Scientific literature is the main elementof all researches, as it is the only medium for stating the results ofscientific research. The basic purpose of scientific knowledge is to discoversomething new or to build a new research on the basis of previous research. Therecord of scientific research is available in printed or non-printed form in acertain field i.e. Book or Journal.
The scientificliterature is categorized in to two basic categories; “Primary Literature” and the “SecondaryLiterature”. Primary literature describes the “original research”; without any notesor in other terms it refers to account of research which is carried out by anindividual or by a group of researchers which is published in a Peer-reviewed scientific journal. Thesetypes of descriptions or reports commonly called “Research Papers/ Journal Papers” which are written in thespecific format and then submitted for publication.Other than this, Primaryliterature also includes Articles,Dissertations, Thesis, Conference Proceeding papers, Video recording, Reviewpapers/reports, Manuscript, Extending abstracts and Patents.Mostly the primary literatureis published in journals, but some of the researches are published asdissertations or thesis, conference papers and reports. Let’s start to discussfrom Article first, what is actually an article is? An article is basically to explainthe methods and results of original research performed by the researcher, itcan be surveys, experiments, interviews etc.
- Thesis Statement
- Structure and Outline
- Voice and Grammar
but in all situations the raw datahave been gathered, analyzed by the researcher and then propose conclusionwhich is standardized., on the other hand short communication and rapidcommunication are also the parts of research article. Now move on to dissertation,it is comprehensive and detailed form of research where the researcher describesthe whole scenario in depth. Whereas, thesis is similar to dissertation.Another important paper which is going to discussed that is conferenceproceeding paper, it is presented in the international conferences, nationalconferences and workshops are considered as primary literature to obtainfeedback from the audience. The video recording also use by the researchers forrecording the experiments accurately and verify their observations correctly.Moreover the review paper/report highlights the practical aspects and also itexamines the progress in a certain topic, in short it summarizes the recentknowledge of a topic and creates understanding and develop interest for thereader.
As far as manuscript is concerned it is unpublished version of aresearch, and also it is handwritten or the original text by the researcher. Anextending abstract declares the abstract which is an extract of research meansthe summary of any paper, mostly readers takes the whole idea after reading it.Last but not the least, patents are very important for the researcher becauseit is an authority or license from the government for the limited time period.PrimaryScientific Literature Primary scientificliterature has several characteristics:1. “Materials and Methods”section and “Results”section.2. Use “We” or “I” to describe what was done.3.
Veryspecific: mention particular places, organisms, etc.4.Papers generally start with an introduction; an overview to set the stage forthe research. Secondary literature consists on those publications which are basedon primary sources for collecting information. The purpose of this publicationis to summarizing and gathering knowledge in a specific area for other researchers,so that they can utilize the information accordingly.It includes textbooks, Internet, reviews, handbooks,Magazines, Newspapers, Newsletters andmanuals. The textbook provides thedetailed introduction, identification of research objectives, researchquestions, guidelines of research path, collecting relevant information,interpreting data, analyzes data and develop understanding with the context ofresearch. The internet is widely use across the world as it is a big source ofgathering data and information, the secondary literature generally comes fromthe past researches where the internet plays an important role for acquiringprevious papers.
About the reviews, it does not show an original research, onlyfocuses on précising the literature. The handbooks tell the deep overview ofresearch methods and combines both theories and methodologies of qualitativeand quantitative. The magazines are also considered as secondary literaturebecause the knowledge is taken from different channels and combined at oneplace. Appearance wise it looks attractive and may contains pictures andgraphical presentations, general audience is commonly use to read.
Anotherimportant kind which possess secondary literature that is newspapers, broadlyuse around the world, mostly people choose to study newspaper and getinformation from it, as it is supposed a good source of knowledge. Now turn todescribe newsletters, it is basically in printed form which covers the news ofbusiness activities and send through email to all employees, customers andpeople who are interested in knowing. The last thing which is also reflects thesecondary literature is manuals, it is almost the same of textbook, providesthe relevant information to the researcher, it is not only useful for the researchersalso the common people can read and take essential literature from it. As we studied from everyaspect that the secondary literature gets from the previous papers whichcontains large amount of information that can be very helpful for the newlyresearch papers. From the researcher’s point of view secondary literature isthe chief constituent in terms of, it highlights the purpose or aim ofconducting research, research objectives, research methodology, which type ofanalysis tool will be used for testifying the results and verification ofobservations.
Although the secondary publications are not very muchsystematized as compare to primary publications, however it is a mandatoryrequirement for the paper. Therefore, the main objective of secondaryliterature is to gaining knowledge for the specific area of interest.It isconcluded that, for the research paper; literature plays a backbone, as it isconsidered a main source of information which helps to researcher for gettingpast knowledge and build a new research in the specific are of interest.