STUDENT INDUSTRIAL PROJECT REPORT
May 2018 – Sep 2018
Zurich industries L.L.C.
Mohammed Nadeem AL-Qadi
ID N# : 22442
Chemical ENGINEERINGVERIFICATION STATEMENT
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF FIGURES and tables
OVERVIEW OF THE STUDY
This gist of this paper is to examine application of marine fender and type of treatment to the rubber parts of the fenders after curing.
are reported to exhibit high water cut problem with water fractions ranging from a minimum of 50% to a maximum of over 80%. Hence the paper will provide in-depth analysis of the problem including the natural theory of water influx in oil reservoirs, types and factors which influence the amount of water produced in oil wells such as; drive mechanisms, flow regimes and reservoir boundary conditions.
Application of ESP Y-Tool bypass system has been identified as an ideal completion method to economically produce oil from this field. More specifically, the bypass system is proven to confer the following benefits: provide access to below an electrical submersible pump (ESP) without need for workover which significantly reduces operational costs and reduces downtime.
Y-Tool bypass system also allows perforations, isolation of water zones and performing well stimulation activities to be performed through the bypass side of the Y-Tool. These operations ultimately enhance production rate and hence boosts profitability of wells.
Another potential benefit of Y-Tool discussed is the dual ESP system. One way of building a dual completion is by using two Y-Tools. Dual ESPs are proven to increase production by reasonable rates by putting many zones or reservoir sections in production.
IntroductionThis report is divided to 2 parts based on the 2 projects I work and research on during my SIP training. The two projects assigned are marine fenders first part discuss the type of marine fenders its type, usage and its life. 2nd rubber post-curing and treatment.
Objectives of the study
Relevancy of the project.
3.0 Part 1 : Marine Fenders
Rubber fenders are used as bumpers to absorb collision energy during contact or crush between the vessel and docks or vessel and other vessel in the maritime industry. For many, they may not be aware that massive sea vessels are embedded with rubber fenders on the outer surface of the vessel like (ships, boats, excreta). These fenders. Rubber fenders are also installed on docks. Solid rubber fenders have been used for long time since they are available and are considered that they have long life (my reach to 40 years with good maintained and high quality materials). The key objective of the rubber fenders on the dock is to absorb collision energy during the berthing process. This in return protects both the ship and the dock after collision. All these types of rubber fender are unique in their own way and come with different specifications .Rubber fenders come in different forms including, pneumatic type, CO-type, SC-type, GD-type and many others.
3.2 Fenders types
There are many different types of popular fenders. Type of fenders used are basically dictated in a project by project basis to optimize performance over the product lifecycle. Some of the most common types are arch fenders, cylindrical fenders, supercell fenders, cone fenders and more. Different types of rubber fenders are more suited for different situations and uses.
3.2.1-Cone rubber fenders:
Also referred to as Type CO fenders, they endure severe shear external force by making effective use of its conical body shape. With its high elasticity levels, they are more often used in big port construction.
317502199640Figure 184.108.40.206 : Cone rubber fenders
00Figure 220.127.116.11 : Cone rubber fenders
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cone fenders are an improved version of Cell Type Fender. It considered new type of fenders that introduced and recommended for all type of applications including high tidal variation sites. This advanced feature of lesser height of fenders improves material handling capabilities of Deck / Vessel Cranes which reduces overall cost of the project. Due to the geometrical shape of the fenders it can deflect more, and it can absorb more energy from any direction. Maintaining reaction force, but doubling energy absorption, can be achieved by using two identical cone fenders in a back-to-back arrangement. To distribute the reaction force, cone fenders are typically supplied with large fender panels, which keep the hull pressure low. Cone have good energy absorption to reaction force ratio (E/R); Integrated and fully-embedded fender flanges make assembly & installation simple; Good shear force resistance due to the large diameter of the fender flanges; large fender footprint with good force distribution could lead to comparative light panel construction. cone rubber fender adopts shaped rubber with a steel border at the head. This new structural design increases the design compressive deflection from 50% to 70%, on the condition that the reaction force is not increased. This type of rubber fender lightens the structure of a dock and thus reduces the construction cost of a dock. Therefore, a cone rubber fender, one of the best rubber fenders, is an ideal replacement of super cell rubber fenders. cone rubber fender is suitable for the docks that requires low reaction force and high energy absorption, the docks that requires low surface pressure of the ship’s panel, off-shore open berths and large docks like oil wharf and container terminal, as well as all places that are suitable for super cell marine fender.
High energy absorption with reaction force ratio (E/R)
Outstanding energy absorption per fender weight
High allowable static load of fenders
High shear stability to enhance angular performance
High durability as the internal stresses are dispersed throughout the fender body
Sophisticated and optimized fender geometry
Optional overload stopper
3746502160905Figure 18.104.22.168 : Cone rubber fenders
00Figure 22.214.171.124 : Cone rubber fenders
FENDER MARINE Cell fenders are mostly installed for docks (Dock medium type to VLCC) where Reaction Force is an vital measurement. Among all types of fenders, Cell fenders offer lowest reaction per ton-meter energy absorbed. The very geometrical shape gives it sturdiness, shear resistance, compact structure and the capacity to absorb energy equally from all directions. The Cylindrical buckling column absorbs axial loads effectively and buckles radically. This results in multi directional dispersion of energy. Cell fenders are the most durable rubber fenders available and are currently the largest molded fenders made. 2000-2500 mm high cell fenders are typically used for LNG docks. To distribute the reaction force, cell fenders are typically supplied with large fender panels, which keep the hull pressure low. Our Cell Type rubber fender is installed on docks to absorb the collision energy between ship and dock at the time of berthing. With higher E/R, this marine fender can be used for off-shore docks, especially suitable for dolphin wharf. This super cell rubber fender has no impingement steel frame at the head, which greatly reduces the surface pressure. The surface pressure can be controlled below 25 tons per square meter,
2-“Wing” DO Rubber fenders:
An improved design derived from the original D-Fender, this shape offers greater constancy and maintains high durability. It can be found on boats, marine assets, floating structures etc. It is not a very popular option compared to other fender types, but it does what it does well. They are also used in the general framework in wharf. wing fenders are compression molded fenders and are generally used on tugs, boats and ships. It is easy to install and replace. It has outstanding sea water resistance and resistance to ozone aged and ultraviolet rays. This Wing Type fender is used to absorb the berthing energy during mooring or berthing to protect the ship and the dock from being damaged. It is suitable for various docks, wharfs sides. It has higher energy absorption than D type rubber fender. It features higher installation strength and long service life. This rubber fender is suitable for frame type docks.
3- Arch Fender.
the most popular marine fender systems in the world. arch fender provides incredible shear performance, making it suitable for vessels with high allowable hull pressures arch fenders can be used with limited space or during situations with highly restricted conditions. Different dimensions (width, length, height) are chosen based on specific project applications that best suits the berth structure. Arch fenders have a better Energy / Reaction force ratio and recommended for all types of applications. The very shape of these fenders helps to dissipate the stress evenly. These Compression Molded fenders are very easy to install and are maintenance free. Generally our Arch fenders are preferred for small to medium range Vessels. Arch Type rubber fenders are installed on docks and structures to absorb the collision energy between ship and dock during berthing. There are two types of Arch fenders; High reaction force type and Standard reaction force type. The design compressive deflection is 50%. This rubber fender features low reaction force and high energy absorption. It is of reasonable structure, long service life, firm installation and easy replacement.
arch fenders were introduced to improve upon the performance of cylindrical fenders. Arch fenders have a better Energy / Reaction force ratio and recommended for all types of applications. The very shape of these fenders helps to dissipate the stress evenly. These Compression Molded fenders are very easy to install and are maintenance free. Generally, our Arch fenders are preferred for small to medium range Vessels. Arch Type rubber fenders are installed on docks and structures to absorb the collision energy between ship and dock during berthing. There are two types of Arch fenders; High reaction force type and Standard reaction force type. The design compressive deflection is 50%. This rubber fender features low reaction force and high energy absorption. It is of reasonable structure, long service life, firm installation and easy replacement.
4-Unit Element Fender: One of the most durable type with a versatile modular system. It can be installed horizontally or vertically on quay walls to suit a use.
5- Cylindrical type CY:
Cylindrical shaped fender offers great versatility to accommodate all sizes of ships makes it a one of the most commonly used marine fender system. One unique advantage over other types is its ability to be installed diagonally, in addition to vertical or horizontal fitting. The cylindrical fenders can be easily mounted on the hull of the ship with a longitudinal chain. The fender can be supplemented by webbing straps or sleeved chains which fit in special grooviest ends of the fenders can be tapered to get a better connection to the hull. Cylindrical fenders can be attached to a wide variety of structures and in different manners. Installation is relatively simple, and they can be mounted horizontally, vertically or diagonally using chains or rods. Cylindrical fenders can be provided in specified lengths and the ends can be beveled
6- “D” type fender: There are 3 main types of “D” rubber fenders with differences in the inner hollow shape. DD comes with a D-shaped inner hollow Provided with a D-shaped inner chamber; DC comes with a O-shaped inner hollow; while Solid-D is entirely solid (O-shaped inner chamber). DS fender. Without an inner chamber. These fenders are popularly installed on smaller port walls and on boats/small ships. D fenders can be fitted by means of bolts and or strips in various manners: horizontally, vertically or diagonally. The mounting holes required are made through the side or through the top and bottom of the fender. D fenders can also be produced vulcanized with required radiuses, which allow them to be fitted properly to a circular bow or stern. D fenders can be provided in specified lengths and the ends can be beveled.
D Fenders can be pre-curved, chamfered and drilled to aid installation at a relatively low cost and can also be cut to the length required. They provide an excellent barrier against damage from all sizes and shapes of vessels. They are ideal for smaller quays and wharves serving fishing boats, tugs, barges and other work craft. D Fenders are also commonly used on pontoons and on inland waterways for lock protection Fenders are also called Extrusion Fenders. Extrusion is a manufacturing process involving pushing unvulgarized rubber through a special die to form a constant cross-section profile
D Fenders Core Attributes are
?Ideal for smaller quays and wharves
?Easy to install with a flat bar down the bore
?Can be supplied in long lengths and be cut to length,
angle cut at the ends
Specifically designed for entrances of docks and narrow canals, the roller design facilitates ships into space-restricted waters, by avoiding the vessel from crashing into the walls. Its main function is not about energy absorption, instead its main function is to “guide” the vessel. We have seen even wheels be utilized as rollers.
The outlook of the keyhole fender looks quite similar to the square type fender. The hollow part in the middle is of a key-hole shape. Depending on requirements, it can come with UHMWPE pads, or have a grooved/flat surface. It has high resistance towards abrasion and UV. MARINE Key Hole Fenders are used as an alternative to W-Fenders in case of extreme loads. The Key Hole Cross Section is very tough but can be curved around the hull. Fixing /Mounting is very simple with this type of fender. Keyhole fenders are the most versatile bow, stern fenders used on the Tug Boats and small Port Crafts/Ferries. They offer maximum protection to the Tugs/Ferries with its typical profile and load absorbing capabilities
Another popular choice for tug boats due to its ability to fit the form of the boat stern/bow. FENDER MARINE “W” Type Fenders are installed in to the bow and the aft portion of the ocean-going tugs, to protect the hull of the vessel, gains the damages caused during pushing and Pulling operations/ towages. These fenders are installed in similar manner as those of Key Hole Fenders. W fenders have with high energy absorption and low reaction force. This type rubber fender is installed on Ship front area to protect the Ships from being damaged at the time of berthing. With 50% design compressive deflection, this kind of W – rubber fender can effectively bumper the collision between docks and ships.
FENDER MARINE “M” type marine fender is used to absorb the berthing energy so as to protect the vessel or the dock from being damaged during mooring or berthing. It features high energy absorption, low reaction force, reasonable structure, easy installation and maintenance.
3.3 Life Evaluation of Rubber Marine Fender
Rubber fenders are always in contact with the corrosive sea water. Therefore, sufficient maintenance is required in order to have long lasting rubber fenders. The main key to marine fender maintenance lies in the anchor maintenance. Anchor, made of galvanized iron, is used to attach fenders onto the pier wall. Following installation, anchors and fenders do not require any special treatment. However, the anchors need to be periodically checked to make sure that they are still in a good condition, for instance, the anchors are not rusty and still in their perfect shape (no breakage). Rust weakens the strength of the anchor, which can yield the fender to partially or even fully collapse from the pier wall. On the other hand, the rubber fender itself does not need special maintenance as the formula of the rubber contain antioxidant and antiozone to protect the rubber from oxidation and degradation due to ultraviolet radiation and ozone.
3.4 damaged old fenders and fenders maintenance
4. rubber post-curing and treatment
Post-curing, as the name describes, involves a secondary cure of the Rubber, typically in a hot air circulating oven at a given temperature for a certain amount of time. The process reduces toxic by-products from some peroxide-cured Rubber and generally improves the physical characteristics. The post curing of silicone elastomers is a costly endeavor, adding time and money to the manufacturing process. While some original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) must post-cure their products to meet certain regulatory requirements and safety standards, others may benefit from recent technology advancements in silicone elastomers. Manufacturers have searched for ways to eliminate the need to post-cure materials after curing. This white paper details the advantages and disadvantages of post-curing and highlights the situations where the process can be eliminated.
All training and application in post curing rubber has been applied on EPDM since it is the most used type in the company production and it used during fender production which was the first part of my SIP.EPDM is also known with Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer. EPDM rubber is an extremely versatile material that can be used in a variety of applications, from automotive products to HVAC parts. It also acts as a less expensive alternative to silicone and can last for long periods of time with proper use, saving you time and money.in other hand EPDM are not recommended if continual contact with petroleum-based products, also EPDM rubber is not used for usage in food applications or those that are exposed to aromatic hydrocarbons.
4.x Example of calculation method for direct problem solution
The solution of the coupled equation system is obtained using COMSOL software (www.comsol.com). The temperature set value boundary conditions are represented as a function of time, so their values must be known for every time step of the calculation. But define the boundary conditions for few points in the time horizon. This reduction of the number of parameters to be estimated and the use of an independent functions _k to describe the temperature allows to improve the solution research and to make the resolution of the inverse problem reliable.
where Np represents the number of set value parameters and _kðtÞ the functions defined
by the Equation.