ST. AUGUSTINE UNIVERSITY OF TANZANIA
FACULTY OF EDUCATION
Analysis of Morphological Reduplication in Luganda Word Categories
A Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of Education in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Award of the Degree of Master of Arts in Linguistics of St. Augustine University of Tanzania
Reg. Number: MAL 56338
DECLARATION OF ORIGINALITYI hereby confirm that this dissertation report is entirely my original work and that I have written it in my own words. I also declare this present work contains no plagiarism and that any information taken from published or unpublished sources has been acknowledged in accordance with the standard referencing rules. This work also has not been presented for an award of a degree or diploma in any other university or institution.
Fredinand, Alfredina Date
Reg. No. MAL 56338
SUPERVISOR CERTIFICATIONThis dissertation has been submitted for examination with the approval of undersigned University Supervisor(s) to certify that he has read and hereby recommends for acceptance on behalf of St. Augustine University of Tanzania, the dissertation entitled: The Analysis of Morphological Reduplication in Luganda Word Categories using Morphological Doubling Approach in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree of Master of Arts in Linguistics of St. Augustine University of Tanzania.
Prof. Kulikoyela, K. Kahigi Date
Dr.Nestory, N. Ligembe Date
COPYRIGHTAll rights reserved. No part of this dissertation may be reproduced in any form without any consent from St. Augustine University of Tanzania (SAUT) and the researcher.
© Fredinand, Alfredina
DEDICATIONThis dissertation is dedicated to my beloved late father Fredinand and my brother Felix who never lived to celebrate my achievement.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTSI am sincerely grateful to God who has been with me every step of the way. His grace has been sufficient and without him, I would not have come this far. I am greatly indebted to my supervisor Prof. Kulikoyela Kahigi for his scholarly advice and invaluable input which has shaped this work to its present form. Also I am equally grateful to Dr Ligembe for his supervison and all teachers of the Languages and Linguistics Department, St. Augustine University for their support and encouragement. I would like to appreciate all my classmates whose prayers, support and positive criticism made the journey, shorter, easier and worthwhile. Without my respondents from Rakai district, this work would never have been. Thank you for accepting to be a part of my study, for your patience during the interviews and for the data you readily provided. I cannot forget to thank my diligent niece Jovita Justus for her assistants and patience during the long and tedious hours of my studies.
My gratitude also goes to my precious mother and husband for their unwavering financial support, prayers and belief, thank you for always being there for me. Special thanks go to the Chief Administration Officer (CAO), Town Clerk, Education department of Rakai district as well as head of schools in Rakai for the acceptability of collecting data in their area and schools, I real appreciate your belongingness.
I also acknowledge the help, advice, encouragement and company I received from my colleagues Kabalimu Ashoboza, Alpha, Kavishe, Doreen Mrang’u, Johnmary Nestory and Benson Kinjofu their assistance was a catalyst for endless efforts to accomplish this study. Thank you so much and be blessed.
My gratitude also goes to my employer District Executive Officer of Sengerema district for the acceptance to complete this study as well as all staff members of Ngweli secondary school for their prayes and advice in completing my studies.
Many other people have made it possible for me to complete this work. I may not mention each one of you by name, but thank you very much for your support and prayer and may Lord bless you abundantly.
ABSTRACTThis study focuses on reduplication in Luganda lexical categories using Morphological Doubling Theory (Inkelas and Zoll 2005). Reduplication is a morphological process in which the root/stem of a word or part of it is repeated. Reduplication is divided into different types such as full, partial, rhyming, ablaut, reduplication in baby talk and reduplication in onomatopoeia. This study deals only on full reduplication in Luganda lexical categories. The study is guided by the main and specific objectives. The main objective is to investigate the morphological reduplication in Luganda lexical categories.The specific objectives are, to identify Luganda lexical categories that undergo reduplication, to analyze reduplicated patterns using MDT and to explain semantic functions of reduplication in Luganda word categories. Data collection included both primary and secondary data, where primary data included interviews where three pure native speakers and four teachers who teach Luganda in Rakai district were involved. Documentary review involved were Luganda-English dictionary, Holy bible (Old and New Testament) as well as Luganda proverbs and songs. Lexical questionnaires developed by the researcher were used. Careful analysis of full reduplication in Luganda lexical categories shows that all lexical categories undergo this morphological process. The recommendation and suggestions of this study is that similar studies of full reduplication in other Bantu languages be conducted to give an overall description pertaining to this phenomenon.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TOC o “1-3” h z u DECLARATION OF ORIGINALITY PAGEREF _Toc517458486 h iSUPERVISOR CERTIFICATION PAGEREF _Toc517458487 h iiCOPYRIGHT PAGEREF _Toc517458488 h iiiDEDICATION PAGEREF _Toc517458489 h ivACKNOWLEDGMENTS PAGEREF _Toc517458490 h vABSTRACT PAGEREF _Toc517458491 h viiLIST OF FIGURES PAGEREF _Toc517458492 h xiLIST OF TABLES PAGEREF _Toc517458493 h xiiABBREVIATIONS PAGEREF _Toc517458494 h xiiiCHAPTER ONE PAGEREF _Toc517458495 h 1INTRODUCTION PAGEREF _Toc517458496 h 11.1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc517458497 h 11.2.1 Geographic and Linguistic Position of Luganda PAGEREF _Toc517458498 h 11.2.2 Background of the Study PAGEREF _Toc517458499 h 21.3 Statement of the Problem PAGEREF _Toc517458500 h 41.4 Objectives PAGEREF _Toc517458501 h 41.4.1 Main Objective PAGEREF _Toc517458502 h 41.4.2 Specific Objectives PAGEREF _Toc517458503 h 41.4.3 Research Questions PAGEREF _Toc517458504 h 41.5 Rationale for the Study PAGEREF _Toc517458505 h 51.6 Scope and Limitations the Study PAGEREF _Toc517458506 h 51.7 Definition of the Key Terms PAGEREF _Toc517458507 h 6CHAPTER TWO PAGEREF _Toc517458508 h 7LITERATURE REVIEW PAGEREF _Toc517458509 h 72.1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc517458510 h 72.2 Theoretical Literature Review PAGEREF _Toc517458511 h 72.3 Empirical Literature Review PAGEREF _Toc517458512 h 82.3.1 Lexical Word Categories PAGEREF _Toc517458513 h 82.3.2 Morphological Reduplication……………………………………………………………………… PAGEREF _Toc517458514 h 102.3.3 Semantic Functions PAGEREF _Toc517458515 h 162.4 Relationship of Reviewed Literature to the Study PAGEREF _Toc517458516 h 172.5 Theoretical Framework PAGEREF _Toc517458517 h 182.6 Research Gap PAGEREF _Toc517458518 h 23CHAPTER THREE PAGEREF _Toc517458519 h 24METHODOLOGY PAGEREF _Toc517458520 h 243.1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc517458521 h 243.2 General Research Approach PAGEREF _Toc517458522 h 243.3 Area of Study PAGEREF _Toc517458523 h 24Figure: 3.1 Rakai district Map / Area of Study PAGEREF _Toc517458524 h 253.4 Sampling Technique PAGEREF _Toc517458525 h 263.5 Data Collection Techniques PAGEREF _Toc517458526 h 263.6.1 Lexical Questionnaires PAGEREF _Toc517458527 h 263.6.2 Interview PAGEREF _Toc517458528 h 273.6.3 Introspection PAGEREF _Toc517458529 h 283.6.4 Documentary Review PAGEREF _Toc517458530 h 283.7. Data Analysis Procedures PAGEREF _Toc517458531 h 283. 8 Ethical Implications PAGEREF _Toc517458532 h 293.8.1 Truthworthness of Data PAGEREF _Toc517458533 h 29CHAPTER FOUR PAGEREF _Toc517458534 h 31DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION PAGEREF _Toc517458535 h 314.1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc517458536 h 314.2 Lexical Categories which undergo Reduplication PAGEREF _Toc517458537 h 314.2.1 Noun Reduplication PAGEREF _Toc517458538 h 324.2.3 Verb Full Reduplication in Luganda PAGEREF _Toc517458539 h 354.2.4. Luganda Adjectives PAGEREF _Toc517458540 h 318.104.22.168 Adjective Reduplication PAGEREF _Toc517458541 h 404.3. Luganda Adverbs PAGEREF _Toc517458542 h 424.3.1 Adverb Reduplication PAGEREF _Toc517458543 h 434.4 Analysis of Luganda Reduplication Patterns using MDT PAGEREF _Toc517458545 h 444.5.1 Analysis of Noun Reduplication using MDT PAGEREF _Toc517458546 h 444.5.2 Verb Reduplication using MDT PAGEREF _Toc517458547 h 464.5.3 Analysis of Adjective Reduplication using MDT PAGEREF _Toc517458548 h 484.5.4. Analysis of Adverb Reduplication using MDT PAGEREF _Toc517458549 h 504.6 Various Semantic Functions of Reduplicated words in Luganda PAGEREF _Toc517458550 h 524.6.1 To Show Repetition of Events PAGEREF _Toc517458551 h 524.6.2 Reduplicating for Emphasis PAGEREF _Toc517458552 h 534.6.3 Showing something looks like a Real thing PAGEREF _Toc517458553 h 534.6.4 To warn PAGEREF _Toc517458554 h 554.7 Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc517458555 h 55CHAPTER FIVE PAGEREF _Toc517458556 h 56SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS PAGEREF _Toc517458557 h 565.1 Introduction PAGEREF _Toc517458558 h 565.2 Summary of Findings PAGEREF _Toc517458559 h 565.2.1 Identification of Luganda Lexical Categories which undergo Full Reduplication PAGEREF _Toc517458560 h 565.2.2 The Reduplicated Words Analyzed using MDT PAGEREF _Toc517458561 h 575.2.3 The Various Semantic Functions of Reduplication PAGEREF _Toc517458562 h 585.3 Conclusion PAGEREF _Toc517458563 h 585.4 Recommendations and Suggestions for Further Studies PAGEREF _Toc517458564 h 59REFERENCES PAGEREF _Toc517458565 h 60APPENDICES PAGEREF _Toc517458566 h 64APPENDIX 1: LEXICAL QUESTIONNAIRE AND INTERVIEW GUIDE PAGEREF _Toc517458567 h 64SECTION A: NOUNS/ AMANYA PAGEREF _Toc517458568 h 66SECTION B: VERBS/KIKOLWA PAGEREF _Toc517458569 h 69SECTION C: ADJECTIVES/NAKONGEZA LINYA PAGEREF _Toc517458570 h 73SECTION D: ADVERB/NAKONGEZAKIKOLWA PAGEREF _Toc517458571 h 76The Language Map of Uganda PAGEREF _Toc517458572 h 79SECTION E: THE PERMISSION LETTER FROM RAKAI DISTRICT………………………79
LIST OF FIGURESFigure 2.1 MDT Schema in Kimeru………………………………………………………13
Figure 2.2 MDT Schema in Persian……………………………………………….………14
Figure 2.3 Inkelas and Zoll’s Basic Schema of the MDT…………………………………20
Figure 2.4 Daughters of MDT……………………………………………………………21
Figure 2.5 Reduplication Construction……………………………………………………23
Figure 3.1 Rakai District Map …………………..……………………………………….28
Figure 4 The Language Map of Uganda …………………………………………………85
LIST OF TABLESTable 3.1 Sample of Lexical Questionnaire…………………………………………….…30
Table 4.1 Noun Reduplication with Disyllabic Stem….………….……………………..…37
Table 4.2 Noun Reduplication with Trisyllabic Stem…………………………………….38
Table 4.3 Verb Reduplication with Disyllabic Stem………………………………………40
Table 4.4 Verb Reduplication with Trisyllabic Stem…………………………………..…41
Table 4.5 Adjectival Prefixes…….……………………………………………………….42
Table 4.6 Full Reduplicated Disyllabic Stem in Luganda Adjectives..…….……….….…43
Table 4.7 Full Reduplicated Trisyllabic Stem in Luganda Adjectives……………………44
Table 4.8 Adverb Reduplication with Disyllabic Stem………………..………….………45
Table 4.9 Adverb Reduplication with Trisyllabic Stem…….……………………………..46
Table 5.1 Reduplication Trends in this Study……………………………………..………60
ABBREVIATIONSCAO: Chief Administration Officer
DED: District Executive Director
LOT: Language of Tanzania
MDT: Morphological Doubling Theory
CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTION1.1 Introduction
This chapter comprises the background of the study, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research questions, rationale for the study, scope and limitations of the study as well as definition of key terms
1.2.1 Geographic and Linguistic Position of LugandaThe language under study is Luganda. According to Maho (2009) Ganda is coded as JE 15, and Glottocode ganda 1255 a language which is spoken by Baganda of Buganda region in Uganda. Luganda (Oluganda) is a member of the Bantu language branch of Niger – Congo languages. Around 4.1 million Baganda people who live mainly in the Buganda region speak the language known as Luganda/ Oluganda. It is a native language of Baganda nations from Buganda region. Buganda means `bundles` is located in central and southern Uganda in East Africa where the people of Uganda referred to as Baganda. According to Wiesenfeld (1999) total users of Luganda in all over the country are approximately to 3 million used as first language and 1.1 million used as second language. Also Luganda used as among of subject taught in Uganda primary schools. Due to the rural-urban migration in search of employment, education and better settlement, Luganda is now spread in various part of the country such as Masaka, Kampala, Kyotera and Rakai district as well as neighbouring country like Tanzania especially people around the border living in Missenyi and Karagwe district people around these places use Luganda as their mother tongue, hence known as Baganda-Kyaka.
In Uganda there are more than thirty six (36) languages spoken in different areas such as Olunyankore spoken in Mbarara, Olutooro spoken in Tooro, Olunyoro spoken in Bunyoro, Ngakarimajong spoken by Karimajong (Ethnologue language of the world 2017). Although the language is spoken and taught in schools its culture is highly endangered. This has been due massive migration of other ethnic groups to the central region where Luganda is primarily spoken, influence of globalization, Christianity and the desire to copy European ways of living There are different writings written in Luganda such as an explanation orthography of Luganda written by Nsimbi (1958), Luganda English dictionary by Murphy (1968) , Nkyalira walumbe ettanda by Kaddu (1973), Omuganda ne’nswa by Kaswa. J (1966) Olugero lwa kintu by Mulira(1951), Luganda proverbs, Baibuli yo lulimi oluganda by Kasule Mwesigwa, Nnaku teba yomu by Mpalanyi, S. (1977), Luganda bible both old and new testament by Kasule et al (2014). There is also regular radio and TV broadcast in Luganda such as Radio Buddu, Bukedde fm, Bukkedde television and news papers. In this study therefore, all examples and words for this study will be drawn from Luganda.
1.2.2 Background of the StudyReduplication is a morphological process in which the root or stem of a word (or a part of it) or even the whole word is repeated exactly or with a slight change. “A common morphological process in some languages involves reduplication, which marks a grammatical or semantic contrast by repeating all or part of the base to which it applies.”(O’Grady: 2016). Reduplication is used in words to convey grammatical functions such as plurality, intensification and lexical derivation to create new words. Reduplication is one of the word forming processes in English language as well as other languages. Spencer (1991) considers reduplication as an affixation process in which some part of a base is repeated either to the left or to the right or occasionally in the middle. The study focused on the word categories (verbs, nouns, adjectives, adverbs and determiners) on how they undergo total reduplication where an entire word or stem is repeated to make different functions. To have successful analysis in this study Morphological Doubling Theory (MDT) developed by Inkleas and Zoll (2005) this approach used and helped a researcher to distinguish her work from other researcher’s work which has been done on reduplication in all over the world. Spencer (1991) states that reduplication processes are of peculiar interest to morpho-phonology because it has a morphological and phonological aspect. In addition, according to Inkelas and Zoll (2005), the mechanism of reduplication and manner in which copies could differ from each other has been a foundational concern to theoretical and descriptive linguistics. Reduplication has been the focus on both phonological and morphological aspects. Much work has been done in Bantu reduplication, for example, Elliot et al (2010) made analysis on adjective reduplication using template melody , Hyman and Katamba (2001) viewed verbal reduplication as the phonological properties which signaling an action done frequently.Novotna (2000) reduplication in Swahili, Lusekelo (2008) A description on Kinyakyusa reduplication, Nyaga (2014) a study of morphological reduplication in Kiembu, Kanana (2016) reduplication in Kimeru, Boakye (2015) reduplication in Akan, Downing (1997) morphological correspondence in Kinande . Katamba (1993) uses the term reduplication restricting it to situations where the repeated part of the word serves some derivational or inflectional purpose. Novotna (2000) reduplication may be derived from a verb which loses its final vowel, verbs with extensions, existence versus non-existence of derived simple forms, in adverbs and in noun class. From above arguments done by different scholars realized that, reduplication is a morpho-phonological phenomenon where reduplication was and is a popular object of investigation in Auto-segmental Theories, Prosodic Morphology, CV templates and Optimality Theory This controversy has created a gap to attest morphological full reduplication in Luganda word categories using MDT.
1.3 Statement of the ProblemReduplication is inevitable in languages since is the word formation process used to formulate new vocabularies in a certain language. Few scholars tried to capture reduplication in Luganda word categories in different aspects especially phonological perspectives, thus their studies has created a knowledge gap in this study. To fill in the gap, this study therefore sought to base on the following assumptions: to identify the lexical categories that undergo full reduplication in Luganda, to analyze Luganda reduplication using Morphological Doubling Theory (MDT) and to prove the various semantic functions of reduplicated words in Luganda.
This study of reduplication in Luganda was guided by the main and specific objectives as follows.
1.4.1 Main Objective
The main objective of this study was to analyze the morphological reduplication of word categories in Luganda using Morphological Doubling Theory (MDT)
1.4.2 Specific Objectivesi) To identify all lexical categories that undergoes reduplication in Luganda
ii) To analyze Luganda reduplication patterns using Morphological Doubling Theory (MDT)
iii) To explain the various semantic functions of reduplicated words in Luganda.
1.4.3 Research QuestionsThis study guided by the following questions
i) Which word categories of Luganda undergo reduplication?
ii) How Luganda reduplication patterns be analyzed using Morphological Doubling
Theory (MDT)?iii) What are the various semantic functions of reduplicated words in Luganda.1.5 Rationale for the StudyThis study gathered data from Luganda and then analyzed them using Morphological Doubling Theory. The goal of this study concentrated on three folds (objectives), identifying word categories undergo reduplication, describing Luganda reduplication patterns using MDT and to prove the various semantic functions of reduplicated words in Luganda. The study gave the morphological reduplication theoretical perspective in Luganda. This means that the study gave a new approach towards the study of morphological reduplication in Luganda. The study will be more useful in terms of contributing to theoretical linguistics in general as well as Luganda linguistics in particular. It will therefore be a crucial introduction for future Linguists (researchers) who will further study this language.
1.6 Scope and Limitations the StudyThis study based on morphological reduplication where the researcher classified the reduplicated lexical categories such as nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs. Also this study classified Luganda full reduplication using morphological doubling theory.
The following where the main challenges that researcher encountered when she was in the field of study, Firstly, accessing the area of study that was Rakai district as there was a political divisions of a new district of Kyotera district which was earlier the part fo Rakai, hence some of areas which were the main focus in this study were not the part of Rakai district anymore rather were allocated in Kyotera hence the researcher decided to change some areas so as to access the data for study requirements. Secondly, accessing documents written in Luganda were similarly difficult problem as many written documents were unavailable therefore a researcher decide to use the online documents like dictionaries, bible, recorded songs and some written newspapers to formulate data.
1.7 Definition of the Key TermsLexical categories of speech: Lexical category is the syntactic category that commonly accepts the addition of new words also known as open classes normally contain large numbers of words.
Functional grammatical categories of speech: also known as closed grammatical categories are one to which new items are rarely added.
Morphological process: This is a means of changing a stem to adjust its meaning to fit in syntactic and communicational context.
Full reduplication: This is a morphological process where the reduplicant and the base are identical at segmental level .It is called full reduplication because the entire word or stem is repeated.
Doubling: The activity of multiplying by two or repeating two matching elements like stem/base
Morphological Doubling: This focusing on the morphological evidence for viewing reduplication as a morphological construction whose daughters is constrained to be mor-phosemantically identical.
Reduplication: defined as the repetition of part or all of one linguistic constituent to form a new constituent with a different function.
Partial reduplication: repetition of a phonologically defined sub-constituent of a word, with potential concomitant phonological modifications.
CHAPTER TWOLITERATURE REVIEW2.1 IntroductionThe chapter comprises the theoretical literature review, empirical literature review on the mechanisms of lexical word categories, morphological reduplication, typological approach that will be used in this study as well as the study gap.
2.2 Theoretical Literature ReviewAccording to Urbancyzk (2017) reduplication is a word-formation process in which all or part of a word is repeated to convey some form of meaning. A wide range of patterns are found in terms of both the form and meaning expressed by reduplication, making it one of the most studied phenomenon in phonology and morphology. Because the form always varies, depending on the base to which it is attached, it raises many issues such as the nature of the repetition mechanism, how to represent reduplicative morphemes, and whether or not a unified approach can be proposed to account for the full range of patterns.
According to Inkelas and Zoll (2005) reduplication, broadly defined as the repetition of part or all of one linguistic constituent to form a new constituent with a different function, occurs at many points on a spectrum from phonologically defined partial reduplication to the repetition of syntactic phrases. He included total reduplication as by definition, duplicates its morphological target without attention to phonological size or shape.
According to Nadarajan (2004) reduplication is a word formation process in which some part of a base (a segment, syllable, morpheme) is repeated, either to the left, or to the right of the word or, occasionally, within the middle of the word. While reduplication is found in a wide range of languages and language groups, its level of linguistic productivity varies and it is sometimes used interchangeably with repetition.
2.3 Empirical Literature Review
Under this sub-section, the discussion comprehended the literature on the word categories as established in different previous studies through Bantu and Non-Bantu languages
2.3.1 Lexical Word CategoriesWords can be classified by various criteria, but as a technical term ‘word class’ (or ‘part of speech’) refers to the morph syntactically defined categories noun, verb, adjective, adverb, ad position, conjunction, pronoun (and a few others). There are two main types of word classes: content words (nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs) and function words (ad positions, conjunctions, pronouns and others). Nouns, verbs, and adjectives are generally defined by morph syntactic criteria within a language, but cross-linguistically they can be identified only semantically.
According to Hamilton, et al (2016) Luganda is an agglutinative language, meaning that many words are compound, being composed of more fundamental parts (roots and stems) with components added to them (affixes) (N2). Roots and stems give the basic meanings of words – for example, the stem -soma means ‘read’ – while affixes provide further detail. The addition of the affix n- (‘I’) to -soma (‘read’) gives nsoma (‘I read’), the addition of the affix tu- (‘we’) to -soma gives tusoma (‘we read’), and so on. Stems are not necessarily totally unchangeable. For example, the stem -soma can be modified by substitution of the final a by e to give the subjunctive, eg. Tusome. (‘Let us read.’). In contrast, the root is the final irreducible part of a word (som is the root in the case of the stem -soma).
According to Katushemererwe and Hanneforth (1998) nouns in Runyakitara are associated with an initial vowel as a pre-prefix to the root or stem. These are ‘a’, (abantu) ‘e’, (ekitookye) and ‘o’, (omuntu). There are rules that govern the occurrence of the initial vowel. If the noun class prefix has the vowel a, e.g. ba, ma, the initial vowel will be a, thus, amata (milk) abakazi (women). When the noun prefix has i or -, the initial vowel is e for example, ekitookye, emiti, etc. The initial vowel is o when the noun class prefix has u, omuntu (person), omuti (tree). When a noun is pre-ceded by a preposition such as omu (in) aha (at), the initial vowel is dropped e.g. omu muti (in the tree).
According to Lusekelo (2010) the classification of Kinyakyusa adverbs morphologically falls into true true/core and derived adverbs and this classification rely according to functions they designate. For example Reduplication in Kinyakyusa, adverbs reduplicate with semantic functions of intensification as shown in the following data (1)
Stem Gloss Reduplication Gloss
a. ‘muno’ in here ‘ munomuno’ just in here
b . ‘kula’ there ‘kulakula’ over there
c. ‘bwila’ always ‘bwilabwila’ every
d. ‘panandi’ little ‘panandipanandi’ very
e. ‘fiijo’ much ‘fiijofiijo’ very much
From the data (1), adverb reduplication realized to show semantic intensification done through reduplicating the base/stem of Kinyakyusa adverbs.
Lusekelo (2009) in his study of reduplication in Kinyakyusa explains on the verbal reduplication in Kinyakyusa that it undergoes total (full) reduplication. Kinyakyusa expresses the meaning of ‘repetition’, ‘thoughtlessness’ and ‘carelessness. For example in data (2) below show the Kinyakyusa verbal reduplication.
(a) Nyasile ‘sprayed’ > nyasilenyasile ‘drizzled (of rain)’
(b) Lilile ‘cried’ > lililelilile ‘cried recklessly’
(c) Tiimile ‘grazed’ > tiimiletiimile ‘grazed frequently’
(d) Twele ‘brought’ > tweletwele ‘brought repeatedly’
(e) Nyasaga ‘used to spray’ > nyasaganyasaga ‘used to drizzle (of rain)’
From the data (2), according to Lusekelo indicate that, the whole base/stem, i.e. root, perfective and habitual markers (Root + ile/aga) are copied and thus reduplicate totally. This informs us that aspect formatives are copied in total reduplication in the language.
Hamilton, et al (2016) explains on adjective and determiner as a word that adds a quality to a noun (eg. ‘big flower’). In Luganda, adjectives take the nominal concord and nearly always follow the noun, eg. ekimuli ekinene (‘big flower’) (N7). The adjectival stem in this case is -nene (‘big’), used here with the nominal concord ki- (agreeing with the noun class of its noun ekimuli) and having an initial vowel (e-). Other ways of expressing adjectival concepts are through the use of subject relative clauses, eg. ekimuli ekibuze (‘the lost flower’, lit. ‘The flower which is lost’) or possessive phrases starting with the preposition -a (‘of’), eg. ekimuli kya bbululu (‘blue flower’, lit. ‘Flower of blue’). (f)ilaga ‘used to cry’ > lilagalilaga ‘used to cry recklessly’
2.3.2 Morphological ReduplicationMost of reviewed studies on different Bantu morphological reduplication vary according to a certain language to another in such a way that some of the scholars view morphological reduplication in both partial and full reduplication while others full reduplication appears most while partial in rarely situation. Boakye (2015) in his study on reduplication in Akan a dialect spoken in Ghana where the discussion in this study relied on the functions (syntactic, semantic and pragmatic) that these reduplicated forms perform in the language formal account of reduplication involving words from three of the major classes, Nouns, adjectives and verbs and also from other groups such as numerals, adverbs and idiophones, the researcher used two framework that is auto segmental phonology and optimality theory where he argued that Akan reduplication basically copies the entire base in the reduplicant, except in a few instances where some sound modifications occur.
Examples: Data (3) below,
i. dabi ‘a certain day’? dabi-dabi ‘someday’
ii. t?in ‘roam’ ? t?in-t?in
iii. nt?m ‘fast’ ?nt?m nt?m
iv. p?n ‘close’ ? p?n-p?n
v. ka ‘bite’ ? ki-ka
Examples from data (3) above basically copies the base segments in the reduplicant without any modifications to the segments but in 4 and 5, the base vowels are modified in the reduplicant: they change from
-High to +High.Kanana (2016) in her study investigates full and partial reduplication in Kimeru by looking at reduplication in all open categories of speech in Kimeru using the Morphological Doubling Theory (MDT) as shown in the example data (4) below;
a. Ija – come ijaija – come closer
b. Cai – tea caicai – real tea
The data (4) above fully reduplicated Kimeru words follow the MDT’s approach to reduplication of the stem ij? /e?a/ MDT dictates that the morphological constituents that are doubled are equal semantically (agree on their semantic specifications) as shown in the following figure (2.1) MDT Schema in Kimeru
ijaija/e?a/e?a/ (f) (f +come closer) caicai/saisai( f) (f+ real tea)
ija /e?a/ (f) ija/e?a (f) (come) cai/sai (f) cai/sai(f) (tea)
Source: Kanana (2016)
As shown in the figure one (2.1) above, MDT calls twice for the inputs that share a similar meaning. The outputs have some additional information; ‘a comparative’ in the first example and ‘real’ in the second example. Hence the MDT view that, morphological doubling involves the double insertion of morphological constituents or sub constituents which meet a particular morpho-semantic description. However, as shown Kimeru marks a change of meaning in the output as in the examples above. The original word changes its meaning slightly after reduplication.
Nyaga (2014) looked at Kiembu reduplication. Her study sought to establish the linguistic units that are affected by reduplication. Later, she focused on both partial and total reduplication in Kiembu, aspects that were also discussed in this research study. Nyaga established that total or complete reduplication is the most common type of reduplication in Kiembu. This type of reduplication is the most common in Kiembu since most word classes undergo total reduplication. It is common with verbs, nouns, adjectives and adverbs her study used MDT to account for reduplication of Kiembu words. In her study, most of the data analyzed the base and the reduplicant were equal semantically, the same value as presupposed by the Morphological Doubling Theory. Example as shown in data (5) below;
a) oka ‘come’ okaoka (verb) ‘come closer’
b) iri_ ‘food’ iri_iri_ (noun) ‘real food’
c) vau ‘there’ vauvau (adverb) ‘exactly there’
d) ndare ‘inside’ ndarendare (preposition) ‘completely inside’
e) waku ‘yours’ wakuwaku (pronoun) ’emphatic yours or yours alone
Khanjan & Alnezhad (2010) in their work of morphological Doubling Approach to full reduplication in Persian that in terms of MDT constructional schemas in Persian as presented in figure (2.2) below;
Figure (2.2) MDT Constructional schema in Persian (Khanjan& Alnezhad 2010)
a. V + V ? N N F + repetition
/V/ F /V/ F
Examples; Data (6) below,
a. bezæn~bezæn ‘hit’ + ‘hit’ = ‘act of hitting repeatedly’,
b. bepær~bepær ‘jump’ + ‘jump’ ‘act of jumping repeatedly’,
c. beškæn~beškæn ‘break’ + ‘break’ = ‘breaking things one after another’
d. boxor~boxor ‘eat’ + ‘eat’ = ‘eat too much’
e. begir~begir ‘arrest’ + ‘arrest’ = ‘act of arresting people one after another’
f. bodow~bodow ‘run’ + ‘run’ = ‘act of
g. surax + surax ? surax~surax ‘hole’ + ‘hole’ ? ‘having several holes’
h.diver-e surax~surax ‘the wall with several holes in it’
i.’torn’ + ‘torn’ ? ‘torn into pieces’, ‘scrappy’
According to Komu (2008) on the research of morphological reduplication in Gikuyu, the aim the study was to establish the variant patterns and the various semantic functions associated with Gikuyu reduplication and to give an account of Gikuyu full and partial reduplication that Full reduplication typically copies the entire root through suffixation while partial reduplication is prefixed. This study analyzed reduplication data through application of the Prosodic Morphology approach. The focus of the study is the four open-word classes the nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs as shown on data (7) below,
a. nduka Induka I ‘shop’ nduka-nduka ‘shop-emphatic’ (noun)
b. gaya Naja I ‘divide’ gayagaya ‘divide further’ (verb)
c. tene ItWe I ‘ago’ tenetene ‘long ago’ ( adverb)
d. thambia /Oambia I ‘clean’ thambathambia ‘clean further'(verb)
e.. nom /roru I ‘fat’ noranoru ‘fatter’ (adjective)
f. mbere /mbsrs I ‘ahead’ mberambere ‘far ahead’ ( adverb)
g. thiinil I Oeinie I ‘inside’ thiinathiinii’ ‘inner’ (adverb).
The semantic functions served by the above illustrations are varied. ‘Ndukanduka’ (real shop) allude to clarification or emphaticness. ‘Divide further’ indicates attenuation, ‘long ago’ as opposed to ‘ago’ points towards nominal intensification while ‘noranoru’ (fatter) implies competiveness.
Hyman and Katamba (2001) in the study explained that, ‘Reduplication is the final arena of the intersection of phonological domains that considered in their study an area where often the application of morphological processes is circumscribed by prosodic parameters. Reduplication is highly productive in Luganda. Here we restrict ourselves to total verbal reduplication’. Verbal reduplication has a variety of uses including signaling an action done frequently or ‘here and there’ or without real commitment. Here it is the phonological properties of reduplication which have a bearing on word recognition criteria that will be treated. We will begin by considering the realization of word-final underlying length. As seen untypically of length from this source, in a verb the underlying length of the base (first part) of a reduplicated form is not preserved. By contrast, the expected length survives in the reduplicant if it is followed by an enclitic. Data (8) below
a. ku-sasulwa-sasulwaa =kô ‘to be paid a bit’ < ku-sasulwa ‘to be paid’
b. ku-wúlìrwa-wulirwaa =kô ‘to be heard a bit’ < ku-wúlìrwa ‘to be heard’
Where the final length is induced by a contour tone that is realized on the surfaces as in the reduplicant in length is saved before an enclitic. But where the final HL contour fails to surface, the length associated with it.
a. mu-wulile-wuliléè =kô ‘(you pl.) hear a bit!’ < mu-wulilê ‘(you pl.) hear!’)
mu-labilile-labililéè =kô ‘(you pl.) look after a bit!’ < mu-labililê ‘(you pl.) look after!’
b. a-wúlílá-wúlílá =kô ‘he who hears a bit’ < a-wúlílâ ‘he who hears’
a-lábílílá-lábílílá =kô ‘he who looks after a bit’ < a-lábílílâ ‘he who looks after’
As seen in data (8) monosyllabic length is preserved in both parts of the reduplicated verb.
Elliot, Metro and Siegfried (2010) analyzed reduplication in Luganda by showing on how reduplication contributes an alternative meaning, meaning of intensity of the adjectives is diminished in the derived form, also the reduplicative template is a prosodic unit consisting of at least two system, the template is suffixed as well as the copy entire melody of the root adjective does not include noun class prefix and melody of the template left to right. Also they proposed the rules that there is a constraints in Luganda in which a root cannot consist of more than one moras. To rectify this situation, vowel shortening occurs (mapped from left to right on reduplicative template prior to suffixation. For instance the word *tootoo – totoo as vowel length determine the quantity of moras respectively.
2.3.3 Semantic FunctionsMorphological reduplication has great semantic functions in language use such as showing intensity, plurality, intensification.
According to Nyaga (2014) Kiembu may be followed by its own stem for emphasis. This is especially to bring out the semantic value that something is real as opposed to the other.
For instance, one would talk of a real phone as opposed to a toy phone through reduplication of the noun phone in Kiembu. /_imo/’phone’ /_imo_imo/’a real phone’.
The following are more examples ind data 9 from Kiembu:
a) iri_ ‘food’ iri_iri_ ‘real food as opposed to junk food’
b) mosie ‘home’ mosiemosie ‘home of your parent as opposed to current
c) kana ‘baby’ kanakana ‘real baby as opposed to a doll baby’
d) mw_n_ ‘owner’ mw_n_mw_n_ ‘real owner as opposed to one renting’
Other examples of word classes, which express emphasis when reduplicated in Kiembu, include adverbials, pronouns and prepositions. Reduplication in Kimeru denotes words which require special weight or forcefulness, showing something important. The following are examples of some words which are reduplicated to show emphasis in Kimeru. For example data (10) below,
a. Aja (here) ajaaja (right here nowhere else)
b. Riitwa (a name) riitwariitwa (a real name)
c. Yongwa (the exact one) yongwayongwa (exactly the same one and none other)
d. Muti (a tree) mutimuti (a real tree)
e. Mono (much) monomono (very much)
From the above examples we noted that the root words come from different classes of words. For instance, basing on the examples above, while aja is an adverb of place, ritwa is a noun and buru is an adverb of degree. We also noted that when these words are reduplicated they put more emphasis on the semantic value of the root word.
2.4 Relationship of Reviewed Literature to the StudyThere is a close relationship between existing literatures to the current study. This is due to the fact that the study mainly focused on reduplication in Luganda lexical categories and the literature review has revealed what has been studied in the area of the current study in regard to the title and the language itself. This is because Luganda is among of Bantu language. The reviewed literatures on reduplication in other Bantu and non-bantu languages using MDT are similar and have some relationship aspects.
2.5 Theoretical FrameworkInkleas and Zoll (2005) Morphological Doubling Theory (MDT) “an approach to reduplication in which morphological constructions can call for two instances of the same morphological constituent, where ”same” is defined at the level of meaning. Morphological doubling can target a whole word, a stem, or a root” It is not phonological in nature, in the sense of increasing the phonological harmony of the output; rather, morphological doubling is an input mandate on the part of the morphology. Consequently, identity in morphological doubling is computed in terms of morpho-semantic content but not phonological identity. In MDT, reduplication is viewed as the double/multiple occurrence of a morphological constituent meeting a particular morphosemantic description. MDT thus, departs from previous theories in which the reduplicant is treated as an abstract morpheme RED whose substance is provided by phonological copying by Marantaz (1982), Steriade (1988) or correspondence. In MDT also reduplicant and base are both generated by the morphology as part of a construction which also embodies semantic and phonological generations about the output of reduplication. This will be adopted for description and analysis in this study. MDT was developed in 2005 by Sharon Inkelas and Cheryl Zoll. General morphological doubling schema that will be used in this study is shown below;
Figure 2. 3: Inkelas and Zoll’s Basic Schema of the Morphological Doubling Theory (2005)
Mother (meaning = some function of
the meaning of the daughters;
phonology = some function of the
phonology of the daughters)
Daughter #1 Daughter #2
(meaning = that of Daughter (meaning = that of Daughter
#2; may be subject to special #1; may be subject to special
Source: Inkleas ; Zoll (2005:1)
The attractiveness of this model definitely lies in its focus on morphology. Opposed to all preceding generative theories, MDT treats reduplication as what it definitely is, that is a morphological procedure. The theory has no need to explain phonological deviations of the two reduplicative constituents, because they do constitute two basically independent morphological units. Figure 2.4: Daughters of MDT
Output F + some added meaning
Input (F) Input (f) = semantic
Source: Inkleas; Zoll (2005)
F= Semantic Value of a word
In MDT, as illustrated in the figure four (4) above schema, reduplication couples morphological constituent that agree in their semantic (and syntactic) specification. The two sisters (inputs) are required to be identical only semantically. The inputs in the above structure refer to morphological constituents and output is the reduplicated form. These constituents do not have to match phonologically.MDT makes heavy use of the concept morphological construction to handle reduplicative semantics and phonology. A ‘construction’ broadly speaking is any morphological rule or pattern that combines sisters in to a single constituent. Each individual affix, compounding rule, truncation construction and/or reduplication process is a unique morphological construction. Therefore morphological reduplication in MDT is a double selection (insertion) of morphological constituents such as stem or root. Hence any morphological analysis requires an explicit Morphological Reduplication Approach. This theory was much useful in the description and analysis of data to account for reduplication in Luganda. While other theories of reduplication have focused on the duplication mechanism of phonological copying, the central thesis of the alternative MDT is that both the phonological and morpho-semantic mechanisms are needed and that their empirical domains of application are nearly complementary proximity. Phonological duplication is proximal, that is, it targets the closest eligible element while this is not necessarily true of morphological reduplication. The essential claim of MDT is that reduplication results when the morphology calls twice for a constituent of a given semantic description, with possible phonological modification of either or both the two constituents (Inkelas ; Zoll 2005). Morphological doubling can target a whole word, a root, or even an affix. Morphological doubling is an input mandate (directive) on the part of morphology. Morphological Doubling Theory assumes the same morphological structure for every case of reduplication. A reduplicated stem (or “reduplication construction” has two daughters which bear the same morphosyntactic features (F) as shown 2.5 below
Figure 2.5. Reduplication Construction
/Input/ F /Input/ F
In the above figure 2.5 F – Morphosyntactic Features
Inputs – these are sisters which need only to be similar semantically (similar in meaning).
Output – the reduplicated form (with an added meaning).
Consequently, Inkellas and Zoll (2005) stated that identity in morphology is computed in terms of morphosemantic content but not phonological doubling.
A reduplication construction, as given above in figure 2.5, has two daughters that are semantically identical, i.e., they share the same semantic features (Inkelas ; Zoll 2005. By the two semantically identical sisters, MDT makes a prediction which sets it apart from all phonological copying theories: some kinds of deviation, whether morphotactic or phonological, between the two copies are expected to be possible (Inkelas ; Zoll 2005: 7). Inkelas and Zoll support their thesis by providing a large quantity of evidence from more than one hundred different languages. They have referred to some 120 languages worldwide and revealed some so-called missing data that supported their hypothesis: reduplication does not necessarily involve phonological identity. The primary motivation for MDT comes from the cases in which phonological copying cannot explain different morphotactics of the two copies or their complexity. The question is whether or not there is still a role for phonological copying. Inkelas and Zoll do not claim that morpho-semantic feature duplication can replace phonological copying altogether, but that the scope of phonological copying is limited to a narrow set of contexts (Inkelas ; Zoll 2005: 20).
This study applied MDT to study morphological full reduplication in Luganda lexical categories and the functions of reduplication in Luganda. Inkelas and Zoll (2005) argue that, while there is no necessary uniformity in the types of semantic function associated with the outcome of morphological doubling there is uniformity in inputs: the two inputs to a morphological doubling construction must be morpho-semantically identical. (That the inputs and the output need not to have the same semantic functions, but the inputs must have the same semantic function in morphological doubling).
2.6 Research Gap
Through different studies extensively done in reduplication has created a knowledge gap to this study since no studies has been extensively done on morphological reduplication on Luganda such as Hyman ; Katamba (2001) who explained onLuganda verbal reduplication and Elliot et al (2010) who made analysis on reduplication on adjectives by using mapping template. This had created a knowledge gap which this study intended to bridge through a comprehensive analysis of morphological reduplication in Luganda using MDT focus on word categories.
CHAPTER THREEMETHODOLOGY3.1 IntroductionThis chapter dealt with the research design, sampling technique, data collection and analysis as well as presentation techniques.
3.2 General Research ApproachThe study basically was pure qualitative where by the data were analyzed in form of words and descriptions, major concepts were identified through perusing the collected data and identifying information that were relevant to the research questions and objectives. Then developing a coding system based on samples of collected data and reporting the intensity of descriptions in discussion.
3.3 Area of StudyThis study was conducted in Rakai district, particularly in Kooki and Rakai town where the researcher interviewed native speakers and teachers who were expert in teaching Luganda subject in public schools located in Rakai district such as Rakai primary school, Kasozi primary school, Edwina and Kagologolo primary school. Also one secondary school was visited by a researcher to collect data that is Kasozi secondary school. It was Rakai because it enabled a holistic review also gave a greater understanding of the study and reduced the potential bias.
Figure: 3.1 Rakai district Map / Area of Study
Source: http:// maparcarta.com
From figure 3.1 above Rakai district map before it sub-divided into two district that is Rakai district and Kyotera district. Rakai district covers sub-county like Dwaniro, Kibanda, Kooki, Kabula, Lwanda, Lyantonde and Byakabanda (to mention few) its neighbouring district is Kyotera district. The study conducted in Rakai town and Kooki where the native speakers found.
3.4 Sampling Technique
In order to analyze morphological reduplication in Luganda Purposive sampling was used in this study since it was widely used in qualitative research for the identification and selection of information-rich cases related to the phenomenon of interest. The study based on the informants who only were the native speakers of Luganda who were not contaminated with any language and teachers who were expert and long teaching Luganda subject in Rakai primary and secondary schools, Chomsky (1986) postulates that any native speaker has adequate grammatical know how to tell grammatically ill-formed structures. These informants helped a researcher in getting valid and reliable data about total reduplication in morphological Luganda word categories.
3.5 Data Collection Techniques
In this study both primary and secondary data were applied. According to Kothari (2004) the primary data are those which are collected afresh and for the first time this included lexical questionnaire, interview and introspection. The secondary data, on the other hand, are those which have already been collected by someone else and which have already been passed through the statistical process this included the documentary analysis.
3.6.1 Lexical Questionnaires
Lexical questionnaire were analyzed in guides of LOT (2003) about two hundred and seventy four (274) lexical categories where74 nouns, 76 verbs, 64 adjectives and 60 adverbs were obtained through different documents of Luganda, where by the selected native speakers who had the good background and experience of Luganda as well as who had never contaminated with other languages orally be required to test these lexical words by reduplicating and give semantic function of the reduplicated words. This lexical questionnaire sample is indicated in the following table 3.1 below,
Table 3.1 Sample of Lexical Questionnaire in Luganda
Noun Gloss Verb Gloss Adjectives Gloss Adverbs Gloss
Muwala Girl Tema Cut Nene Fat Wano Here
Mazzi Water Kuba Beat Wamvu Tall Kibi badly
Nkuba Rain Zanya Play Lungi Beauty Elii There
Musenyi Sand Lima Dig Kyelu White Egulo Yesterday
Mukazi Woman Seka Laugh Dugavu Black Enkya Tomorrow
Musajja Man Waata Peel obubi Bad Kumakya Morning
Muyizi Learner Kwata Catch Sanyufu Happy Kawungezi Evening
Tooke Banana Kaaba Cry Camufu Cheerful Bulungi Good
Sepiki Saucepan Imba Sing Kadde Old Bulijjo Always
Kiyungu Kitchen Linya Climb Sungu Angry Leero Today
Source: Luganda Dictionary by Murphy (1972)
In this study, a researcher interviewed three (3) native speakers of Luganda and four (4) teachers who were expert in teaching Luganda as a subject in public schools in Rakai. The method aimed at giving informants freedom and confidence in expressing ideas. There were two themes which categorized the informants such as a theme about teachers who teach Luganda in Rakai were asked to give their professional experience in teaching Luganda and to attest the orthographic system of lexical words prepared by the researcher. Another theme relied on the native speakers who use Luganda as their native language as they were asked individually to prove the pronounciations and the semantic functions of the Luganda words. The researcher decided to choose only three Native speakers and four teachers because of time limitation and scarce of resources, therefore the selected informants were accurate representation of the larger population.
3.6.3 IntrospectionThe researcher used the knowledge and competence on Luganda that she has, in verifying the data given from the informants. Also through introspection a researcher was able to interpret all the findings in chapter four. The motive behind in choosing this method of data collection is that, a researcher is a native speaker of Luganda.
3.6.4 Documentary ReviewReviews of documents regarding Luganda were concerned and were much useful in developing of data. The type of document collected were lexical words such as nouns, adjectives, adverbs and verbs. The focus was on dictionaries like Luganda- English dictionary by Murphy (1972), Luganda- English dictionary and grammar by Seguya and Sternfed (2015), songs like Luganda songs, story books such as Nkyalira walumbe ettanda by Kaddu (1973), Nnaku teba yomu by Mpalanyi, (1977), Bible such as Luganda bible (old and new testament) by Kasule (2014), newspapers and magazines such as Entanda ya Buganda online Magazine, Bukkedde online magazines and Walser (1984). Such analysis of documents gave the researcher a clear picture of Luganda lexical categories on how they are formed and how can undergo full reduplication.
3.7 Data Analysis Procedures
In this study, the collected data were analyzed qualitatively in accordance with the aims and objectives in chapter one. The process of data analysis began at the outset of field work. It focused on transcription of interviews, field notes made during and after interviews and documentary evidence. Data reduction involved describing, coding, tabulations and summarizing data from all sources. This enabled the researcher to asses the methods and strategies of data generation. Tabulations used to show the lexical categories in total reduplication and its meaning. Data were presented in relevant tables and tenets from MDT were adopted to analyze morphological reduplication in Luganda lexical categories. Also coding used to translate the collected data through documentary and other recordings to attribute their relevance of this study. After every interview, a researcher immediately code and compile data in chronological order. The principle of logical order used to govern the data presentation, data were presented logically following order of the arrangements in the tenets existing in morphological reduplication process, thus presented in the guide of (MDT).
3. 8 Ethical ImplicationsThe researcher asked consent from the authority of St. Augustine University of Tanzania (SAUT) Committee and from Chief Administration Officer (CAO) in Rakai District. The researcher assured the informants that, the all information given from them and recorded through interview were only for the research purpose and all will be kept at St. Augustine University library for further research study to the scholars of the same interest of this study “Analysis of morphological reduplication in Luganda word categories using MDT”.
3.8.1 Truthworthness of DataAs it applies in qualitative research, the notion of truthworthness has to do with validity. During interview, each informant was assured of confidentiality. Confidentiality gave the informants the sense of trust and confidence and also enough freedom to speak about the study. Secondly, the informants especially teachers who teach Luganda were given opportunity to read and attest the orthographic system of the lexical questionnaire prepared by the researcher through documents.
Thirdly, the study was carried out in Luganda and English because in Rakai the language widely spoken and well understood are two languages stated above. This increased the confidence and freedom of the informants as there was no language barrier. Lastly, answers given by one informant were checked against answers to the same issue asked of other informant.
CHAPTER FOURDATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION4.1 Introduction
This section gives a descriptive analysis of the collected data from Luganda lexical categories that are nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs. The analysis is guided by the following three objectives identification of lexical categories which undergo reduplication in Luganda, the analysis of reduplicated patterns using MDT and the semantic function of reduplicated words in Luganda. Through interviews from native speakers and teachers who teach Luganda in Rakai district, it observed that not all lexical words developed by the researcher through introspection could be reduplicated fully rather some are partially reduplicated while others when reduplicated it lacks semantic meaning. The main target of this study was to look on full reduplication in Luganda lexical categories, this type of reduplication applies doubling of the entire base where it is simply repeated, often to yield plurals or to give various levels of intensity to a thought (Kauffman 2015). The following are the findings established to meet the demand of this study.
4.2 Lexical Categories which undergo Reduplication
According to Baker (2003), lexical categories are the syntactic category that commonly accepts the addition of new words also known as open classes normally contain large numbers of words. Words include nouns, lexical verbs, adjectives, and adverbs belong to open classes of words where new members are readily added. In this study full reduplication is considered where by the lexical words such as nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs were fully reduplicated.
4.2.1 Noun ReduplicationEvery Luganda noun belongs to a noun class one of the way divides nouns into ten classes, and every noun class has distinctive set of augment expressions which separate it from other noun classes. Luganda has a noun class system divided into ten classes that involves singular and plural patterns as well as agreement marking triggered by the noun classes. Therefore since this study discussed on Luganda nouns in reduplication context, these noun classes helped a researcher to recognize nouns from its singularity and plurality when are being attached to the noun as a prefix. Therefore from seventy four (74) nouns established by the researcher as lexical questionnaires, sixty (60) nouns with dysllabic stem and some trisyllabic stem undergo full reduplication and retain semantic meaning and the rest of nouns undergo partial reduplication which is not the case of this study. The following table 4.1 are nouns with disyllabic stem which undergo full reduplication in Luganda with semantic meaning.
Table 4.1 Noun Reduplication with Disyllabic Stem
Stem Gloss Reduplicated Gloss
Mu-ba Wala Girl Mu-walawala A girl like
Maso Eyes Masomaso Eyes like
Ma- Bega Shoulder Begabega Shoulder like
Mu/mi- Gatti Loaf Mu-gattigatti Loaf like
Ku/ma- Gulu Leg Ku-gulugulu Leg like
Mata Milk Matamata Milk like
Tooke Banana Tooketooke Banana like
Ddogo Magic Ddogoddogo Magic like
Mu/ba Kazi Woman Mu-kazikazi Woman like
Ki/bi Senge Room Ki-sengesenge Room like
Mu/mi Mu-sayi Blood Mu-sayisayi Blood like
Nsonda Corner Nsondansonda Corner like
Tale Bush Taletale Bush like
Nnoni Chalk Nnoninnoni Chalk like
Ki-bi Sige Eyebrow Sigesige Eyebrow like
Ki/bi- Saawe Pitch Saawesawe Pitch like
Mu-/ba Mu-longo Twin Mu-longolongo Twin like
Mu/ba Mu-gole Bride Mu-golegole Bride like
Bu- Bu-fumbo Marriage Bu-fumbofumbo Marriage like
Lu-N Lu-suku Farm Lu-sukusuku Farm like
Field data 2018
From the data in table 4.1 above, it observed that most disyllabic nouns in Luganda undergo full reduplication and shows the semantic meaning of something looks like a real thing. For instance a noun tale (bush) a disyllabic noun when reduplicated become taletale means it is not a real bush but it looks like it, also a nouns mu-wala ( a girl) become mu-walawala means a girl like may be due to her behaviour or appearance. Noun classes also differ from one noun to another, as it depend on the noun being presented for example common noun that used to show a certain people noun class used are (mu-/ba-) which act as prefixes to mark either singularity in nouns like mu-gole (bride), mu-wala (girl) mu-kazi(woman) or plurality in words like ba-wala (girls), ba-sajja(men) ba-kazi(women), ki-/bi- this noun class is mostly used in marking different things in words like kisige (eyebrow), kisaawe (pitch), kisenge (room) in marking plurality become bisaawe (pitches), bisenge(rooms). Reduplication of nouns in Luganda is done only a stem is repeated to add some semantic functions.
Table 4.2 Noun Reduplication with Trisyllabic Stem
Prefix Trisyllabic Stem Gloss Reduplication Gloss
Ki- Saawe Pitch Saawesaawe Pitch like
E- Bugumu Warm Bugumubugumu Warmth like
E/A- Baara Bar Baarabaara Bar like
E/A- Tooke Banana Tooketooke Banana like
E/A- Teeka Plan Teekateeka Plan like
Ki- Biina Class Ki-biinabiina Class like
Source: Field Data 2018
Luganda noun with trisyllabic stem are rarely reduplicated as shown in the table 4.2 above that noun with three syllables in Luganda also undergo full reduplication. For instance a verb bugumu (warm) is trisyllabic undergo full reduplication and become bugumubugumu (warm like)
4.2.3 Verb Full Reduplication in LugandaIn Luganda as in many Bantu languages, the verbal reduplicant is two syllables long and ends in a fixed vowel /a/ also ku- is the infinitive prefix which is attached in the stem for instance in verbs like kuba (beat) attached the infinitive prefix ku- and become kukuba (to beat), zanya (play) become okuzanya (to play). Luganda verbs undergo reduplication where the stem is entirely repeated and indicate semantic meaning. 76 verbs prepared by a researcher and approved by the native speakers of Luganda it observed that 60 verbs undergo full reduplication and conform the semantic meaning while other 16 verbs undergo partial reduplication which is not a case in this study. The reduplicated stem in this category are analyzed into two forms where most verb stem are disyllabic and some of them are trisyllabic. The following table 4.3. Below is verb reduplication with disyllabic stem examples,
Table 4.3.Verb Reduplication with Disyllabic Stem
Prefix Disyllabic Stem Gloss Reduplicated Gloss
ku- kaba Cry Kabakaba Frequent crying
ku- ssiika Fry Ssiikassiika Keep frying
ku- tema Cut Tematema Frequent/insisting cutting
ku- Linya Climb Linyalinya Keep on climbing
ku- Zanya Play Zanyazanya Keep on playing
ku- Soma Read Somasoma Insisting on reading
ku- Gaya Chew Gayagaya Chew further
ku- Kima Fetch Kimakima Fetch repeatedly
ku- Jjawo Remove Jjawojjawo Insisting on removing
ku- Kyusa Change Kyusakyusa Change more
ku- Mila Swallow Milamila Swallow further
ku- Bala Count Balabala Count further
ku- Yoza Wash Yozayoza Repeat washing
ku- Fumba Cook Fumbafumba Cook repeatedly
ku- Gala Close Galagala Close repeatedly
ku- Lumya Hurt Lumyalumya Frequent hurt
ku- Banja Demand Banjabanja Frequent demand
ku- Gala Close Galagala Close repeatedly
Ku- Seka Laugh Sekaseka Laugh repeatedly
Ku- Linya Climb Linyalinya Climb repeatedly
Ku- Vuma Insult Vumavuma Insult repeatedly
Ku- Wata Peel Watawata Peel repeatedly
Source: Field Data (2018)
From the table 4.3 above, it approved that Luganda disyllabic stem conform full reduplication whereby the stem is reduplicated (repeated) to create a new meaning of showing something done frequently like lumya (hurt) become lumyalumya frequent hurt, or to insist for example a verb soma (read) somasoma insisting on reading especially in the classroom or to show repetition such as gaya (chew) gayagaya chew repeatedly. The prefix /ku-/ when attached to the verb indicate to –infinitive as in kukuba (to beat), kuzanya (to play).
Table 4.4 Verb Reduplication with Trisyllabic Stem
Prefix Trisyllabic Stem Gloss Reduplicated stem Gloss
Ku- Fumitta Pierce Fumittafumitta Pierce repeatedly
Ku- Simula Mop Simulasimula Mop repeatedly
Ku- Wulira Hear Wulirawulira Keep on hearing
Ku- Mulika Light on Mulikamulika Keep on lighting
Ku- Pakila Park Pakilapakila Park repeatedly
Ku- Zukuka Wake up Zukukazukuka Insist on waking up
Ku- Warara Fly Wararawara Fly repeatedly
Ku- Fanana Resemble Fananafanana Frequent resemble
Ku- Tawanya Disturb Tawanyatawanya Disturb repeatedly
Ku- Tambula Walk Tambulatambula Insisting on walking
Ku- Kozesa Use Kozesakozesa Frequent use
Ku- Camula Cheer up Camulacamula Frequent cheering up
Ku- Ffiriza Sacrifice Ffirizaffiriza Sacrifice repeatedly
Ku- Sitama Squat Sitamasitama Squat repeatedly
Ku- Situka Stand up Situkasituka Frequent standing up
Ku- Tokosa Boil Tokosatokosa Insist on boiling
Ku- Lwanira Scramble Lwaniralwanira Scramble repeatedly
Ku- Kendeza Minimize Kendezakendeza Insist on Minimizing
Ku- Yayana Be busy Yayanayayana Frequent busy
Ku- Yatula Alter Yatulayatula Alter repeatedly
Ku- Yonona Spoil Yononayonona Insist on spoiling
Ku- Cupula Forge Cupulacupula Keep on forging
Ku- Camuka Be excited Camukacamuka Frequent excting
Source: Field Data 2018
From the table 4.4 above, it observed that Luganda verbs reduplication also appear to in trisyllabic stem that is verbs which contain three syllables such as sitama (squat) when reduplicated become sitamasitama(squat repeatedly) as all three syllables are reduplicated morphologically.
4.2.4 Luganda Adjectives In Luganda, adjectives also take a nominal concord and nearly always follow the noun, the adjectival stem like –nene (big) should be used with the nominal concord ki-(agreeing with the noun class of its noun) as in ekitoke (banana) kinene (big) and having an initial vowel /e-/. Therefore a base of adjectives like other lexical categories also attached the prefix. The following are the adjective prefix in Luganda.
Table 4.5 Adjectival Prefixes
Prefix Singular/Plural Meaning Example
ka- Singular Small akawala- small girl
bu- Plural Small obuwala- small girls
tu- Singular/plural Extremely small /beautiful otuwala- small beautiful girl
ki- Singular Large ekintu- big thing
bi- Plural Large/many ebintu- big/many things
gu- Singular Extremely large/ugly oguwala- big ugly girl
ga- Plural Extremely large/ugly agawala- big ugly girls
tu- Plural Quantifier a little of otunyo- little bit of salt
ku- Singular/plural Quantifier some kumazzi- some water
ma- Plural Quantifier a lot amazzi- a lot of water
Source (Baetrein ;Sekitto 2014)
From the table 4.5 above, shows the adjectival prefixes that can be attached to nouns in Luganda, though most adjectives are separate from the nouns they modify and come after the noun. In the case that an adjectival prefix is attached to a noun, it replaces the usual noun class prefix. The semantics and class of the noun determines which adjectival prefixes if any it can take.
22.214.171.124 Adjective ReduplicationLike other lexical categories adjectives do undergo full reduplication whereby the disyllabic and trisyllabic stem is entirely repeated and invest semantic meaning. Adjectives have got a stem on which prefixes are attached in agreement with the head noun to form various word forms with the same meaning. It discovered that sixty four (64) adjectives developed by the researcher and approved by the native speakers of Luganda, forty (40) of them undergo full reduplication and the remained adjectives are partial reduplication. Consider the examples in the table 4.5 below which shows the reduplicated disyllabic stem.
Table 4.6 Full Reduplicated Disyllabic Stem in Luganda Adjectives
Prefix Base Gloss Reduplicated Gloss
Mu/ba- Silu Stupid Silusilu Stupid like
Mu/ba- Wanvu Tall Wanvuwanvu Somehow tall
ki-bi Ttono Small Ttonottono Small like
Ki-bi Kadde Aged Kaddekadde Somehow aged
Mu/ba- Naffu Lazy Naffunaffu Lazy like
Ki/bi- Bisi Unripe Bisibisi Unripe like
Nsonyi Shy Nsonyinsonyi Shy like
Ki- Nene Big Nenenene Somehow big
Ki/ Kalu Dry Kalukalu Dry like
Yelu White Yeluyelu White like
Mu/mi Mu-kisa Luck Mu-kisakisa Luck like
Zito Huge Zitozito Somehow huge
Sava Fat Savasava Fat like
Tobyo Wet Tobyotobyo Wet like
Mu- Gezi Genius Gezigezi Genius like
Bu- Nivu Quite Nivunivu Quite like
Field data 2018
From the data given in table 4.6, most adjectives undergo full reduplication and invest a new meaning of showing something looks like a real thing as noun does for instance tobyo an adjectives like (wet) become tobyotobyo wet like, sava (fat) become savasava somehow fat while some of adjectives undergo partial reduplication and the rest when reduplicated lack the meaning.
Table 4.7 Full Reduplication in Adjectives with Trisyllabic Stem in Luganda
Prefix Trisyllabic stem Gloss Reduplication Gloss
Ki- camufu Cheerful Camufucamufu Cheerful like
Bu- tuufu Correct Ki-tuufutuufu Correct like
Ki- kakali Harsh Kakalikakali Harsh like
Mu- tendeke Professional Tendeketendeke Professional like
Ki- tangavu Light Tangavutangavu Light like
Bu- woomu Sweet Bu-woomuwoomu Sweet like
soboka Possible Sobokasoboka Possible like
tukuvu Holy Tukuvutukuvu Holy like
sonyiwe Forgivable Sonyiwesonyiwe Forgivable like
Ki-/mu dugavu Black Dugavudugavu Black like
Ki- songovu Sharp Songovusongovu Sharp like
Ki/bi- cupuli Fake Cupulicupuli Fake like
Field Data 2018
From table 4.7 above indicate the adjectives with trisyllabic stem in Luganda undergo full reduplication where all three syllables are repeated to create the semantic meaning of something looks like a real thing. For instance an adjective cupuli (fake) is trisyllabic when reduplicated become cupulucupuli means something looks like a fake thing.
4.3. Luganda AdverbsAdverbs in Luganda are far rarer than in most other languages. They are mostly expressed through adjectives or particles such as bubi (badly), bulungi (well), mpola=slowly, mangu=quickly (Seguya ; Sternfelde: 2015)
4.3.1 Adverb Reduplication
Luganda adverbs rarely undergo full reduplication where the stem is repeated to create different semantic meaning. From the corrected sixty (60) adverbs, only twenty five (25) adverbs approved by native speakers of Luganda undergo full reduplication with semantic meaning while other ten (10 and other remained adverbs can be reduplicated partially. The following examples indicated in the table 4.7 below are the full reduplicated adverbs in Luganda with semantic functions.
Table 4.8 Full Reduplication in Luganda Adverbs with Disyllabic Stem
Disyllabic Stem Gloss Reduplication Gloss
Wa-gulu Above Wa-gulugulu Right above
Yekka Alone (person) Yekkayekka Real alone(person)
Ka-soobo Slowly Ka-sobosobo Very slow
Bwelu Out Bwelubwelu Real out
Kyekyo Real Kyekyo Really
Ddala Indeed Ddaladdala Deep indeed
Wali There Waliwali Exactly there
Kata Almost Katakata To the extent
Yokka Alone (things) Yokkayokka Real alone
Zibbi Dark Zibbizibbi Extremely dark
Tuntu Mid-day Tuntutuntu Right in mid day
Munda Inside Mundamunda Deep inside
Kilo Night Kilokilo Real night
Field data 2018
From the data given in table 4.8 above, adverbs in Luganda with disyllabic stem undergo full reduplication where the stem is entirely repeated and form a new word and semantic meaning of showing something real done in real situation for example bwelu (out) become bwelubwelu (real out), or done extremely like zibbi (dark) become zibbizibbi (extremely dark)
Table 4.9 Adverb Reduplication with Trisyllabic Stem
Trisyllabic Stem Gloss Reduplication Gloss
Bulala Great Bulalabulala Very great
Ka-soobo Slowly kasobosobo Very slow
Lu-segere Alongside Lu-segeresegere Real alongside
Bulijjo Always Bulijjobulijo Always
Yavuala Poorly Yavualayavuala Very Poor
Kumakya Morning Kumakyakumakya Real morning
Swankula Noisy Swankulaswankula Very Noise
Field Data: 2018
From table 4.9 above shows on adverbs with trisyllabic stem in Luganda follow in this morphological process as three syllables fully repeated to add semantic meaning in Luganda. For instance swankula (noisy) become swankulaswankula( very noise) but some of adverbs when reduplicated it maintain its original meaning for example bulijjo(always) when reduplicated become bulijjobulijjo( always).4.4 Analysis of Luganda Reduplication Patterns using MDTAccording to Inkelas ;Zoll (2005) MDT, an approach to reduplication where morphological construction calls two instances of the same morphological constituent where the same is defined at the level of meaning. Two identical inputs may result to full reduplication in Luganda which has some added meaning, the inputs are identical semantically and this morphological doubling in Luganda serves a morphological purpose of marking a change in meaning. In this section on open categories which undergo full reduplication are analyzed using MDT.
4.5.1 Analysis of Noun Reduplication using MDTNoun like other lexical categories which fall in this system of reduplication are analyzed using MDT where two daughters like mu-wala (girl) and another mu-wala (girl) act as daughters which later reduplicated and become mu-walawala ( a girl like) this act as a mother of the above two daughters. The reduplicated nouns which conform the semantic meaning are analyzed using MDT where the base is entirely repeated. The following examples in data 12 shows how noun can be analyzed using the tenets of MDT
12 a) Output Mu- walawala (a girl like)
Input wala wala (girl)
12 b) Output Ka-tale ( market like)
Input tale tale (market)
12c) Output Mu-gattigatti (a loaf like)
Input Gatti gatti (loaf)
12d) Output Matamata (milk like)
Input Mata mata (milk)
12e) Output Tooketooke (banana like)
Input Tooke tooke (banana)
In the example from data 12 (a-e) are noun reduplication patterns undergo full reduplication and analyzed using MDT where the two sisters (inputs) in the above structure are identical semantically which refer to morphological constituents and output is the reduplicated form with semantic meaning.
4.5.2 Verb Reduplication using MDT 14 a) Output Kaabakaaba (cry repeatedly)
Input Kaaba kaaba (Cry)
b) Output ssiikassiika (fry repeatedly)
Input ssiika ssiika (fry)
c) Output tema (repeating cutting)
Input tema tema (cut)
d) Output simulasimula (repeating mopping)
Input simula simula ( mop)
13e) Output Somasoma (read repeatedly)
Input Soma soma (read)
From above data 14 (a-e) shows how verbs in Luganda are analyzed using MDT whereby the non-reduplicated verb is an input and when reduplicated become an output and add semantic meaning for instance the verb simula (non-reduplicated word) act as an input and simulasimula (mop repeatedly) act as an output in MDT
4.5.3 Analysis of Adjective Reduplication using MDTAdjectives in Luganda do undergo full reduplication and can be analyzed using MDT, where two daughters as an input repeated to create an output which act as mother and may either conform semantic meaning. This analysis is divided into two parts that is analysis of reduplicated adjectives with semantic meaning and those lacks semantic meaning.
15a) Output Wanvuwanvu ( somehow tall)
Input Wanvu wanvu (tall)
b) Output ttonottono (somehow small)
Input ttono ttono (small)
c) Output kaddekadde (somehow old)
Input Kadde kadde (old)
d) Output Nsonyinsonyi( somehow shy)
Input Nsonyi nsonyi (shy)
e) Output naffunaffu (somehow lazy)
Input naffu naffu (lazy)
From the data given 15 (a-e) are the adjectives which undergo reduplication and described using the tenets of MDT where the output is a reduplicated adjective which add meaning by showing something is in between means not real while the input which are daughters and have the same semantic meaning shows the real meaning of an adjective given.
4.5.4 Analysis of Adverb Reduplication using MDTReduplicated adverbs with semantic meaning can be analyzed using MDT as shown in the following example 17 below
17a) Output Ka-soobosoobo (Very slowly)
Input Ka-soobo soobo(slowly)
b) Output wa-gulugulu( not real up)
Input wa-gulu wa-gulu (up)
c) Output mundamunda (deep inside)
Input munda munda (inside)
d) Output wanowano (Exactly here)
Input wano wano(here)
e) Output waliwali (exactly there)
Input wali wali (there)
Full reduplication of Luganda adverbs follows the MDT theory that, morphological doubling results from double insertion of morphological constituents and that these constituents meet a particular morpho-semantic description. In this case adverbs in Luganda are analyzed using MDT as indicated in data 17 (a-e) where the input is an adverb with its meaning while the output is a reduplicated adverb with additional meaning that shows the action done extremely or exactly.
4.6 Various Semantic Functions of Reduplicated words in LugandaAccording to Khanjan and Alinezhad (2010), Persian full reduplication process generally results in such meanings as repetition, continuity, sequence, intensification, alternation, succession, as well as the state of an action. However, apart from these, some stylistic dimensions may also be included in the output semantics. Through these semantic functions of reduplicated words in Persian, Luganda as among of Bantu language when its word categories are reduplicated leads to the following semantic functions;
4.6.1 To Show Repetition of EventsReduplication of certain verbs in Luganda gives the semantic value of repeated occurrence of events/ doing something frequently. The meaning of a word by reduplicating it, indicate a repetition of the action encoded by that word. Luganda reduplicated verbs are particularly noted for encoding a repetition or continuation of actions. In other words, a reduplicated verb can signal a repeated action or an extension of an action or state of event. The verb becomes frequentative verb after reduplication. The following examples 19 illustrate this in Luganda
Stem Gloss Reduplication Gloss
19a) Bumba mold Bumbabumba mold repeatedly
b) Buuka jump Buukabuuka jump repeatedly
c) Gaba supply Gabagaba supply repeatedly
d) Lima dig Limalima dig repeatedly
e) Buuza ask buuzabuuza frequent asking
f) Kuba beat kubakuba beat frequently
g) Tema cut tematema cut frequently
As shown above in example 19 (a-g) the reduplicated verbs such as bumbabumba (mold repeatedly), gabagaba (supply repeatedly) shows the repetititon of an action which is almot used by Luganda speakers to show something done repeatedly.
4.6.2 Reduplicating for EmphasisAlmost adverbs which undergo full reduplication in Luganda play an important role for emphasis. Adverbs in some cases may be repeated/reduplicated for emphasis. For example to achieve a greater emphasis on the truthfulness of one’s saying, certain elements within the person’s statement can be repeated and the number of times the repetition is done further emphasizes the claim. For example in data 20 below;
Stem gloss reduplication gloss
20a) ggulo yesterday gguloggulo indeed yesterday
b) omwo there omwoomwo exact there
c) munda inside mundamunda indeed inside
d) ddala absolute ddaladdala absolutely
e) kilo night kilokilo exact night
From the data 20(a-e) above shows on that reduplicated adverbs do normally conform the semantic meaning of showing emphasis on something for instance mundamunda means indeed inside, gguloggulo means real yesterday.
4.6.3 Showing something looks like a Real thing
Most of nouns and adjectives which undergo full reduplication show something looks like something which is real mean it is in between not exact thing. For instance it is used when someone wants to deliver a message or talk about someone/ something looks like he/she may use noun/adjectives reduplication. For example of noun and adjectives which show something looks like a real thing.
21 i) Noun reduplication
Stem Gloss Reduplication Gloss
i)a) mu-sujja sickness mu-sujjasujja sickness like
b) mu-lenzi boy mu-lenzilenzi boy like
c) masa cow dung masamasa cow dung like
d) mu-kazi woman mu-kazikazi woman like
e) nsimbi money nsimbisimbi not enough money
From above example 21i (a-e) it is observed that most of noun reduplication mark something not real as in mu-lenzilenzi (a boy like), mu-sujjasujja (sickness like)
ii. Adjective reduplication
Stem Gloss Reduplication Gloss
a) kalu dry kalukalu not real dry
b) nene big nenenene not much big
c) lungi beautiful lungilungi not much beautiful
d) Kyafu dirty kyafukyafu not much dirty
e) silu stupid silusilu not much stupid
As in noun reduplication, adjectives which are reduplicated indicate something looks like a real thing, since adjectives modify nouns even in reduplication mostly share the same semantic functions for instance kalukalu ( dry like) means it looks like it is such as clothes.
4.6.4 To warn Verb reduplication in Luganda can also be used as a warning against danger, evil or anything else. We found out that the reduplication of the following words bring out the urgency or immediacy of an action. For instance parents or teacher may use this verb reduplication in order to warn or make caution to their children or students.
Stem Gloss Reduplication Gloss 23a)vvawo get out vvawovvawo! get out immediately!
b) leka stop lekaleka! stop immediately!
c) jjamu remove jjamujjamu! remove immediately!
d) genda go gendagenda! go out immediately !
e) jjangu come jjangujjangu! Come immediately!
From the above data 23 (a-e) shows on how these reduplicated verbs in Luganda mark something done immediately as in lekaleka! (Stop immediately) and jjangujjangu(come immediately)
4.7 ConclusionFrom this chapter, the researcher observed that, most Luganda lexical categories undergo full reduplication. The reduplicated words are analyzed fully by using the tenets of MDT whereby the two sisters (inputs) are identical semantically and the reduplicated word is an output and the reduplicated words invest the semantic meaning.
CHAPTER FIVESUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS5.1 IntroductionThis study dealt with analysis of morphological reduplication in Luganda lexical categories using MDT. It has been guided by three objectives which are: to identify the lexical categories that undergo full reduplication in Luganda, to describe how Luganda full reduplication patterns can be analyzed using MDT and to describe various semantic functions of reduplicated words. The present chapter has three sections: Summary, conclusions and recommendations for further research.
5.2 Summary of FindingsFrom the data analysis made in chapter four, several findings come forth. These have been presented and discussed under three objectives
5.2.1 Identification of Luganda Lexical Categories which undergo Full ReduplicationThe researcher observed that most nouns and adjectives can be reduplicated fully and express meaning that something looks like something or resembles something. Verbs are mostly reduplicated and express something done repeatedly and verbs marked using prefix /ku-/ which is attached before the stem of the verb. Luganda adverbs are expressed using adjectives, and are rarely reduplicated to express something done exactly or extremely.
The researcher also observed that, not all lexical words collected could be reduplicated for meaning. Therefore words that failed to reduplicate were not included in the analysis such as Kinship terms and words with quadrisyllabic stem.
Table 5.1 Reduplication Trends in this Study
Lexical word No. of collected words No. of reduplicant trends in the study % of reduplicant trends win the study
NOUNS 74 45 75%
VERBS 76 60 79%
ADJECTIVES 64 40 63%
ADVERBS 60 25 42%
TOTAL 274 170 62%
Source: Field Data 2018
From the table 5.1 above it is a summary of full reduplication trends in this study, as it observed that nouns collected were 60 nouns, where only 45 seem to undergo full reduplication which is approximately 75%. Verbs corrected were 76, and approved by native speakers of Luganda as full reduplication words were 60 which are about 79%. 64 Adjectives prepared by the researcher, 40 approved as full reduplicated words which is approximately 63%. And adverbs prepared by the researcher were 60 but only 25 which are about 42% undergo full reduplication and retain the semantic meaning, it is so because adverbs rarely undergo full reduplication in Luganda. Generally the overall percent of these lexical categories trends in this study through full reduplication is 62%
5.2.2 The Reduplicated Words Analyzed using MDT
Luganda lexical categories that identified to undergo full reduplication were analyzed using Morphological Doubling Theory (MDT) morphological doubling is an insertion of constituents which meets a particular morphosemantic description and that reduplication involves bringing together two stems that meet the same morpho-semantic description which may be having some phonological modification. Finally, MDT can be used to extract various meanings. The reduplicated words whether partially or fully reduplicated should be similar in meaning. At the same time these words portray various functions.
5.2.3 The Various Semantic Functions of ReduplicationThrough the findings of reduplicated lexical words in Luganda extracted the various semantic meaning where most reduplicated nouns leads to express meaning that is not real and express feelings, verbs shows something done repeatedly and making emphasis, adjectives shows something in between means something looks likea real thing also adverbs shows something done extremely or exactly.
Generally, this study based on analyzing morphological reduplication of Luganda word categories using Morphological Doubling Theory (MDT), through the data collected and analysis done, it observed that most lexical categories in Luganda undergo full reduplication where the disyllabic and trisysllabic stem are repeated to form a new word meaning. MDT is much useful in analyzing the full reduplication where the input does share the same meaning with the output although an output which is a reduplicated word normally adds some meaning. For instance the word ‘kuba’ to beat act as an input but when it undergo reduplication it become ‘kubakuba’ which means beat repeatedly. Therefore the observation on this theory is that full reduplication does not change the ordinary meaning rather it adds some meaning on a new reduplicated word. Also the observation done is about semantic functions of reduplicated words in Luganda that all the reduplicated word has semantic function like to make repetition, to emphasize, to warn, to do something exactly or extremely.
5.4 Recommendations and Suggestions for Further StudiesFrom the findings and conclusions made in this study it is valid and evident to state that Morphological Doubling Theory (MDT) can be advanced to account for reduplicative patterns in Luganda and other Bantu and non-Bantu languages as Ghaniabad, Ghomesh, and Tehran (2006) Reduplication in Persian: Morphological Doubling Approach, Nyaga (2014) a morphological reduplication in Kiembu and Kanana (2016) reduplication in Kimeru have applied it to analyze the language and this led this study to use the theory to analyze reduplication in Luganda. Therefore this theory can be useful to other Bantu and non- Bantu languagesto get more information of reduplication as the word formation process.
Reduplication despite being profound word formation process in Luganda and most probably among other Bantu languages has not been studied extensively. A comparative study on other word formation of Luganda could also be done.
In this study, only the lexical categories were considered. The functional categories such as pronouns, prepositions, complementizers and determiners in Luganda left out hence others studies should study them in deep analysis.
Reduplication in this study relied only in Luganda hence it is important to future researcher to look upon other dialects like Lunyankore, Lukiga, Luo, Lugbara and Achori
This study relied much on full reduplication and other types of reduplication like partial, ablaut, shm, rhyming, reduplication in onomatopoeia and reduplication in baby talk has not been studied exhaustively. Analysis of other types of reduplication in Luganda could also be done.
The focus of this study has been on Luganda a Bantu language, further analysis can be done in other Bantu and non-Bantu languages.
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APPENDICESAPPENDIX 1: LEXICAL QUESTIONNAIRE AND INTERVIEW GUIDEThank you very much for having accepted to participate in this exercise. I am Alfredina Fredinand Student at St. Augustine University of Tanzania carrying out my study on Morphological Reduplication in word categories Luganda that is Verbs, Nouns, Adjectives and
Adverbs of Luganda ( Neyanzizza nyo okubawo kwammwe wanno no okukirizza mu kikolwa kinno,Amanya ndi Alfredina Fredinand ndi muyizi mu St. Augustine University Tanzania, nsoma digurii eyo kubili eye Nnimi. Nkola risachi ye ebigambo ebiddibwamu mu lulimi Oluganda, mu Bikolwa, Amanya, Nakongeza linya, ne Nakongeza kikolwa. The information that you will provide to me will be treated in confidentiality and only used for educational purpose. Feel free to ask me questions where you do not understand ( ebikolwa binno byo mpa bya kukola ebigezo bino, nsaba okumbuuza awo wotateggedde nsobole okukuddamu)
a) General Identification
ii) Name of the respondents
iv) Regionb) Interview questions for Native Speakers
i) What is your name/ introduce yourself ( Amanya go/ nsaba weyogeleko)
ii) How old are you ( oina emyaka emekka)
iii) What is your professional ( Okola mirimu kki?)
iv) Where are you born (Ozalibwa uwa?)
v) Do you speak Luganda? (Onyumya Luganda?)
vi) Please pronounce the following Luganda words? ( Nsaba oyatule ebigambo byo Luganda bino ?
vii) What are the semantic functions of reduplicated words ( Ebigambo ebiddibwamu awo obikozessa otya ?.
b) Interview Questions for Teachers
i/ What is your name ( Amanya go)
ii/ How old are you? ( oina emyaka emeka)
iii/ What is your experience in teaching Luganda / Oina emyake emmeka mu kuyigissa Oluganda)
iv/ Please attest the orthographic system of the following lexical words (nsaba oggolole empandiika ye ebigambo binno)
SECTION A: NOUNS/ AMANYANo. LUGANDA
BASE KISWAHILI VERSION GLOSS REDUPLICATED BASE GLOSS
1 Mu-wala Msichana Girl Mu-walawala Girl like
2 Mu-kazi Mwanamke Woman Mu-kazikazi Woman like
3 Mazzi Maji Water Mazzimazzi Water like
4 Nsimbi Pesa Money Nsimbinsimbi Money like
5 Bbala Alama Mark Bbalabbala Mark like
6 Mata Maziwa Milk Matamata Milk like
7 Somo Somo Lesson Somosomo Lesson like
8 Kalo Ulezi Millet Kalokalo Millet like
9 Dagala Dawa Medicine Dagaladagala Medicine like
10 Bu-fumbo Ndoa Marriage Bu-fumbofumbo Marriage like
1 Masa Mbolea Manure Masamasa Cow dung like
12 Ku-gulu Mguu Leg Ku-gulugulu Real leg
13 Nyabo Bibi Madam Nyabonyabo A sign of surprise
14 Luzzi Mtoni Well Luzziluzzi Well like
15 Bi-ntu Vyombo Utensils Bi-ntuntu Utensils like
16 Nsoga Mbaazi Castor Nsogasoga Castor
17 Mboozi Soga Story m-booziboozi Story like
18 E-nteeka Mipango Plan e-nteekateeka Real planning
19 Lussozi Kilima Plateau Lu-sozzisozzi Plateau like
20 Ddogo Uchawi Magic Ddogoddogo Magic like
21 Ki-sambi Paja Thigh Ki-sambisambi Thigh like
22 Mu-lenzi Mvulana Boy Mu-lenzilenzi Boy like
23 Mu-gatti Mkate Loaf Mu-gattigatti Loaf like
24 Nsiko Chaka Wild Nsikonsiko Wild like
25 Tama Shavu Cheek Tamatama Cheek like
26 Mukwano Mpenzi Lover Mu-kwanokwano Love like
27 Misa Misa Mass Misamisa Mass like
28 Nkoko Kuku Hen Nkokokoko Hen like
29 Mu-zadde Mzazi Parent Mu-zaddezadde Parent
30 Gugwe Pafu Lung Gugwegugwe Lung like
31 Ka-kiiko Mkutano Committee Ka-kiikokiiko Small committee
32 Mu-sujja Homa Fever Mu-sujjasujja Fever like
33 Kibiina Darasa Class Ki-biibabiina Class like
34 Munyu Chumvi Salt Munyunyu Salt like
35 Mbazzi Shoka Axe Mbazzimbazzi axe like
36 Tooke Ndizi Banana Tooketooke Banana like
37 Ntamu Sufuria Saucepan Ntamuntamu Saucepan like
38 Matu Maskio Ears Matumatu Ears like
39 Wundu Donda Wound Wunduwundu Wound like
40 Bega Bega Shoulder Begabega Shoulder
41 Nniina Nyanya Tomato Nniinanniina Tomato like
42 Nsalo Mpaka Border Nsalosalo border like
43 Nnoni Chaki Chalk Nnoninnoni Chalk like
44 Mmere Chakula Food Mmeremmere Food
45 Nsonda Kona Corner Nsondasonda Corner like
46 Nsonyi Aibu Shame Nsonyisonyi Shame like
47 Nsobi Kosa Mistake Nsobisobi Mistake like
48 Nsujju Boga Pumpkin Nsujjusujju Pumpkin like
49 Nkumbi Jembe Hoe Nkumbikumbi Hoe like
50 Kibira Msitu Forest Kibirabira Forest like
51 Nyange Yangeyange Egret Nyangenyange An egret
52 Nnyondo Nyundo Hammer Nyondonyondo Hammer like
53 Ki-sige Kope Eyebrow Ki-sigesige Eyebrow like
54 Ki-sale Kipande Bill Ki-salesale Bill like
55 Ki-sero Kikapu Basket Ki-serosero Basket like
56 Ki-saawe Uwanja Pitch Ki-saawesaawe Pitch like
57 Ka-tale Soko Market Ka-taletale Small market
58 Mu-solo Ushuru Tax Mu-solosolo Tax like
59 E-ttaka Udongo Soil e-ttakattaka Soil like
60 E-mbuzi Mbuzi Goat e-mbuzimbuzi Goat like
61 Manyo Meno Teeth Manyonyo Teeth like
62 Mu-gumba Gumba Sterile Mu-gumbagumba Sterile like
63 Mu-ddo Gugu Weed Mu-ddoddo Weed like
64 Magye Jeshi Army Magyemagye Army like
65 Bugumu Joto Warmth Bugumubugumu Warmth like
66 Mu-sana Jua Sun Mu-sanasana Sun like
67 Mu-wulu Museja Bachelor Mu-wuluwulu Bachelor like
68 Obwoki Asali Honey o-bwokibwoki Honey like
69 Baara Klabu Bar Baarabaara Bar like
70 Mu-go Bakora Stick Mu-gogo Stick like
SECTION B: VERBS/KIKOLWANo. Luganda base Kiswahili Gloss Reduplicated base Gloss
1 Kaaba Lia Cry Kaabakaaba Cry frequently
2 Zanya Cheza Play Zanyazanya Play repeatedly
3 Saba Sali Pray Sabasaba Pray continuously
4 Sasula Lipa Pay Sasulasaula Pay continuously
5 Soma Soma Read Somasoma Read frequently
6 Ssala Kata Cut Ssalassala Cut repeatedly
7 Naba Nawa Wash Nabanaba Wash frequently
8 Siikka Kaanga Fry Siikkasiikka Repeating frying
9 Warara Paa Fly Wararawarara Repeating flying
10 Kola Fanya Work Kolakola Repeating working
11 Koppa Durufu Copy Koppakoppa Frequent copying
12 Siimula Deki Mop Ssiimulassiimula Mop frequently
13 Pima Pima Measure Pimapima Frequent measuring
14 Kiima Teka Fetch Kiimakiima Fetch frequently
15 Buuza Uliza Ask Buuzabuuza Asking frequently
16 Fanana Fanana Resemble Fananafanana Repeating resembling
17 Bumba Umba Mold Bumbabumba Frequent molding
18 Kyala Tembelea Visit Kyalakyala Visit repeatedly
19 Mila Meza Swallow Milamila Swallow repeatedly
20 Toroka Toroka Escape Torokatoroka Escape repeatedly
21 Wasa Oa Marry Wasawasa Frequent marrying
22 Zzimba Jenga Build Zzimbazzimba Frequent building
23 Wulila Sikia Hear Wulilawulila Frequent hearing
24 Naaba Nawa Bath Naabanaaba Frequent bathing
25 Jjawo Toa Remove Jjawojjawo Remove repeatedly
26 Laba Ona See Labalaba Frequent seeing
27 Tambula Tembea Walk Tambulatambula Walk continuously
28 Lima Lima Dig Limalima Dig repeatedly
29 Faayo Jali Take care Faayofaayo Frequent caring
30 Sobya Baka Rape Sobyasobya Frequent raping
31 Teleka Tunza Keep Telekateleka Frequent keeping
32 Tuuka Fika Reach Tuukatuuka Frequent reaching
33 Buuka Ruka Jump Buukabuuka Frequent jumping
34 Kwaana Tongoza Seduce Kwaanakwaana Frequent seducing
35 Ddamu Rudia Repeat Ddamuddamu Frequent repeating
36 Kwata Shika Catch Kwatakwata Frequent catching
37 Wuuga Ogelea Swim Wuugawuuga Frequent swimming
38 Gatta Unganisha Combine Gattagatta Frequent combining
39 Ebakka Lala Sleep Ebakkaebakka Frequent sleeping
40 Tawaanya Sumbua Disturb Tawaanyatawaanya Frequenting disturbance
41 Gaba Gawa Supply Gabagaba Frequent supplying
42 Imba Imba Sing Imbaimba Repeating singing
43 Kozessa Fanyisha Use Kozesakozesa Frequent using
44 Waata Menya Peel Waatawaata Repeating peeling
45 Fumitta Choma Pierce Fumittafumitta Repeating piercing
46 Teeka Weka Put Teekateeka Frequent putting
47 Lumya Umiza Hurt Lumyalumya Frequent hurting
48 Tokosa Tokosa Boil Tokosatokosa Frequent boiling
49 Yunja Vuna Harvest Yunjayunja Frequent harvesting
50 Ffiriza Jitoa Sacrifice Ffirizaffiriza Frequent sacrifice
51 Ddiima Goma Strike Ddiimaddiima Repeating strike
52 Ddira Fata Follow Ddiraddira Frequent following
53 Canga Changanya Mix Cangacanga Frequent mixing
54 Camula Changamsha Cheer up Camulacamula Repeating cheer up
55 Bumba Umba Mold Bumbabumba Repeating molding
56 Bula Potea Lost Bulabula Frequent lost
57 Banja Dai Demand Banjabanja Frequent demand
58 Sitama Chutama Squat Sitamasitama Frequent squatting
59 Situka Simama Stand up Situkasituka Frequent standing
60 Cupula Gushi Forge Cupulacupula Frequent forging
61 Camuka Shangaa Be excited Camukacamuka Frequent excitement
62 Diba Doda Cancelled Dibadiba Repeating cancelling
63 Kuba Piga Beat Kubakuba Frequent beating
64 Kendeza Punguza Minimize Kendezakendeza Repeat minimizing
65 Futa Futa Remove Futafuta Frequent removing
66 Sawa Fyeka Slash Sawasawa Frequent slashing
67 Sooza Fyonza Disgust Soozasooza Repeat disgusting
68 Nyiga Gandamiza Press hard on Nyiganyiga Frequent pressing hard
69 Gaba Gawa Divide Gabagaba Repeat dividing
70 Kyuusa Geuza Change Kyuusakyuusa Continue changing
71 Lwanila Gombania Scramble Lwanilalwanila Continue scrambling
72 Yonona Haribu Spoil Yononayonona Frequent spoiling
73 Yayana Hangaika Be busy Yayanayayana Continue being busy
74 Kwata Kamata Catch Kwatakwata Catch continuously
75 Kyuuka Geuka Be changed Kyuukakyuuka Change continuously
76 Yatula Tamka Alter Yatulayatula Frequent altering
SECTION C: ADJECTIVES/NAKONGEZA LINYANO. LUGANDA KISWAHILI GLOSS REDUPLICATED BASE GLOSS
1 Lungi Zuri Beautiful Lungilungi Somehow beauty
2 Silu Jinga Stupid Silusilu Stupid like
3 Mpola Pole Slow Mpolampola Slow like
4 Tono Dogo Small Tonotono Small like
5 Sanyuka Furahi Happy Sanyukasanyuka Happy like
6 Wanvu Refu Tall Wanvuwanvu Somehow tall
7 Nene Nene Big Nenenene Somehow big
8 Seegu Chafu Dirty Seeguseegu Dirty like
9 Balaavu Chachu Spicy Balaavubalaavu Spicy like
10 Naffu Vivu Lazy Naffunaffu Somewhat lazy
11 Mu-gaso Faida Benefit Mu-gasogaso Benefit like
12 Tuufu Sawa Accurate Tuufutuufu Somehow accurate
13 Mpi Fupi Short Mpimpi Somehow short
14 Kadde Zee Old Kaddekadde Old like
15 Bisi Bichi Unripe Bisibisi Unripe like
16 Bu-sungu Hasira Angry Bu-sungusungu Somehow angry
17 Bu-nivu Ukimya Quite Bu-nivunivu Somehow quite
18 Gaga Tajiri Affluent Gagagaga Affluent like
19 buwoomu Tamu Sweet Bu-woomuwoomu Sweet like
20 Gumu Kakamavu Strong Gumugumu Strong like
21 Camufu Changamfu Cheerful Camufucamufu Cheerful like
22 Cupuli Bandia Fake Cupulicupuli Somewhat fake
23 Dugavu Nyeusi Black Dugavudugavu Black like
24 Ekyamazzi Ulojo Liquid Kya-mazzimazzi Liquid like
25 Enyamivu Nyonge Depressed e-nyamivunyamivu Somehow depressed
26 Eyagazi Jigambo Proud e-yagaziyagazi Somewhat proud
27 Fumbe Chemshwa Boiled Fumbefumbe Not too boiled
28 Kalu Kavu Dry Kalukalu Dry like
29 Kalittima Chuki Heartless kalittimakalittima Somehow heartless
29 Jeemu Fitina Heartless Jeemujeemu Somehow heartless
30 Gezi Akili Rebellions Gezigezi Very rebellions
31 Gya Pya Intelligent Gyagya Intelligent like
32 Zito Zito Huge Zitozito Somehow huge
33 Gazzi Pana Broad Gazzigazzi Broad like
34 Kakali Kali Harsh Kakalikakali Very harsh
35 Tasoboka Isowezekana Impossible Tasobokasoboka Somewhat impossible
36 Yavu Umaskini Poor Yavuyavu Poor like
37 Yerere Tupu Naked Yerereyerere Somewhat naked
38 Zibbe Pofu Blind Zibbezibbe Blind like
39 Kooye Chovu Tired Kooyekooye Somewhat tired
40 Mukisa Bahati Luck Mu-kisakisa Somewhat luck
41 Njala Njaa Hungry Njalanjala Hungry like
42 Tobyo Nyevu Wet Tobyotobyo Somewhat wet
43 Kuffu Jazo Full Kuffukuffu Somewhat full
44 Mpewo Baridi Cold Mpewowewo Cold like
46 Nakuwavu Hasira Angry Nakuwavunakuwavu Not very angry
47 Nyonta Kiu Thirsty Nyontanyonta Somewhat thirsty
48 Mangu Haraka Fast Mangumangu Fast like
49 Vubuffu Ujana Adolescent Vubuffuvubuffu Adolescent like
50 Ttuufu Sawa Correct Ttuufuttufu Somewhat correct
51 Tukuvvu Takatifu Holy Tukuvvutukuvvu Holy like
52 Tereevu Tulivu Calm Tereevutereevu Somewhat calm
53 Tendeke Muelewa Professional Tendeketendeke Professional like
54 Tebenkevu Amani Peaceful Tebenkevutebenkevu Somewhat peaceful
56 Tangavu Angavu Bright Tangavutangavu Somewhat bright
57 Nsonyi Aibu Shy Nsonyinyonyi Shy like
58 Songovu Makali Sharp Songovusongovu Sharp like
59 Bulijjo Mara kwa mara Often Bulijjobulijjo Not real often
60 Siike Kaangwa Fried Siikesiike Fried like
61 Mangu Haraka Quickly Mangumangu Very quickly
62 kituufu Sawasawa Really Ki-tuufutuufu Really like
63 Sava Nono Fat Savasava Fat like
64 Sonyiwe Sameheka Forgivable Sonyiwesonyiwe Forgivable like
SECTION D: ADVERB/NAKONGEZAKIKOLWALUGANDA KISWAHILI GLOSS
REDUPLICATED BASE GLOSS
1 -ddala Haswa Absolutely Ddaladdala Very absolute
2 Wagulu Juu Above Waguluwagulu exact above
3 Emitala Ugenini Abroad Emitalamitala exact abroad
4 Yokka Pekee Alone Yokkayokka exact alone
5 Mabega Nyuma Back Mabegabega exact back
6 Obubi Mbaya Badly Obubibubi Not extremely bad
7 Kasoobo Polepole Slowly kasoobosoobo Very slowly
8 -kata Zaidi Almost Katakata Almost
9 Enkya Kesho Tomorrow Enkyaenkya Exact tomorrow
10 Mala Tayari Already Malamala already
11 Vanyuma Baada ya Afterwards Vanyumavanyuma Real afterwards
12 Mu-maaso Mbele ya Ahead Mu-maasomaaso Real ahead
13 Bulijjo Mara kwa mara Always Bulijjobulijjo Always
14 Lusegere Pembeni ya Alongside Lusegerelusegere Real alongside
15 -ggyo Juzi A day after yesterday Ggyogyo A day after yesterday
16 Kyekyo Hakika Surely Kyekyokyekyo Real sure
17 Wansi Chini Down Wansiwansi Real down
18 -gulu Juu Up Gulugulu Real up
19 Bwelu Nje Out Bwelubwelu Real out
20 Yavuala Ishiwa Poorly yavualayavuala Very poor
21 Munda Ndan Inside Mundamunda Real inside
22 Kiro Usiku Night time Kirokiro Real night
23 Ttumbi Usku wa manane Mid –night Ttumbittumbi Real midnight
24 Ttuntu Alasiri Mid day Ttuntuttuntu Real mid day
25 Kumakya Asubh Morning Kumakyamakya Real morning
26 Nteenvu Disemba December Nteenvunteenvu Real December
27 Bulijjo Kila siku Regularly Bulijjobulijjo Regularly
28 Bbalirwe Mara chache Rarely Bbalirwebbalirwe Very rarely
29 Nnyo Sana Very Nnyonnyo Very
30 Buli Kila Daily Bulibuli Daily
31 Ddala Kabisa Indeed Ddaladdala Very indeed
32 Kubanga Kwasababu Because Kubangakubanga Because
33 Kilungi Vizuri Good Kilungibulungi Somehow good
34 -nswakula Kelele Noisy Swankulaswankula Very noisy
35 Wanno Hapa Here Wannowanno Insisting
36 Uwa Wapi Where Uwauwa Asking where
37 Kilo Usiku Night Kilokilo Insisting
38 Nyiingi Nyingi Much Nyiinginyiingi Too much
39 Egulo Jana Yesterday Egulogulo insisting
40 Edda Baadae Soon Eddaedda Very soon
42 Zibbi Gizani Dark Zibbizibbi Very dark
43 Wampi Karibu Nearby Wampiwampi Nearby
44 Swankula Kelele Noisy swankulaswakula Very noisy
45 Wakati Kati In the middle Wakati wakati Insisting in the middle
46 Wansi Chini Down Wansiwansi Real down
47 Yadde Angalau At least Yaddeyadde At least
48 Seeke Pekee Alone Seekeseeke Real alone
49 Bulungi Vizuri Well Bulungibuungi Real well
50 Bulala Sana Greatly Bulalabulala Vary greatly
51 Eddako Baadae Later Eddakoeddako Very later
52 Makati Kati Between Makatimakati Insisting
53 Ddala Barabara Exactly Ddaladdala Very absolutely
54 Kokorima Wika Crow Kokorimakokorima Repeat crowing
55 Bubi Vibaya Badly Bubibubi Very bad
56 Buno Sasa Now Bunobuno Real now
57 Rejjarejja Rejareja Retail Rejjarejja Frequent retail
58 Wamu Pamoja Together Wamuwamu Real together
59 Walii Pale There Waliiwalii Insisting
60 Bweru Nje Outside Bwerubweru Insisting
The Language Map of Uganda
Source: Ethnologue Language of the World (2017)