional intelligence while NEO-FFI were used to measure personality traits. It has been found that there was no gender difference regarding any of the variables used in study. Limitations and implications with future suggestions are discussed in the Pakistani Context.
Studies regarding schizophrenia
• Pushpanjali Vishwakarma1, Dr. Anshul Kumar,(2016), Emotional Intelligence and Psychopathology in Schizophrenia: A study in which it has been found that Deficits in social cognition, emotion perception and thinking have been extensively documented in schizophrenia either during the course or even in prodromal phase and are associated with poor psychosocial functioning. The present study aimed to explore the associations among emotional intelligence and positive and negative syndromes in the patients with schizophrenia. A sample of 30 male patients with schizophrenia within age range of 18-45 years was taken. Patients were selected by purposive sampling on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria from the inpatient department of a psychiatry Institute. PANSS and MSREIS-R were administered on the patients to assess positive, negative symptoms and general symptoms and different components of emotional intelligence respectively. The results revealed that two components of emotional intelligence (a) ability to manage emotions in others (b) total score of MSREIS-R were significantly associated with negative and general symptoms.
• Beatrice Frajo-Apor , Silvia Pardeller, Georg Kemmler, Anna-Sophia Welte, Alex Hofer(2016), Emotional Intelligence deficits in schizophrenia: The impact of non-social cognition: Previous studies using the Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) revealed significant performance deficits across all areas of Emotional Intelligence (EI) in schizophrenia patients compared to healthy controls. However, none of these studies has investigated a potential influence of non-social cognition on these findings. A study in which 56 schizophrenia outpatients and 84 control subjects were investigated using the MSCEIT and the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS). Analyses of covariance were performed with adjustment for the BACS composite score and education. To investigate this issue in more detail, a mediation analysis was conducted. Patients showed significantly lower EI and non-social cognition levels compared to healthy controls. After adjustment for BACS composite score and education, only the group difference in the “managing emotions” branch and thus in the “strategic” EI part of the MSCEIT remained statistically significant, whereas for all other MSCEIT branches (perceiving, using, understanding emotions) statistical significance was lost. The mediation analysis revealed that the difference between schizophrenia patients and controls regarding the MSCEIT total score was almost fully attributable to the mediating effect of non-social cognition. In this study the findings suggest that in schizophrenia patients EI is largely influenced by non-social cognitive functioning. Only the “managing emotions” branch was found to be independent of non-social cognition. Consequently,non-social cognitive performance was mainly responsible for the observed differences in EI between schizophrenia patients and controls. This has to be taken into account when interpreting MSCEIT data in this population.
• Frajo-Apor, Beatrice; Hofer, Alex, 2017, Ability-based emotional intelligence in schizophrenia: As one part of social cognition, emotional intelligence is a controversially discussed construct. Although well founded critique on the conceptualization of emotional intelligence has emerged over the last years, studies about emotional intelligence – especially the ability-based approach by Mayer and Salovey – can persistently be found in schizophrenia research. Studies published between October 2015 and October 2016 were included in this review. The majority of the studies addressed the associations between ability-based emotional intelligence and other clinical or neuropsychological features, for example symptom severity or executive functioning. One study investigated the effect of oxytocin on emotional intelligence and another dealt with the question, whether emotional intelligence could be an endophenotype for schizophrenia. The reviewed literature reveals that patients with schizophrenia exhibit impairments in ability-based emotional intelligence. In this context, non-social cognition, positive symptoms, and anomalous-self experiences seem to be of major relevance. The potential endophenotypic role of ability-based emotional intelligence in schizophrenia remains to be clarified.
• Kee, K., Horan, W. P., Salovey, P., Kern, R. S., Sergi, M. J., Fiske, A. P., Green, M. F. (2009). Emotional intelligence in schizophrenia: The current study assessed schizophrenia patients’ performance on a theoretically-based, well validated, multidimensional measure of emotional intelligence, the Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test. The study found that among patients, lower MSCEIT scores significantly correlated with higher negative and disorganized symptoms, as well as worse community functioning.
• Sara Dawson, Lisa Kettler, Cassandra Burton, and Cherrie Galletly,2012, People with Schizophrenia Lack Emotional Intelligence: Social cognition is a domain of cognitive function that includes the ability to understand and manage social interactions. Emotional intelligent (EI) has been identified as a component of social cognition and is defined as the ability to identify, use, understand, and manage emotions. Neuro-cognitive impairments are known to be associated with poorer social function in people with schizophrenia, but less is known about the relationships between EI, neuro-cognition, and social function. The current study assessed EI using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) in 20 people with schizophrenia and 20 controls. The schizophrenia group had significantly lower scores on all measures of EI and demonstrated poorer neuro-cognition and social functioning than controls. The difference between schizophrenia and control groups was greatest for the Understanding Emotions Branch of the MSCEIT. The neuro-cognition score and total EI score accounted for 18.3% of the variance in social function in the control group and 9.1% of the variance in social function in the schizophrenia group. Our results suggest that a total EI score is not a useful predictor of overall social function and it may be more clinically useful to develop an individual profile of social cognitive abilities, including EI, to form a remediation program.
• E. Chapela J. Quintero I. Morales M. Félix-Alcántara J. Correas J. Gómez-Arnau, 2016, the evolution of emotional intelligence in schizophrenia: A comparative study of two groups at different times of the disorder: in which the aim was to compare emotional intelligence and other clinical and neurocognitive data in patients with schizophrenia in a different moment of evolution. Twenty-five patients with schizophrenia for up to 5 years of evolution were compared to 24 patients withbschizophrenia for more than 5 years of evolution. The assessment protocol consisted of a questionnaire on socio-demographic and clinical-care data, and a battery of assessment scales, including MSCEIT for emotional intelligence. Both groups show a deterioration of emotional intelligence. Schizophrenia patients over 5 years of evolution have worse performance in emotional intelligence test that schizophrenic lower evolution. In the schizophrenia group of up to 5 years of evolution, none variables correlate with emotional intelligence. In the schizophrenia group of more than 5 years of evolution, there were moderate negative correlations with the severity of symptoms and depressive symptoms, and moderate correlation of positive sign with functionality, but none of the neurocognitive assessment scales. There are arguments for the existence of a progressive deterioration of emotional intelligence in schizophrenia. This deficit in emotional intelligence in schizophrenia appears to be present from the first years of the disease.
• Thomas J Dinzeo, Nancy M Docherty, 2007, Normal personality characteristics in schizophrenia: A review of the literature involving the FFM: Schizophrenia is generally viewed as a disruption of normal functioning because of an underlying core illness. A number of theorists have speculated that this core illness may unilaterally disrupt normal personality functioning. However, recent data suggests that the relationship may be more complex and reciprocal than previously conceptualized. Furthermore, basic personality characteristics appear to be associated with numerous clinical phenomena. This article reviews the empirical literature pertaining to normal personality characteristics in individuals with schizophrenia. Evidence suggests that certain personality characteristics may be uniquely related to the etiology of psychosis, as well as symptom severity, occupational functioning, cigarette smoking, substance use and violent behavior, social isolation, and suicidality in patients with schizophrenia. The implications of these findings and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Studies regarding cannabis addiction
• Dharmender Kumar Nehra and Vibha Sharma, 2012, July, Emotional intelligence and self esteem in cannabis abusers: This study was taken up to investigate emotional intelligence and self esteem in cannabis abusers. Cross sectional hospital based study, Study is based on a sample of 200 individuals. 100 Cannabis dependent, diagnosed based on DSM-IV TR was selected from two different hospitals in north India. 100 healthy matched subjects constituted the control group. Assessment was done using MINI, General Health Questionnaire, Indian Adaptation of Emotional Intelligence Scale and Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale. Significant differences were seen in Emotional Intelligence between the Cannabis dependent group and normal control group. The cannabis dependent groups scored significantly low on emotional intelligence in comparison with control group. Further, cannabis dependent group scored significantly lower on score of self esteem than the normal control group. Relationship between emotional intelligence and self esteem was found to be positively correlated. Our study suggests an association between low emotional intelligence, low self esteem and cannabis dependence and the prevention and treatment of cannabis dependence should lay focus on these factors.
• Aroa Ruiz Martínez, 20th May, 2016, study of emotional intelligence as a risk factor for cannabis use and disruptive behaviour: According to the 2015 European Drug Report (European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, 2015), cannabis is the most consumed drug of abuse among all age groups. According to this, and in order to find new explanatory ways to cannabis abuse and dependence, the aim of the present research is to examine the connection between cannabis use, emotional intelligence and disruptive behaviour in order to assess if emotional intelligence correlates with cannabis use and disruptive behaviour.
In order to answer this question, a survey including the Trait Meta-Mood Scale – MTTS-24 (Salovey et al., 1995), the Adolescent Cannabis Problems Questionnaire – CPQ-A (Copeland, Gilmour, Gates and Swift, 2005), the Cannabis Abuse Screening Test – CAST (Legleye, Karila, Beck and Reynaud, 2007) and the Self- Reported Delinquency Scale – SRD (Luengo et al., 1999) has been done. The principal results give light to a trend of negative relationship between Emotional Intelligence and drug use for all Emotional Intelligence scales but for the emotional reparation one, where the relationship turns to be positive. Regarding to the relationship between drug use and anti-normative behaviour, the present study confirms that there exists a positive correlation between anti-normative conduct and cannabis use, but only in those who have a dependence relationship with cannabis, while it has no explanatory weight when we refer to consumption to without dependence. The most explanatory variable in this case turns to be the age of onset of cannabis intake.
• (Claros & Sharma, 2012) found that, EI scores were significant predictors of alcohol and marijuana use among college students
• Bernadette Kun and Zsolt Demetrovics, 2010, Emotional Intelligence and Addictions: Since the millennium, an expanding number of research articles have examined then relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and physical and mental health. The relationship between EI and addictive disorders has, however, remained relatively well hidden. Therefore it has been systematically reviewed and critically evaluated the literature on this relationship. We identified 51 articles on the topic of which 36 fulfilled our inclusion criteria. Results indicate that a lower level of EI is associated with more intensive smoking, alcohol use, and illicit drug use and two components of EI play a key role in addictions: “decoding and differentiation of emotions” and “regulation of emotions.”
• Claros, Edith; Sharma, Manoj, 2012, The Relationship between Emotional
Intelligence and Abuse of Alcohol, Marijuana, and Tobacco among College
Students: This study examined the relationship between emotional intelligence (El), alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco use. A correlation analysis was used to explore the relationship between El and the use of alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco among college students (n = 199). El abilities (perception, utilization, understanding, and regulation of emotions) were measured in college students who completed the valid and reliable Schutte Self Report Inventory (SSRI), the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), the Fagerstram Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), and the Marijuana Screening Inventory (MSI). The results demonstrated that El constructs (Perception, Utilization, Regulation, and Management of Emotion) scores were significant predictors of alcohol and marijuana use. An association between the El and cigarette smoking was not supported by this study.
• Madhuri, 2013, A comparative study of emotional intelligence & personality of alcoholics & drug addicts and non-alcoholics & non-drug addicts: Background: Addiction is a health, cultural, economic and social issues for the future development of any country and also endangers the socio-economic and political status of countries. Besides, its impacts on mental and physical health of the addicted individuals. Addiction not only changes the personality of addicts, it also impacts the Emotional Intelligence (EI) level of addicts. The aim of the current research is to compare, examine and measure the Emotional Intelligence (EI)level of alcoholics & drug addicts with non-alcoholics & non-drug addicts. It also tries to find personality of both categories i.e. alcoholics & drug addicts and non-alcoholics & non-drug addicts. For the current study, five main hypotheses have been formulated (1) Emotional Intelligence (EI)of drug addicts & alcoholics would be significantly lower than that of non alcoholics &non drug addicts. (2) The alcoholics & drug addicts would score high on Neuroticism as compared to the non alcoholics &non drug addicts. (3) The alcoholics & drug addicts would score low on Extraversion as compared to the non alcoholics &non drug addicts. (4) The alcoholics & drug addicts would score high on Psychoticism as compared to the non alcoholics &non drug addicts. (5) The personality development would be better in non addicts than addicts.
Method: In the current study, two scales have been used to measure the EI level and personality of alcoholics & drug addicts and non alcoholics &non drug addicts, (1) Mangal Emotional Intelligence Inventory (MEII)& (2) Eysenck Personality Questionnaire – Revised (EPQ-R). For the statistical analysis, 2×2 Factorial ANOVA II technique and the t-test have been used. Fifty samples for each category i.e. drug addicts, alcoholics, non-alcoholics andnon drug addicts have been considered. Total of 200 samples has been considered.
Results: The average score for emotional intelligence is found to be significantly lower in addicts as compared to non-addicts. Significant variation has been found between the Neuroticism score of addicts and non-addicts. Average Neuroticism score is significantly higher in addicts than that of non-addicts. Average Extraversion score is found to be significantly higher in non addicts as compared to addicts. Average Psychoticism score is found to be significantly higher in the addicts as compared to non-addicts. Further, the personality developments are better in non addicts than that of in addicts.
Discussion: These findings have multiple and important theoretical and therapeutic implications for addicts. And it will also help in understanding the type of personality of addicts and non-addicts. This brings us back to the question on importance of coping strategies, psycho-education and medical treatment. On the basis of findings, it is needless to say that this might be a positive effect on psycho-education and medical treatment and will help medical researchers and practitioners.