Street foods are ready–to-eat food and drinks which is prepared in streets and sold along the streets by street vendor or hawkers, it also prepared in vendors home and carry to the market by vendors, consume without any further processing (Muinde et al.
2005). Street foods business is increasing in developing countries that sold along roadside near schools, colleges, universities or any company or any place (Muyanja et al., 2011).
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Street foods are major source of income of some street vendors with low investment. For workers who are working outside from their home and student street foods are cheapest and easily assessable food with good nutrition (Madueke et al. 2014). For production in large quantities, street food is prepared in shops and for small quantity street food is processed in a vendor’s home.
Nearly 76% street foods are prepared at home (Cortese et al.2016). ). Street vendors sold street food on rickshaws wheel barrows, trays, tables, temporary stalls, that cause increases the risk of contamination.
Further processing improper handling contributes to the entry of pathogen (Mahale et al.2008). Water when come in contact with sewage water gets contaminated with difference types of bacteria (Fredlund et al.1987). some type of microorganisms like salmonella ssp and staphylococcus aureus ssp are major type of food borne illness and infection that occur due to consuming contaminated foods with these organisms (Akbar and Anal, 2013). Street foods business is a major source of income for those peoples who are not skilled and not educated in developing countries (FAO, 2010). Street foods business also contributes to economic condition of any developing countries like Indonesia who earn 1 million dollar annually from street foods business (FAO, 2010, Cohen, 1986).
People prefer street foods due to low income since street food provide cheap option compare to the food sold at restaurants. The culture of an area or region also promotes the consumption of street foods. Usually the people from local area or people who work outside from their home town prefer to take street foods. Students also like street foods for a fun. Even some people may consume street food 2 to 3 times a day.
In urban areas, people may prefer to buy street foods for dinner. Approximately 2.5 billion people eat street foods in a day (Mehta et al.,2016).Approximately 48 million people get food poising each year in America resulting in 128,000 admit in hospitals 3000 people die each year in America (CDC 2013). In developing countries data of food poising is scare (WHO 2007).
In low income countries, diarrhea is the third causing illness of death resulting in 1.8 million people die in 2005 most cases due to contaminated food and water (WHO 2013). Fourteen people die due to food poisoning after consuming street food in Malaysia in 1988 and the same year in Hong Kong 300 get sick after consuming street (Devlieghere et al.2012). Street vendors have not good knowledge about food safety improper handling of street food and consumer awareness about food safety related with certain food that street food may pose (Rane et al.2011).
It is also a common practice of most street vendors for not washing their utensils in a proper set up using clean rinsing water. They collect their tea cups from the consumer and dip in a tub filled with water and wash (re-wash) their tea cups in contaminated water for all the day long. Due to this highly unhygienic practice, the food will become seriously contaminated with highly number of microbes that is coming from different persons. There may be quite chance that consumer have Hepatitis or any other type of illness and microbes from infected person spread via water during washing the utensils in the water filled in the tub(Yousefi et al.
2006). The most common microorganisms those may be spread through the wash-water. Microbe present in the food cause severe food poising leading to death depending on the quantity of food consumed and type and number of microbes present in the food. Sometime microbes are not present in the food but food poising occur due to toxin produced by the microbes which are present in the food before processing of food(Bari et al. 2016). In developing countries different types of juices are consumed in large scale that provides great nutrition to consumer. People like untreated juice because of fresh flavor of juice that are extracted by screw type machine or by pressed the juice and vegetable.
Microbes may enter in vegetable and fruits from cuts (that occur during harvesting transporting storage and supply located on outer surface. Microbes may also enter in these types of juice during extracting, raw material storage and method of all this processing that can cause food poisoning because this type of juice is not treated of any type (Nicolas et al., 2007).
People like fresh juices due to fresh taste and good nutrition valve, some food points like some café and some restaurant dish up juices in good conditions but some street vendors serve in very bad condition that mean street vendors juice may have high number of microbes as compare to café and restaurant. Juices from street vendors can cause food poisoning at high level as compare to cafe due to bad hygienic condition (Lewis et al., 2006). Due to incomplete facilities of handling raw foods and material and ready foods handling like refrigeration system and in some points washing facilities, sanitary condition is not good and food can’t be store at low temperature that is a great risk for public health. Risk factors at street foods point can affect on food safety at sensitive points of contamination such as purchasing have criteria of selection of raw material and others item other factors like hygienic condition during supply of prepared foods to the vendors and preparing raw materials in case of self cooking storing serving and waste management (Cortese et al., 2015). Street foods are subjected to cross contamination from different ways like utensil (knives, raw food,) that use street foods vendors and flies that sit of ready foods is a big source of contamination. In some foods points vendor have no facility of tap water so they wash their utensils in buckets, sometime they also wash their hands in same buckets and tabs without soap after using toilets.
Such type of vendors sometime discard their waste near the stalls that is a big reason of insects and other that help further to carry different types of food borne microbes in the food (Eromo et al,. 2016). Some time street foods reported as contaminated that have high numbers of different types of microbes and some time reported as food poisoning. In some location street food found hygienically very poor show high numbers of microbes in foods. People like streets food on taste, price of food, and some time nutritional value of street foods (Waghary et al., 2000).
Some time consumption of raw foods especially vegetable such as carrot, cucumber, salads, and some fruits without proper washing found to be food poisoning in developing countries and also developed countries (Kumar et al., 2006). some countries where street foods is common some time peoples of that countries have no knowledge about food safety and food borne disease from contaminated foods caused by street foods. There is no any type of knowledge about number of incidence how much people get food poisoning how many people died after eating contaminated food. But some study on street foods in America Asian and African countries has exposed high number of microbes present in street foods. They also note about figure how many people get sick and died after eating poison foods (Mahale,. et al 2008). People use street foods are at high risk of food poisoning due to variety of pathogens.
In street foods microbes may come from different sources. Pathogen microbes may come in food during peeling, slicing, trimming, and pacing transportation and distribution (Barro et al., 2007). People sold streets food by using basic facilities like wheel barrows, in buckets, tables, tabs, trays and prepare stalls by shifting that may increase risk of food poisoning. Contaminations from uncooked material and utensils, bad handling practices and bad hygienic condition is a major source of pathogen entry in the food (Mahale et al., 2008).
Method that usually use for foods preparation, temperature during food preparation, handling of raw and cooked foods and bad health of foods handlers are major source of foods contamination, big source of contamination (Tassew et al., 2016). Streets foods item can contain high number of microorganisms of different species like bacillus, e coli, and salmonella which may poise food poisoning.
Some time microorganisms produce toxin in foods. Food intoxication also a big factor of food poisoning, this is generally due to poor hygienic conditions during food preparation and serving (Rajan et al., 2017).
Street foods that are ready by street foods vendors are very famous in some countries due to their easily availability, taste, and cheap, nutritional value. Foods that is available alongside the roads are a good boon to the labor that working outside from their home under economic constraints (Chakravarthy., 2003). Food industry plays an important role to urban suppliers to fulfill the demand of many towns and cities in developing countries. It fulfills the requirement of large number of people on daily basis with low price and available easily in markets and different shops. But foods poisoning due to microbes that are present in foods are a big problem that is mostly occur after eating street foods.
Some time antibiotic type of bacteria is present in food that is present in food due to contamination of raw and ready to eat foods. Antibiotic resistance bacteria while present in ready to eat foods is a high risk to people who consume that type of contaminated foods with antibiotic resistance bacteria. While since the antibiotic resistance determinants can be transferred to other pathogenic bacteria potentially comprising the treatment of different bacterial infections (4.5). many cases of food poisoning are noticed due to consumption of fry fish and bread that is prepared in local market in Hawassa city within 2 years. Reason of this food poisoning was not confirmed.
Additionally in Hawassa many cases are noticed relating to diarrhea that occurs due to street foods poisoning in satellite cases (Kibru et al., 2016). Self employment is increasing day by day with different business, these business are of different types. Self employment rate is greater as compare to developed countries because of unemployment, educational level and purchasing power of different items and formal labor bazaar. Street foods vendors are also increasing in developing countries. This business is not only growing due to self employment, but also due to provide foods with low price for peoples that have not good income. In a survey of household budget show that 30% people from main city of Brazil consume foods outside from their home and they spend 33.
1% of their food budget in street foods and meal from outside from their homes. Different studies on street foods show that contamination in street foods is unquestionable that is depend in which condition foods is prepare distribute, serve. Contamination occur due to unavailability of resources like water, waste management, and ready to eat, raw foods storage in points where food stalls is installed (Dutra el al., 2017). People like foods from outside their home like different hotels and food stalls, street foods due to many reason but also shortage of time like student and job holder who go on their jobs or universities and have no time for cooking of food. They go outside from their home and eat foods from different points. Generally foods that is prepared in different stalls and hotels, street point is not ok good quality as not prepared in hygienic condition in all points always.
Vendors of different points is also a reason of preparing foods in unhygienic condition as they went to prepare foods in large quantity in minimum time with less cost and with minimum efforts. They also went attention of consumer for earn money so they not focus on quality and sanitation. Many people get sick after eating contaminated foods from different food stalls (Afzal et al.
, 2014). In a research on sevesn different types of streets like chapaties, daal chawel, luddu, sugarcane juice, different types of biscuits and cakes. Different types of microbes like e coli, staph aureus, bacillus etc were identified in different street foods and restaurants foods that causing food poisoning (Afzal et al.
, 2014). Safety with foods that are prepared outside from homes always is a big problem due to contamination pose to different types of food poisoning, due to different reason like hygienic condition, literacy rate of street vendors, type of foods, place where stalls are installed (sheth et al., 2003). In a study in Philippines show that food contaminated mainly due to Staph ssp, salmonella ssp and Vibrio cholerea that is identified from 15% samples of grilled pork and chicken (Manguiat et al., 2013).
In another study carried out in Egypt by Moustafa shoe that 24% of steet foods samples is contaminated from Listeria ssp (Moustafa et al., 2011). Hav is a major virus around the world cause hepatitis A that found mostly in water. It also transmits through person to person contact. But through water, contaminated with sewerage water is reported in different countries. Hepatitis A virus can be removing through water treatment like high rate filtration, Coagulation, and disinfection (Nasser et al.
, 1994). Hepatitis A is a major actuate viral hepatitis in many countries. Hepatitis A virus found in bad hygienic and sanitary condition laces and in developing countries. Hepatitis A virus infection is still common in new born babies.
Many treatments decreased the ratio of hepatitis A infection like vaccination, availability of clean water, increasing socioeconomic stage etc (Franco et al., 2012). Hav is a single stranded RNA virus that is no enveloped. It can bear high temperature and acid resistant.
In 1991 is categories hepatitis genus as a member of picornaviridae. Hepatitis A virus increases their number by hepatocytes and disturbs liver work, in response of immune system cause of liver swelling. Appearances of clinical symptoms of hepatitis A vary depend on age of people who are infected. Generally 50% of children under age of 6 years have no symptoms of hepatitis A, while some children having some symptoms as not clear that it is hepatitis A. Below age of 4 year less than 5% children and 10% at age of 4-6 having jaundice symptoms. Liver function can be affect badly or fail and death may occur due to jaundice (0.2%) if chronic liver illness with jaundice (Franco et al.
, 2012). Hepatitis A virus cause economic loss all around the world and single virus that is reported in case of foodborne in Canada. Last few years hepatitis A cases increase in Canada caused by many factors like changing in lifestyle, eating habits, traveling, demographics and increased in importing different types of food items from those countries where hepatitis A virus ratio is high in food.
Some study show that hepatitis A virus can survive few hours on human hands and few days in indoors environmental surface. It can survive of vegetable and fruits surface for few days if come in contact due to contamination, and cause hepatitis A in human as many people consume raw vegetables and fruits without washing. Generally hands which are contaminated with infectious virus when come in contact with clean vegetables and fruits can cause 10% transfer of virus to vegetables and fruits. Hepatitis A virus can bear heat and gamma rays and some chemical treatments (Sattar S.A et al., 2000).