Social Another factor that impacts the rates of

Social Disorganization TheoryOne of the mostfundamental approaches to the study of juvenile delinquency emanates from theChicago-school research of Clifford Shaw and Henry McKay. Their theory – thesocial disorganization theory – links crime rates to neighborhood ecologicalcharacteristics. The core principle of this theory is that the probability of aperson being involved in illegal activities is shaped by that person’sresidential location. In other words, this theory proposes the idea that theplace where a person lives is a more significant determinant than an individual’scharacteristics, such as gender, age, or race when predicting criminal activity.Shaw and McKayfound out that the delinquency rates were impressively high in disadvantagedurban areas marked by culture conflict, lack of cohesiveness, a transientpopulation, and insufficient social organization. In their research, they notedthat socially disorganized neighborhoods tended to produce criminal traditionsthat could be conveyed to successive generations of youths due to the lack ofbehavioral control mechanisms and the cultural transmission of distortedvalues.

Rehabilitation Centers – RealSolution?Although theAmerican Juvenile System is rigorous as regards sentencing a juvenile aftercommitting an offense, it has not proven to be a deterrent to juveniledelinquency. There is an indication that adolescents who live in poor,crime-ridden residential areas have less parental support and supervision andsuffer more financial hardship. These factors contribute to high levels ofanti-social behavior. Youths under such circumstance are more exposed toviolent peer groups’ norms, leading to deviant attitudes and activities.It has been longestablished that parents who do not have a strong supervision and positiveinvolvement in their children’s life tremendously expose them to delinquentoutcomes, including violent offending. Several studies have pointed out thatlow parental support contributes to adolescents’ involvement with deviant peerswhich massively affects criminality rates among young people. Another factorthat impacts the rates of juvenile delinquency is he economic status of thecommunity.

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Delinquent rates are normally higher in areas with economicdecline and instability.The AmericanJuvenile System has several processes to deter and punish juvenile offendingand to maintain public safety, including arrest, detainment, petitions,hearings, adjudications, dispositions, placement, probation, and reentry.Although the main goals of the juvenile justice system are rehabilitation,addressing treatment needs, and successful reintegration of youth into thesociety, the majority of adolescents involved in violent offending do notrespond well to these efforts.Nowadays, one verycommon method to address juvenile offenders is rehabilitation. Rehabilitationcenters are known to provide mechanisms that contribute to give these youths anew perspective, teaching principles that are the base of a well-establishedsociety, such honesty, compassion, and hard work. Nevertheless, when theseyouths leave the rehabilitation centers, they are confronted again by thereality of where they live. The problem is that just rehabilitation does nothelp these juveniles efficaciously in their daily life outside the centers,because in their neighborhood dynamics, conventional institutions of socialcontrol are weak and unable to regulate the behavior of the neighborhoods’youths. In addition, thesocial disorganization in these transitional neighborhoods reduces socialcapital a lot and weakens the collective efficacy of control and support ofadolescents within the neighborhood, thereby it increases crime and violencerate.

The likelihood of undesirable behaviors increases where social values aredeteriorated. For that reason, it is difficult to assure efficacy in thesejuvenile offenders’ rehabilitation.Prevention AttitudesDelinquencyprevention seeks to redirect youth who are considered at-risk for delinquencyor who have committed a delinquent offense from deeper involvement in thejuvenile justice system. First of all, families, churches, school, and thegovernment must be included to mitigate the deleterious effects of socialdisorganization. Intervening mechanisms should be established to decreasecriminal activities in a neighborhood, for instance, youths’ local friendshipnetworks, the prevalence of supervised peer groups, and centers for organizationalparticipation in the neighborhood’s issues.Strengths-based,advocacy oriented programs that divert arrested youth from formal processing inthe juvenile justice system and provide them community-based services should beavailable. These programs can significantly reduce the rates of officialdelinquency.

Also, programs designed to foster the development of interrelatedsets of cognitive, affective, and behavioral competencies, in order to providea foundation for better adjustment and academic performance in students, canresult in more positive social behaviors, fewer conduct problems, and lessemotional distress. This kind of intervention can have significant improvementson youths’ self-determination, mental health empowerment, transition planning,career self-efficacy, hope, and can help them overcome barriers. Programs thatreduce initiating drug andalcohol use and antisocial behavior need to be part of the routine of theseneighborhoods.

They should also provide emotional support to parents and theirchildren and be aimed to improve the situation of street-connected children andyoung people. There is a need of interventions that reduce bullying andvictimization in school settings and increase positive involvement in the bullyingsituation from bystanders and witnesses.In conclusion, there must be an attempt to attenuate youth deliquency.

Thesocial disorganization theory suggests that family preservation programs shouldbe funded. Strong families can be able to resist the deleterious effects ofsocial disorganization on their children, and they can also work together toreduce social disorganization in their communities. In order to decreasejuvenile delinquency and its violent outcomes, policy implications must beapplied by the government and the community to work as deterrence and to givethese young people the possibility to change the dynamic of their neighborhoodsto promote a better enviro


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