“Social race, education, wealth, power and income.” Social

“Social stratification is the system by which
society ranks the category of people in hierarchy, based on the factors such as
race, education, wealth, power and income.”

Social stratification is universal that exist in
every society worldwide. Social stratification is the trait of society. It carries
over from generation to generation. It involves not just inequality but belief also.

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In Pakistan society:
I have stated that social stratification is universal so it also exists in our
own society in many forms. Our own society stratified different category of
people on basis of some economic resources, caste system, power and control.

Economic resources: Our society
ranks those people with high level of income, top in the hierarchy. High level
income groups perceived as efficient and have more resources. Like society
ranks the professionals, business people, industrialist at the top and termed
them as relate to upper class. Likewise the people with low income, low
resources, unskilled personalities like laborers, can be placed at bottom by
the society. And society categorizes such groups in terms of lower class. So
the social stratification exists in this way.

Power and control:
Our society rule is to give respect
to those who have more power and more resources in life. Our society gives more
power and control to those with high skills, highly educated, have more
financial resources and outspoken in publics. And gives very low or no power to
lower class people, that’s why the lower class people may not get any respect. In
this way society shows stratification among members of societies in terms of

Caste system:
Caste system is very critical
factor or element in stratification process. In Pakistan there are many types
of caste systems that differentiate one group of people from another. Pakistan
society has stratified the people into different categories of caste. In our
society, some castes are considered as high and some are low. Example of castes
that exist in Pakistan like; Butt, Jutt, Sayyad, Arain, Mughal, Rajpoot, Malik,
Sheikh, and so on.

Social class:
Our society has separated the society’s member into three categories:

1.      High

2.      Middle

3.       Lower class

High class people have
more prestige, power, opportunities to success; include politicians, business
people, etc. Middle class include people who are well educated, well skilled
and mostly the professionals. Lower class includes people with no skills, uneducated;
like laborers.

Education system: Our society ranks the educated people top in
hierarchy and illiterate people bottom in hierarchy and considered them
educated people as high status and illiterate people as low status.

stratification passes on from generation to generation as our Grandparents and
parents have faced such type of stratification. My parents have told me that
they faced the same type of social stratification when they were young. In past
there was the same caste system and class system that still exists today. But
there intensity was low. In past, there was less concept of caste system but
today’s society has developed various types of caste that each member of
society has in life. Earlier societies exercised more gender stratification by
giving male more power and prestige as compared to women. In past women had no
more opportunities to be successful while male had all the opportunities .Society
had centered the life of women at home.

Social mobility: Gender is one of the
important factors of social mobility. Now today society has given female the
opportunity to be successful and independent rather than centered her life in
homes. Today our society provides more education and job opportunity to female
also. In this way social mobility occurs in society. Despite this change,
however the opportunities that females receive for social mobility are still
not equal to those of male. Education system is also a factor of social
mobility in which society provides every individual with equal opportunity to
become successful in life. For example the
middle class or low class people can become professional and attain high status
in life.


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