Sociologicalperspectives:-· Sociology asscience employs perspectives or theories to understand, explain, analyze andinterpret social phenomena.· A theory may bedefined as a general statement about how some parts of the world fit togetherand how they work.
(Major Theoretical Perspectives in sociology)Structural-functional perspective:-Ø Thefunctionalist perspective is based largely on the works of Herbert Spencer,Emile Durkheim, Talcott Parsons, and Robert Merton.Ø According tofunctionalism, society is a system of interconnected parts that work togetherin harmony to maintain a state of balance and social equilibrium for the whole.Ø This perspectiveemphasize the interconnectedioness of society by focusing on the influence ofits each part.Conflict perspective:-Ø the conflictperspective views society as composed of different groups and interestcompeting for power and resources. Ø The conflictperspective explains various aspects of our social world by looking at whichgroups have power and benefit from a particular social arrangement.Ø The origins ofthe conflict perspective can be traced to the classic works of Karl Marx. Marxsuggested that all societies go through stages of economic development.
- Thesis Statement
- Structure and Outline
- Voice and Grammar
(Understanding Social Problems, 5th edition, 2007) Institution:-· Sociologicalinstitution are a system of behavioral and relationship patterns that aredensely interwoven and function across an entire society.· Institiutionregulate the behavior of individuals in core areas of society.· Theseinstituition are the important structural component of modern societies.· Without sovialinstituions modern socities could not exists. (Social Institutions in Encyclopedia of Quality of Life Research, n.d.)Family:-o The family is an intimate domestic social group madeup of people realted to one another by bonds of blood sexual mating or legalties.o It is the smallest and most basic social institutionwhich is also the most important primary group found in the society.
“The family is the basic primary group and thenatural matrix of personality”. (Mack)”Family is a group defined by a sexrelationship, sufficiently precise and enduring to provide for the procreationand upbringing of children”. (Page) Universality of family:-o it is only possible totalk of relationships as universal. (Gittins, 1993)o it is the idea of thenuclear family as universal that is the significant fact.
(McIntosh, 1991)o taking ‘snapshots’ ofhousehold types is misleading. Over the life-cycle the most people live infamilies. (Chester)o George Peter Murdock claimed that some form of family existed inevery society and insisted on that the family is universal. His standpoint isthat a family consists of a husband, wife and one or more offspring.
He is alsoof the opinion that a family lives together and produces offspring moreoverthat family is a universal phenomenon. (G.M.Sabestlanpillai) Functionalistperspective:Functionalists see the familyas the basic and most vital institution in society, just as one could see theheart and the brain as the most vital organs of the body.Functionalists sociologistswould say the effect of increasing numbers of working wives and mothers (the pebblein the pond) has been to cause changes in family life (ripples). A new situation has come about,in which activities in the home are shared so society has entered into a newstable state (the calm pond). Conflictperspective:- Marxists argue that thefamily is not necessarily a haven of love and protection from the social worldand the Functionalists advocate.
Rather, they purport that this unit acts as aninstitution that is designed solely to meet the needs of the capitalisteconomic system. The institution of the family, therefore, is asystem of power relations that reinforces and reflects the inequalities insociety. Cooper (1972) argues that thefamily is an “ideological conditioning device in an exploitative society.” Different types of families:-NuclearFamily:A nuclear familyis a small group consisting of a husband, a wife and children, natural oradopted.It consists oftwo generations only. In all modern societies, nuclear family is the mostcommon type of family.
In fact, nuclearfamily is both the consequence as well as the cause of the disintegration ofjoint family.Joint Family:A joint family consists ofthree generation, living together under the same roof, sharing the same kitchenand purse or economic expenses. It is a family consisting of threenuclear families living together. According to Iravati Karve, ajoint family is “a group of people, who generally live under the same roof,who eat food cooked at one hearth, who hold property in common, and whoparticipate in common family worship and are related to each other as someparticular type of kindered.”Family of MatrilocalResidence:When a couple stays in thewife’s house, the family is known as family of matrilocal residence.Family of PatrilocalResidence:When a family stays in thehouse of husband, the family is known as family of patrilocal residence.
Matrilineal Family:When ancestry or descent istraced through the female line, or through the mother’s side, the family iscalled matrilineal family.Patrilineal Family:A family in which theauthority is carried down the male line, and descent is traced through the maleline or the father’s side, is called a patrilineal family.Matriarchal Family:It is a form of family inwhich authority is centred in the wife or mother. The matriarchal family systemimplies rule of the family by the mother, not by the father. In this type offamily women are entitled to perform religious rites and husband lives in thehouse of wife.
Patriarchal Family:Patriarchal family is a typeof family in which all authority belongs to the paternal side. In this family,the eldest male or the father is the head of the family. In the developedpatriarchal system of the past, the patriarch had unlimited and undisputedauthority over his wife, sons and daughters.Endogamous Family:Endogamy is the practice ofmarrying someone within a group to which one belongs. An endogamous family isone which consists of husband and wife who belong to same group such as casteor tribe.Exogamous Family:Endogamy means marriagewithin a group, while exogamy means marriage with someone outside his group.For example a Hindu must marry outside his Kinship group or gotra. When afamily is consisted of husband and wife of different groups such as gotra iscalled exogamous family.
(http://www.yourarticlelibrary.com, n.d.) Functional perspective:-Functionalists say that themodern nuclear family has evolved from earlier forms and its structure is mostappropriate for and beneficial for an advanced industrial society.William J. Goode added to the Functionalist view in a study offamily trends throughout the world entitled World Revolution and FamilyPatterns, 1963. His basic thesis was that there is a worldwide trend towards amonogamous nuclear family structure.
In response to claims that there is adiversity of family forms including polygamy, clan and extended families,social rather than biological fatherhood’s. Goode argued that there was auniversal trend towards the Western model of the nuclear family because likeParsons, he saw this an integral part of the global expansion ofindustrialization. (Goldthorpe’s, n.d.
)Conflict perspective:-Morgan (1975) posits thatboth functionalist and Marxist approaches “presuppose a traditional model of the nuclearfamily where there is a married couple with children, where the husband is thebreadwinner and where the wife stays at home to deal with the housework.”There is a generalunderestimation of the “extent of cruelty, violence, incest and neglect” withinfamilies.The traditional family formin most cultures is patriarchal, contributing to inequality between thesexes. Males tend to have more power and females tend to have less. Traditional male roles andresponsibilities are valued more than the traditional roles done by their wives(i.e., housekeeping, child rearing).
The traditional family is also aninequitable structure for women and children. For example, more than 60percent of all mothers with children under six are in the paid workforce. Eventhough these women spend as much (or more) time at paid jobs as their husbands,they also do more of the housework and child care. (https://courses.lumenlearning.
com/boundless-sociology/chapter/sociological-perspectives-on-family/, n.d.) Relationship with society:Functionalperspective:The family performs several essentialfunctions for society. It socializes children, it provides emotional andpractical support for its members, it helps regulate sexual activity and sexualreproduction, and it provides its members with a social identity.Family problems stem fromsudden or far-reaching changes in the family’s structure or processes; theseproblems threaten the family’s stability and weaken society.Conflictperespectives:-The family contributes tosocial inequality by reinforcing economic inequality and by reinforcingpatriarchy.
Family problems stem from economic inequality and from patriarchalideology. The family can also be asource of conflict, including physical violence and emotional cruelty, for itsown members. (15.
2 Sociological Perspectives on the Family) Treatment of women in families:-Functionalperspective:-§ Structural functionalists posit that genderroles arise from the need to establish a division of labor that will helpmaintain the smooth running of the family.§ In this view, girls and boys are taughtdifferent approaches to life. Boys are taught instrumentality.Girls, on theother hand, are taught to be expressive.
§ In many ways, the functionalist perspective of genderequality is a product of its times, describing the realities of genderroles and inequalities of the 1950s but not explaining them.§ However, the functionalist perspective is lessuseful for describing the realities of gender in the postindustrial age,in which many women work outside the home, men can stay at home with thechildren, and everyone helps with the housework.§ More research is needed in order to gain abetter understanding of the role of gender in twenty-first-century society andhow the changing requirements of the postindustrial age affect these roles andthe stability they enforce on society.
(Structural Functionalist Theories of Gender Inequality)Conflictperspective:-§ women in Western cultures could not vote orhold property, making them entirely dependent on men. Men, like any other groupwith a power or wealth advantage, fought to maintain their control overresources (in this case, political and economic power).§ Conflict between the two groups caused thingslike the Women’s Suffrage Movement and was responsible for social change.§ Friedrich Engels, a German sociologist, studied familystructure and gender roles from a Marxist perspective.
§ Engels suggested that the same owner-workerrelationship seen in the labor force could also be seen in the household, withwomen assuming the role of the proletariat. This was due to women’s dependenceon men for the attainment of wages.§ Contemporary conflict theorists suggest thatwhen women become wage earners, they gain power in the family structureand create more democratic arrangements in the home, although they may stillcarry the majority of the domestic burden. (Gender Stratification and Inequality, n.d.)Treatment of children:-Focusing on child abuse,conflict theory tries to make sense of the conflict that is occurring, usuallybetween a parent and child.
Conflict theory argues thatgroups in society will fight over unequal distribution of power. Looking atchild abuse, the subordinate group (parents) hold the power over thesubordinate group (children) and use that power in a negative way. Conflict theory is important because it helpsto understand the discrimination these children are facing and where thediscrimination stems from. Changes in family system:-Due to industrlizaltion andurbanization, different changes are occurring in the family system.· Disintegration:-There are students of thefamily who say that the Western family, and particularly the American family,has shown signs of disintegration that are actual and absolute. · Loss of Function:-Other sociologists speak ofloss of function when explaining what happened to the American family.
The loss-of-functionsociologists point out that the family at one time performed many functions onbehalf of its members, on behalf of the community, and on behalf of society,and that it has gradually lost these functions. Historically, the family wasboth an important productive unit (making soap and clothing and processingfood) and an important protective unit (against wild animals and savages). Notonly has the family lost these and other functions; it has not taken on anysignificant new ones. · Adaptability:-Still other sociologistsrecognize that social change has taken place but view change as having had afavorable effect on the family. Burgess sees the emergence ofa type of family characterized by adaptability–a family that can adapt notonly to changing conditions but also to divergent personalities with diversityof cultural backgrounds. · The “Colleague” Family:-Blood and Wolfe in a surveyof empirical data conclude that the American family has not for many decadesbeen highly integrated and authoritarian in structure. They conclude that thepatriarchal family–a family ordered under a strong, authoritarian fatherfigure.
Miller and Swanson call thistype of family the “colleague” family because it resembles coworkersrather than companions–interdependent, but each with distinct and mutuallyrecognized competencies. · Improvement:-Other sociologists see theAmerican family not as disintegrating but as improving. More of the populationis marrying; marriages–when death rate and divorce rate are consideredtogether–are lasting longer; more people are remarrying; divorce-rate increasehas been checked, at least for the present; more and more couples areestablishing homes of their own and are having children.13 America is seen as afamily-affirming society, and the American people by their actions asfamily-affirming people. (htt2) Family system of Pakistan:Social life is a part of human nature.
Due to variousreasons society is divided in rural and urban areas. Similarly. Pakistanisociety is also divided in rural and urban society. Before to creation of Pakistan the joint family system wasmuch liked but today the world social change also affected Pakistani culture.That is why? With joint family systemthe tendency of nuclear family system is advancing, but Pakistani nation is an Islamicsociety which gives emphasis upon children’s rights in particular.
Our Holy Prophet peace be upon Him when ordered to parentsto edify and provide better education and moral society to their children, alsoasked the children to display excellent behavior towards their parents. (JOINT FAMILY SYSTEM IN PAKISTAN, 2014)Ø Accordingto my opinion most people prefer joint family system on differentstatements sometime on the basis of financial support because in joint familysystem financial burden is shared by all the members of the family.In joint family system financial burden is share by allfamily member, and divided their responsibility. All people have the right toexpress the feeling and share the opinion and lead the lives on the basis oftheir own choice.
Joint faimly helps children to understand and valuedifferent relationships respecting each and keeping the feeling of togethernessalive and such an environment makes them learn adaptability and adjustment. In joint family every body give his opinion and decisioncomes to deciding the children future. Works Cited (n.d.). Retrieved from https://courses.lumenlearning.
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