Sleep and Smartphone addiction

Sleep and Smartphone addiction:
1)Demi?rci?, Akgönül, & Akpinar (2015) conducted a research on relationship of Smartphone Use Severity with Sleep Quality, Depression, and Anxiety in 319 male & female University Students and those samples were divided into three groups as a smartphone non-user group, a low smartphone use group and a high smartphone use group. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Smartphone Addiction Scale were administered on the participants. Findings of the study indicated that smartphone overuse may be associated with depression, anxiety, and sleep quality.
2)Amra, et.al (2017) conducted a study to investigate the relationship of late-night cell phone use with sleep duration and quality in a sample of Iranian adolescents. 2400 samples were chosen for the study aged between 12-18 years. Data regarding Age, body mass index, sleep duration, cell phone use after 9p.m., and physical activity were documented and sleep was assed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire. Result of the study indicated that 1270 participants reported to use cell phone after 9p.m and 56.1% of girls and 38.9% of boys reported poor quality sleep. Findings of the study indicated that late-night cell phone use by adolescents was associated with poorer sleep quality and Participants who were physically active had better sleep quality and quantity
3)Soni, Upadhyay & Jain (2017) conducted a study to investigate the magnitude of smart phone addiction and to evaluate the impact of smart phone addiction on their mental health and sleep quality. Data was collected from 587 repudiated school students. Samples completed the Smart phone addiction scale (SAS), DASS-21, and Pittsburgh sleep quality inventory questionnaire. Results indicated that samples those who used smart phone excessively had high PSQI scores and DASS-21scores in terms of depression, anxiety and stress.

Sleep and Dark Triad:
1)Akram et.al (2018) conducted a study to investigate the association between the dark triad personality traits and insomnia symptoms amongst a sample of the general-population. Data was collected from 475 participants through online survey. They completed dark triad personality traits (SD3) and insomnia severity questionnaires. Results indicated that Machiavellianism and psychopathy are independent on insomnia symptoms, but not narcissism in univariate analyses. They used linear regression analysis and found that insomnia symptoms are predicted by psychopathy and sex, but not Machiavellianism. So the researcher explained that because psychopaths have deficits emotion they have disturbed sleep.

2)Annen et.al (2017) conducted a study to investigate the associations between Dark Triad traits and vulnerable narcissism, mental toughness, sleep quality, and stress perception in 720 samples aged between 18 to 28 years. Participants completed self-rating questionnaires on Dark Triad traits, mental toughness, vulnerable narcissism, sleep quality, and perceived stress. Results indicated that participants who scored high on vulnerable narcissism also reported higher Dark Triad traits, lower mental toughness, poor sleep quality, and higher scores on perceived stress. This indicated that vulnerable narcissism seems to be key for more unfavourable behavior.

3) Sabouri, et al. (2016) examined Dark Triad traits in relation to sleep disturbances, anxiety sensitivity and intolerance of uncertainty in 341 young adults. The participants answered the questionnaire that assess DT traits, sleep disturbances, anxiety sensitivity, and intolerance of uncertainty. Findings of the study indicate that specific Dark Triad traits, which include Machiavellianism and psychopathy, are associated with sleep disturbances, anxiety sensitivity and intolerance of uncertainty in young adults.

SLEEP AND PSYCHOPATH:
1)Backman et al. (2016) conducted a study on Finnish adolescents on the topic of severe sleep problems and psychopathic features. This study includes a population-based sample of 4855 Finnish adolescents. Antisocial Process Screening Device-Self Report (APSD-SR) was used to measure psychopathic feature and sleep problems were evaluated by asking questions regarding frequency and persistence of sleep problems and the amount of sleep on school and weekend nights. 5% of the adolescents reported frequent and persistent sleep problems & 3.2% of adolescents reported continuous short sleep. Both sleep problems and short sleep were associated with higher scores on APSD-SR. Results were concluded that vulnerability to lack of behavioral control and prosocial behavior may be associated with severe problems of sleep quality and quantity among adolescents.

2)Taherifard, Abolghasemi & Hajloo (2015) conducted a study to find the relationship between positive and negative urgency as well as sleep quality. The data was collected from 50 patients diagnosed with Anti-Social Personality Disorder and 50 patients with Borderline Personality Disorder. Then from 50 healthy individuals data was collected and this group was control group. Using Lynam et al.’s Impulse Control Scale and Pittsburgh’s Sleep Quality Index the data was collected. Findings indicated that Borderline Personality Disorder patients’ mean of negative urgency was high than Anti-Social Personality Disorder patients, It was also found Anti-Social Personality Disorder patients scored high in positive urgency than Borderline Personality Disorder patients. Sleep quality was higher in healthy controls than in Borderline Personality Disorder and Anti-Social Personality Disorder patients. Results of the study indicated that there is a significant difference between in Borderline Personality Disorder, Anti-Social Personality Disorder patients and healthy controls in the positive and negative urgency and sleep quality because the sample with disorders engage in reckless behavior when they experience both positive and negative emotions with low sleep quality.
SMARTPHONE ADDICTION AND PSYCHOPATHY:
1)Lee et.al (2014) conducted a study to examine the possible relationship between smartphone addiction proneness and certain psychopathological features. They collected data from 755 adults. Korean Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale (SAPS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised (OCI-R), and the Barratt Impulsivity Scale-11 (BIS-11) were used to assess the samples. Based on the samples score on SAPS, they were divided into two groups as the addiction proneness group and the normal-user group. Findings of the study indicated that addiction proneness group scored high in the Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised and Barratt Impulsivity Scale-11 than normal user group. Researchers also found that smartphone addiction proneness showed a significant association with BIS-11 when they used logistic regression analysis. They concluded that impulsivity could be a vulnerability marker for smartphone addiction proneness.

SMARTPHONE ADDICTION AND NARCISSISM:
1)Hussain, Griffiths, ; Sheffield (2017) conducted a study to examine the relationship between the psychological aspects of smartphone use particularly in relation to problematic use, narcissism, anxiety, and personality factors. Samples include 640 smartphone users ranging from 13 to 69 years of age. The problematic smartphone use, anxiety, narcissism and personality factors were assessed through online survey including modified DSM-5 criteria of Internet Gaming Disorder to assess problematic smartphone use, the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Narcissistic Personality Inventory, and the Ten-Item Personality Inventory was used. Data was collected through online survey. Results have indicated that different personality variables are related with problematic and it helps in gaining knowledge about smartphone behavior and how it is related with excessive smartphone use.

2)Pearson ; Hussain (2016) conducted a study to investigate the association between smartphone use, narcissistic tendencies, and personality as predictors of smartphone addiction. Data was collected from 256 smartphone users through online survey. Fin dings of the study indicated that 13.3% of the sample was classified as smartphone addicted. Smartphone addiction was linked with narcissism, openness, neuroticism, and age which were found using regression analysis. This shows that smartphones encourage narcissism, even in non-narcissistic users.