Objectives Identification and explanation Assessment of his critiques by Tyler and Cockroach Explaining his position in evaluation The role of needs assessment Distinctions Discussing the Key Evaluation Checklist Labeled separatism, positivism, management and relativism His role and main contributions to evaluation Betјl ?calmly Evaluation Defined Scrivener defined evaluation as methodological activity that consists simply in the gathering and combining of performance data with a set of goal scales to give comparative or numerical ratings and in the justification of -The data- gathering instruments -The weightings The selection of goals Kјbra Kara Evaluation is preferably comparative, by implication it looks at comparative costs as well as benefits, it is concerned with; -how to best meet the needs of consumers -It is a professional activity involving systematic procedures -It should be conducted as Objectively as possible -It must culminate in judgments and recommendations Critique of Other Persuasions Scrivener has criticized other views of evaluation and has used his critical analysis to extend his own position. He has charged that the Talleyrand tradition is fundamentally flawed, since it is essentially value-free. Talleyrand tradition sees evaluation as determining whether objectives have been achieved Scrivener argued that evaluations based on this approach as potentially invalid, because developers goals may be immoral, unrealistic, not representative of the assessed needs of consumers.
Instead of using goals to guide and judge effects, he said that evaluators should judge the goals and not be constrained to them in the search for outcomes. Scrivener also took issue with the advice offered by Cockroach.Cockroach advised against exclusive use of comparative experimental designs and suggested that a variety of measures should be seed to study a particular program in depth and the results should be used to help guide the development. Scrivener said this advice by Cockroach spoiled the important distinction between the goal and roles of evaluation. Also it tended to equate evaluation with only one of its roles- that is, the formative evaluation. Formative and Summation Evaluation Building on this critique, Scrivener extended his view of evaluation.
- Thesis Statement
- Structure and Outline
- Voice and Grammar
He introduced the terms: -Formative Evaluation -Summation Evaluation Scrivener argued that the evaluator’s main responsibility is to make informed judgments. He said the goal of evaluation is always the same to judge value. However, he continued, the roles of evaluation are enormously varied.
The failure to distinguish between evaluation’s goal (to judge the value of something) and its roles (constructive uses of evaluative data) has led to the dilution of what is called evaluation so that it no longer achieves its goal of assessing value. There are Owe main roles of evaluation: 1. Formative: To assist in developing programs and other objects 2. Summation: To assess the value of the object once it has been developed and placed on the market.
Formative evaluation is an integral part of developmental recess. It provides contain al feedback to assist in planning and then producing some object. In general, formative evaluation is done to help staff to improve whatever they are operating or developing.
Summation evaluation usually should be performed by an external evaluator in order to enhance objectivity, and the finding should be made public. Summation evaluation serves consumers by providing them with independent assessments that compare the costs, merits, and worth of competing programs or products. Amateur vs.. Professional Evaluation In the early stages of curriculum development, Scrivener prefers “amateur valuation” (self-evaluation) to “professional evaluation”. Developers may be unsystematic and subjective, but they are also supportive, entertaining, dedicated to producing success. If professional evaluators involved too early, they may dampen the creative fires of a productive group.However, professional developers are needed to perform both formative and summation evaluation during the later stages of development.
Intrinsic evaluation It appraises qualities of an instrumentality, regardless of its effects on clients by assessing such literatures as goals, structure, methodology, qualifications and attitudes of staff, facilities, public credibility, and past record. Key question: how good is the personalization of the curriculum package? G. Berne ?giddier payoff evaluation It is concerned not with the nature of program, textbook, theory, or other object, but rather with its effects on clients, such effects might include test, scores, job performance, or health Status. Key question: How well does the program achieve this goal?Goal Free Evaluation The evaluator purposely remains ignorant of a program’s printed goals and searches for all effects of a program irrespective of its developers objectives. Advantages It is less intrusive than goal based evaluation. It is more adaptable to midstream goal shifts. It is better at finding side effects .
It is less prone to social, perceptual, and cognitive bias. It is more professionally challenging. It is more equitable in taking wide range of values into account.
Need Assessment Need: It is anything essential for a satisfactory mode Of existence, anything without which that mode of existence or level of performance would fall below a satisfactory level.Need Assessment: It is a process for discovering facts about what things if not provided or if withdrawn would result in very bad consequences by any assumable standards of good and bad. What is the function of need assessment? According to need assessment results, one can judge outcomes observed for a given program as good, bad, or indifferent depending on whether they do or would contribute to meeting the identified needs.
THE KEY EVALUATION CHECKLIST Evaluation should involves multiple dimensions, multiple perspectives, multiple levels of measurement and must use multiple methods. Killing 1 Description Described as objectively as possible. Is there any relationships between components? 2-) Client Who is commissioning the evaluation?The client for the evaluation who may r may not be the initiator, instigator, manufacturer, funding agency or legislative godparent. 3-) Background and Context of the evaluate and the evaluation Identification of stakeholders, expectations from the evaluation 4-) Resources These are not what is used up but what could be. They include money, expertise, past experience, technology and flexibility considerations. 5-) Function Distinguish what it is supposed to do intended function role from what it in fact does- actual functions both for the client and the consumers. 6-) Delivery System How does the evaluation reach the market? How is it maintained? How improved? 7-) Cons mere Who is receiving the evaluate?Distinguish targeted populations of consumers from actually and directly affected populations Of consumers.
Instigators are also affected, for example by having job, but they are not consumers. 8) Needs and Values of the Impacted and Potentially Impacted Population This will include wants as well as needs, also values and ideals. The relative importance of these often conflicting considerations will depend upon ethical and functional considerations. 9-) Standards Are there any pre existing objectively validated standards of merit or worth that apply? 10-) Process What limitations, costs and benefits apply to the normal operation of the evaluate? Is it legal/ethical/moral/political/hedonistic/scientific?One ethical issue is the importance of meeting the needs of needy target population people people and the career or status needs of other impacted population people.
11-) Outcomes What effects are produced by the evaluate intended or unintended? 12-) Generalization to either people/places/times/versions. These can be labeled deliberatively and salability/exportability/durability/modifiability. 13-) Costs Dollar vs.. Psychological vs.
. Personnel; initial vs. repeated; direct/ indirect vs.. Immediate/delayed; by components if appropriate.
14-) Comparisons with alternative options It includes those that produce similar or better effects for less cost, and better effects for a manageable extra cost. 5-) Significance A synthesis of all the above. It cannot normally be left to the client, who is usually ill-equipped by experience or objectivity to do it. 16-) Recommendations These may or may not buy requested and follow from the evaluation. 17) Report Vocabulary, length, format, medium, time, location and personnel for its presentation by paying attention to privacy/protection/publicity. 😎 Metallization The evaluation must be evaluated, preferably prior to implementation and final dissemination of report. These steps are not intended to be performed in any particular sequence, but all must be addressed before the Key Evaluation Checklist has been properly implemented.