SECTION his offspring is a female, and his

SECTION III.  Chapters8, 10-121A) It would be more similar to the extracellular side becausethe cisternal side of a Golgi ends up as the inner side of the secretoryvesicles. Then after exocytosis it ends as the external side of the plasmamembrane. 2A) Plasma membrane, Smooth endoplasmic reticulum, Roughendoplasmic reticulum, lysosome, plant vacuole, plasma membrane, TGN (or othermembranes of the biosynthetic pathway), and cytosol.

7A) Yes, if it were to act in a similar manner as computerbinary systems. In this case a minimum of five nucleotides would be needed tomake a codon. This is because there are 20 essential amino acids and two to thefifth power is 32.

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If it were only to the fourth power you’d only have 16.9A) A father will pass on his X chromosome if his offspringis a female, and his Y chromosome if it is male. As such, if the telomerestudied in this experiment was on the X chromosome, a mother could pass it toher children (son or daughter), while a father would only pass his to adaughter. SECTION IV.

  Chapters13-151A) Since A-T base pairs are only joined together by twohydrogen bonds, they are easier to separate. For this purpose, it makes iteasier to begin DNA replication. 4A) The synthesis of cyclins would take place in G1, not inG2, because synthesis of cyclins stimulate cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdks), thathelp the phase change to synthesis phase (S phase). Ultimately, G1 is aboutcellular growth from the recent division and G2 is about getting ready todivide again (go into mitosis). 6A) Without crossing over, you would end up with half ofyour chromosomes from your mother and half from your father. Similarly, yourchromosomes would be one-quarter from each of your grandparents. However, crossingover is a fairly random event where exact half and half mixes rarely takeplace.

It would be unlikely that the ratios would be this exact if crossingover did occur.9A) Immune cells such as natural killer cells (NK cells)recognize cancer cells and bind to them. Next they use cytolytic proteins tokill the infected/mutated cell. Cytokines such as perforins cause apoptosis byforming holes in the plasma membrane. 

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