Running head

Running head: LITERATURE REVIEW 1
LITERATURE REVIEW
Dotties M. Pope
Liberty University

TITLE OF YOUR PAPER 2
Abstract
This paper is a review of the research that has been done on the effects of cooperative
learning activities on elementary school age children’s behavior and studies in the
classroom. Researchers have does studies to see how learning activities on a daily basis
affects children’s behavior and academic success in the classroom. The research has proven
that cooperative learning activities improves children’s behavior and academics. Throughout
each day students should participate in either recess, physical education class, or the teacher
should design some of their lesson plans to incorporate more learning activities. This will
help the students to stay focused and succeed in school. . A synthesis of teacher perceptions
and effectiveness suggests teachers rely on a variety of means to build trust and to purposely
communicate and connect with students. Demographic information collected concerning
teachers points implies teachers tend to be highly qualified, with, on average, more years
teaching experience than their brick and mortar peers, and oftentimes more advanced degrees
Keywords: cooperative learning, students, and classroom

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TITLE OF YOUR PAPER 3
Introduction
Quantitative studies are contingent upon quantitative research. Literature reviews aid
in providing careful analyses of the sources for the purpose of hypothesis support as well as
answering and research questions related to the thesis. This literature review addresses,
analyzes, and summarizes content to be used to complete a research study. The review will
look into findings on, the “Effects of Cooperative learning”, for the social development of
adolescents throughout the school periods. The area of human development refers to thought
processes and their complex.. This phase occurs throughout life,so to really understand this
we looked at different ways to educate our students with different methods of teaching, as
teachers we should be able to reach across the board to have a better understanding of the
kids were dealing with. Some points that were looked at were, how does cooperative
learning helps in the development of a students learning ability? What researchers found in
studies to show the positive effect cooperative learning has on students? How students differ
in informal cooperative learning than in formal cooperative learning?.
The review shows results of studies done to evaluate elementary students in a
science program; therefore, the true intent of the study was not revealed to participants until
all data were collected and analysed. The articles presented a systematic review of research
on the achievement outcomes of all types of approaches to teaching in elementary schools.
This analysis demonstrates the range of student reflection and highlights the possibilities for
transfer among students who reach reflection and critical reflection ( Cooper, J. L., ;

TITLE OF YOUR PAPER 4
Robinson, P. 2014). One can deduce that the authors used an ANOVA, analysis of variance,
to find their results as the independent variable was categorical and the dependent variable
was continuous and standard errors were calculated.
The purpose of the studies were done to look at students over a period of time
through use of triangulated data collection techniques in an ethnographic analysis,
employing all three primary/principal methods for data collection during the course of the
research, namely: “observation, interviewing and data analysis.”(Cooper, J. L., ; Robinson,
P. 2014).
Discussion of Key Terms
Cooperative learning is an educational approach which aims to organize classroom
activities into academic and social learning experience s. More specifically the articles
explored during this literature review refers to cooperative learning a way students must
work in groups to complete tasks collectively toward academic goals.
The term students was used throughout the research in this area, with more research
concentrated at the high school level, literature points toward a need for further research in K
– 8 schools, specifically in the areas of effective practices, the effect of prior teacher
experience, and appropriate training.
A classroom is a learning space, a room in which both children and adults learn.
Classrooms are found in educational institutions of all kinds, from preschools to universities,
and may also be found in other places where education or training is provided, such as
corporations and religious and humanitarian organizations. The classroom attempts to

TITLE OF YOUR PAPER 5
provide a space where learning can take place uninterrupted by outside distractions.
Review of the Literature
Quantitative
“Engaged time, or time on task, the number of minutes actually spent learning, is the
time measure that is most frequently found to contribute to learning” (Slavin, 2012, p. 317).
Throughout the literature reviewed, there were several connections between what the
teacher’s role is with the integration of cooperative learning.The article presented a
systematic review of research on the achievement outcomes of all types of approaches to
teaching cooperative learning in elementary schools. Study inclusion criteria included use of
randomized or matched control groups, a study duration of at least 4 weeks, and use of
achievement measures independent of the experimental treatment. A total of 23 studies met
these criteria. Among studies evaluating inquiry?based teaching approaches, programs that
used science kits did not show positive outcomes on science achievement measures
(weighted ES?=?+0.02 in 7 studies), but inquiry?based programs that emphasized professional
development but not kits did show positive outcomes (weighted ES?=?+0.36 in 10 studies).
The article talk about the use of population, which these statistics courses represent
is a targeted population. It fits this criterion because the students enrolled in these courses
were required to fit the needs of this study. Due to this, the research design can be
determined as quasi-experimental. In addition, this study is a quasi-experimental design since
it’s foundation a replicated Latin Square. The variables of this study were the type of
instruction being given (independent variable) and the amount of understanding of the
students (dependent variable) while the controls were the class types, material taught,
instructors, and student. The implications of this research are that students in a university

TITLE OF YOUR PAPER 6
statistics class generally work better with a teacher-centered classroom, learn better with
PowerPoint presentations and hard copies, and achieve understanding more when observing
examples instead of figuring them out for themselves.
QUALITATIVE
The study incorporated three units of analysis: (a) the program, (b) the general
participants, and (c) the focus participants. The focus cases were used to generate detailed
observations and interviews intended to confirm themes that arose during the broader data
collection. These participants were placed in various elementary schools that served a broad
range of culturally, linguistically, and economically diverse student populations.
Furthermore, the schools varied considerably in their academic accomplishments, and
reflection journals that were used to describe their learning and methodological shifts.
Qualitative data analysis was conducted in an ongoing fashion during the course of the
study. Participant observations and personal interviews were coded and analyzed according
to the recurring key themes, which in turn refined subsequent observations and tailored the
topics for personal interviews.This process involved reading the notes numerous times,
coding them by topic and theme, studying, comparing, and contrasting the notes classified
under any given code, and finally looking for patterns and themes that integrated separate
codes. . Reflective journals could be a helpful tool for students to document their learning
from peers and to consider the ways in which peer interactions changed and contributed to
their achievement and accomplishments. The finding from this research will fit in the
published literature for sure because the researchers made some important statements such as
we can recommend the use of reflective journaling to facilitate student learning and
instructor.

TITLE OF YOUR PAPER 7
I do not believe there were any important data ignored by the researchers because they
mentioned all the results they found even though there were some differences in the
reactions. They mentioned that the participants had different feelings, reactions, and opinions
about qualitative data analysis. Some of them described it as ‘terrifying’ others said ‘great.

TITLE OF YOUR PAPER 8
Summary
There are two major themes in the literature reviewed concerning cooperative learning:
qualitative and quantitative research. These themes are interconnected and influence the
effectiveness of cooperative learning. Research indicate researchers and practice on
cooperative learning, and to reflect on the overall factors that help to explain its success. It
clearly should be evident, there is no one best way to teach. In addition to providing
feedback on group and individual performance, it is also useful to provide a structure for
groups to reflect on what worked well in their group and what could be improved. The
review also shows research was a very good example of a qualitative research. Many
positive points in it which will help research, come in handy for any researcher who wants to
do a qualitative research. The researchers provided a sufficient evidence to present their
conclusion because the reactions that they got from the participants were so clear. The
articles showed how researchers helped to build their conclusion clearly.Students with
experience in structured cooperative learning in a particular academic discipline will be
enabled to participate in problem-based learning and collaborative learning in that discipline.
There are many benefits that can result from using cooperative learning strategies. Here are
benefits you might notice after implementing cooperative learning tasks in your classroom.
Finally cooperative learning is fun, so students enjoy it and are more motivated.
Cooperative learning is interactive, so students are engaged, active participants in the
learning.Cooperative learning allows discussion and critical thinking, so students learn more
and remember what they've learned for a longer period of time.Cooperative learning requires
students to learn to work together, which is an important skill for their futures.

TITLE OF YOUR PAPER 9
Reference
Brame, C.J. and Biel, R. (2015). Setting up and facilitating group work:Using cooperative
learning groups effectively. Retrieved todaysdate from http://cft.vanderbilt.edu/guides-
sub-pages/setting-up-and-facilitating-group-work-using-cooperati ve-learning-groups-
effectively
Cassard, A., & Sloboda, B. (2014). Leading the charge for SoTL: Embracing collaboration.
InSight: A Journal of Scholarly Teaching, 9, 44-53. Retrieved from

Welcome


Cooper, J. L., & Robinson, P. (2014). Using classroom assessment and cognitive
scaffolding to enhance the power of small-group learning. Journal on Excellence in
College Teaching, 25(3&4), 149-161. Retrieved from http://celt.miamioh.edu/ject/issue.php?
v=25&n=3%20and%204
Davidson, N., & Major, C. H. (2014). Boundary crossing: Cooperative learning,
collaborative learning, and problem-based learning. Journal on Excellence in College
Teaching, 25 (3&4), 7-55.
Gillies, R. (2014). Cooperative learning: Developments in research. International Journal of
Educational Psychology, 3(2), 125–140.
Johnson, D.W., Johnson, R.T., and Smith, K.A. (2014). Cooperative learning: Improving
university instruction by basing practice on validated theory. Journals on Excellence in
College Teaching 25, 85-118
Johnson, D., R. Johnson, C. Roseth, and T. Shin. 2014. “The Relationship Between
Motivation and Achievement in Interdependent Situations.” Journal of Applied Social

TITLE OF YOUR PAPER 10
Psychology 44: 622–633.10.1111/jasp.2014.44.issue-9
Love, A. G., Dietrich, A., Fitzgerald, J., & Gordon, D. (2014). Integrating collaborative
learning inside and outside the classroom. Journal on Excellence in College Teaching,
25(3&4), 177-196.
Millis, B. J. (2014). Using cooperative structures to promote deep learning. Journal on
Excellence in College Teaching, 25(3&4), 139-148. Retrieved from
http://celt.miamioh.edu/ject/issue.php? v=25&n=3%20and%204
Slavin, R., Lake, C., Hanley, P. & Thurston, A. (2014). Experimental evaluations of
elementary science programs: A best-evidence synthesis. Journal of Research in
Science Teaching, 51, 870-901.

Running Head: SENTENCING SYSTEM REFORM 1

Sentencing System Reform

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Kimberly Schupp

Columbia College

2 SENTECNING SYSTEM REFORM
“Guilt or innocence becomes irrelevant in the criminal trials as we flounder in a morass of artificial rules poorly conceived and often impossible to apply” (Burger, n.d.). Congress passes laws affecting the court system. This has changed the way sentencing occurs during different eras. Regardless of shifting view and policies, the goals of sentencing should remain the same. This includes retribution, prevention, deterrence, rehabilitation, and reparation.
There are two main styles of sentencing, depending on the criminal code and laws of each state. Indeterminate sentencing allows for a wider, almost open-ended, range of sentencing prison time. It also allows for more discretion in what punishment is ordered. It could range from fines, community service (this could be considered reparation or victim restoration), probation, or incarceration. Many feel this wide girth of sentencing allows for unfairness and prejudice in sentencing. Some even argue that there is systematic incarceration of those already in poverty. Others feel the discretion allows for each defendant and their circumstances to be and fairly and independently evaluated and sentenced. This was the most often-used system until the 1980s when a new law enforcement era came into play.
With the emergence of mandatory sentencing to fight the War on Drugs more states turned to determinate sentencing systems. This created fixed sentencing. Not only do judges have less discretion, but also “parole boards and discretionary release do not exist in determinate systems” (Lawrence, p 4). Offenses that now have mandatory sentencing include drug crimes. The number of people incarcerated “. . . skyrocketed from 40,900 in 1980 to 450,345 in 2016. Today there are more people behind bars for a drug offense than the number of people who were in prison or jail for any crime in 1980” (Criminal Justice Facts, 2017). A big reason for this is
SENTENCE SYSTOM REFORM 3
because of the “. . . withering of grand juries, petit juries, and judicial sentencing discretion” (Bias p 1687). Judges no longer, in a determinate system, have the ease to address sentencing differently depending on each individual case. “Mandatory minimums have proliferated and increased in severity. Since 1991, the number of mandatory minimums have more than doubled” (Bernick and Larkin, Jr. p 2).
Prosecutors behind closed doors now hold the discretion once held by judges in courtrooms. The system is no longer transparent to citizens. Prosecutors have “. . . unreviewable discretion over what charges to bring, including whether to charge a violation of a law with a mandatory minimum sentence, and over whether to engage in pleas bargaining. . .unbridled prosecutorial discretion is a greater evil than unlimited judicial discretion” (Bernick and Larkin Jr. p 3). Luckily, states are not strictly indeterminate in sentencing or just determinate in sentencing; they simply lean one direction or the other.
According the Figure 2 in Alison Lawrence’s Making Sense of Sentencing: State Systems and Policies about a dozen and a half states are primarily indeterminate and only five are considered determinate. “Half of states have added a structured component to their primary sentencing system in order to provide judges guidance, with broad sentencing ranges, on the type of length of sentence to order” (Lawrence, p 5). This allows consistency across the board for sentencing similar offense. It also gives flexibility because it considers criminal history in the guidelines. It is impossible to have a “perfect” system, but this is a good option for reducing ethical disparities when free-reign is allowed. It also helps prevent overly harsh sentencing that does not help the offender nor does it help society.
4 SENTANCING SYSTEM REFORM
Being sentenced does not mean that one received a trial, as the public often believes. Transparency is disappearing as the criminal justice system utilizes pela bargaining more and more. “If fact, trials are extremely rare in the American criminal justice system. . . .97% of federal convictions and 94% of state convictions are the result of guilty pleas” (Alschuler, p 921). It has been argued that this is cost effective; but it increases other costs. Plea bargaining may be part of the rising incarceration rate. Sentences are also longer thanks to mandatory sentencing charges.
This means a large part of the prison population is older. “The cost of keeping an older person locked up is about seventy thousand dollar a year or more. . .” (Wozniak, p 237). Most prisons are not set up to care for geriatric inmates with their increased health issues. In addition to physical health concerns, there is a mental health aspect (for example dementia) that needs addressed. Financial expenses are not the only cost.
Socially, the cost of higher incarceration rates are very high. This is especially true in neighborhoods and communities where there is a higher-than-average rate of imprisonment. “. . . punitive justice adhere to an eye-for-an-eye mode of justice, which ‘. . . considers none of punishment’s collateral damage within the larger community’ ” (Wozniak, p 239). It affects the work force, families, children and their education. It affects populations already struggling with poverty.
This is why there needs to be sentencing system reform. The goals of sentencing need to be remembered: retribution, prevention, deterrence, rehabilitation, and reparation. For society as

SENTENCING SYSTEM REFORM 5
whole to be served, more than just retribution (punishment) needs to occur. As previously mentioned, it is very expensive to house inmates. Funds would be better utilized going toward prevention programs, including education. This is especially true in impoverished neighborhoods where the population is at greater risk of incarceration affecting the community. So many children whose parents are incarcerated grow up to be behind bars as well. “. . . prevention programs could help reduce the need for future prison beds. Since most prevention programs are for young children, effective evidence-based prevention resources can be expected to affect adult prison use in the longer run. Prevention programs . . . offer other near-term and long-term advantages, such as improved education outcomes” (“Evidence-Based Public Policy”, p 2).
Prevention and deterrence are very similar. Not only would programs that help prevent younger citizens from committing crimes, they could also help deter those being released from re-offending. Inmates need more than just punishment if they are going to be a productive part of community after release. According to Quinney, what is needed is “‘nonviolent criminology of compassion and service,’ which ‘seeks to end suffering and thereby eliminate crime'” (Wozniak, 234). This also speaks to rehabilitation. A lot could be learned from Halden prison in Norway. It is “. . . the world’s ‘most humane prison’. . . which smells like coffee, cells have flat screen TVS and fluffy towels, and prisoners look out over wooded landscapes within the prison grounds” (“Prisons and prisoner behavior”, 2012). While that may sound extreme to some, the point is “. . . all prisoners are expected to return to the world outside, and ‘life behind the walls should be as much like life outside the walls as possible’ (“Prisons and prison behavior”, 2012) if they are to amalgamate successfully into society.
6 SENTENCING SYSTEM REFORM
It is also important to remember reparation. This is more than just serving time behind bars. True atonement can only be reached if the offender is able to help his or her victim either directly or thru paying it forward and making amends. This extends beyond simple “community service”. This justice
o “Rests on the security of a caring community that includes all and never deserts those in trouble.
o Uses the power of community to heal wrongs, and to change the world.
o Challenges the unhealthy barriers of race, class and status.
o Rebuilds community where community has broken down.
o Heals the broken-hearted, because it listens to care and cares about pain of all kinds” (Wozniak, p 234).
This all must be considered in the sentencing system to be effective for the whole of society. Justice is not vengeance. It should be about healing. Healing for the victim, the offender, and society as a whole. Perhaps then not only our sentencing system will be reformed, but so will the offenders who have been sentenced.

SENTENCING SYSTEM REFORM 7
References
Aging in prison: the ‘other life sentence’? (2012, October). Retrieved June 11, 2018, from http://carceralgeography.com
Alschuler, A. W. (n.d.). A nearly perfect system for convicting the innocent. Albany Law Review, 79(3), 919-940.
Bernick, E., & Larkin, Jr., P. J. (2014, February 14). Reconsidering mandatory minimums sentences: the arguments for and against potential reforms. Retrieved June 10, 2018, from report.heritage.org/im114
Bibas, S. (2017). Restoring democratic moral judgment within bureaucratic criminal justice. Restoring Democratic Moral Judgment, 111(6), 1677-1692.
Bureau of Justice Assistance. (n.d.). National assessment of structured sentencing.
Criminal justice facts. (2017). Retrieved June 11, 2018, from http://www.sentencingproject.org/criminal-justice-facts/
Evidence-based public policy options to reduce future prison construction, criminal justice costs, and crime rates. (2006, October). Retrieved from http://www.wsipp.wa.gov
Lawrence, A. (2015, June). Making sense of sentencing: state systems and policies.
Parke, R. D., & Clarke-Stewart, K. A. (2001, December). From prison to home: the effects of parental incarceration on children, families, and communities. Retrieved June 20, 2018, from http://aspe.hhs.gov/basic-report/effects-parental-incarceration-young-children

8 SENTENCING SYSTEM REFORM

Prisons and prisoner behaviour-space and effect. (2012, May 19). Retrieved June 11, 2018, from http://carceralgeography.com
The Sentencing Project. (2017). The united states is the world’s leader in incarceration. Retrieved June 10, 2018.
US Census Bureau. (2017, September 12). Income and poverty in the united states: 2016. Retrieved from https://www.census.gov/library/publications/2017/demo/p60-259.html
Warren E. Burger. (n.d.). AZQuotes.com. Retrieved June 18, 2018, from AZQuotes.com Web site: http://www.azquotes.com/author/2171-Warren_E_Burger
Washington State Institute for Public Policy. (2006, October). Evidence-based public policy options to reduce future prison construction, criminal justice costs, and crime rates. Retrieved from http://www.wsipp.wa.gov
Will, J. L., Loper, A. B., & Jackson, S. L. (2014). Second-generation prisoners and the transmission of domestic violence. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 31(1), 100-121. doi:10.1177/0886260514555127
Wozniak, J. F. (2014). Unlocking the legal system from vengeance, harm, and punitive justice: toward a compassionate revolution of peace, caring, and unitive justice. Journal of Theoretical & Philosophical Criminology, 6(3), 232-250.

Running head: MENTORING IN A LONG-TERM CARE FACILITY 1

Mentoring in a Long-Term Care Facility
Aisha Noah
NR660 Nurse Executive Capstone
7/28/18

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About one in every seven person today is an older American. Over the past 10 years, the population age 65 and older has increased by 33 percent and is expected to double to 98 million by 2060. The population age 65 and older is growing at a fast rate. More people are living longer, we could attribute this to advance medicine and the longer people live requires more geriatric care. This translates to an increase in life expectancy leads to an increased need for caregiving. With age comes debilitating illnesses, and this requires seeking care in Long Term Care (LTC) facilities. Residents and their family rely on staff in these facilities to meet and care for their needs/needs of their loved ones. According to Kayyali (2014), the high level of turnover among LTC facility nurses especially newly hired ones is particularly troubling because these workers provide the essential daily care for nursing home residents and turnover negatively affects the quality of care. In South suburban LTC facilities, the high rate of turnover is becoming increasingly problematic as growing numbers of seniors depend on nursing homes for their care. This high rate of turnover has led to a low retention rate in LTC facilities and poor-quality outcome. The poor quality of care results in family dissatisfaction, increase in pressure ulcer amongst seniors, medication error reports to the State on neglect, law The purpose of this literature review is to answer the PICOT question; Among nurses in a South Suburban long-term care facility, will assigning mentors to newly hired nurses, compared to not assigning mentors, decrease turnover from a 34% to 9% rate in a six month period?
Nursing Turnover
Only a handful of detailed studies have been conducted that attempt to quantify the per worker costs of nurse turnover in different LTC facilities. According to Kirby (2018), nursing turnover can be very costly to LTC organizations. A recent study estimated the cost of turnover among newly hired nurses at $856 million industry-wide (Kirby, 2018). A study by the Nursing Solutions, Incorporated (NSI) (2015), noted a 17.2% turnover rate per year compared to a 13.5% rate per year four years earlier.
The impact of nursing turnover is complex and many associated costs are not immediately apparent, making it difficult to accurately assess total nursing turnover costs (Halter et al., 2017). For example, Kayyali (2014) noted that LTC facilities with high turnover rates of nurses usually experience a great increase in the number of deficiencies.
At a South Suburban LTC facility in a Suburban area, nurse turnover is so high that outside agency nurses were employed to provide care and constantly cajoled nurses to pick up overtime. On average this healthcare facility hires 3 new nurses each month. These issues affect the LTC facility profitability as a result of the significant costs of training replacement, overtime rates, and agency nurses. In the last year’s financial report, this LTC facility spent over $2,000,000.00 in staff development including hiring, training and contracting with agency nurses. This LTC facility and like many other LTC facilities are in need of strategies to reduce their turnover rate, retain an effective workforce and improve the employee motivation in the workplace (Rožman, Treven ; ?an?er, 2017).
Concept Analysis
Merriam Webster online dictionary simply defines mentor as “a trusted counselor or guide”. This definition is in line with teaching, training and guiding a newly hired nurse into a new role. Retention is simply defined in the same online dictionary as “the act of retaining : the state of being retained”. The concept of this literature review would look at how mentoring impacts retention of newly hired nurses into staying in LTC facilities for 6 months after they are hired. Literature articles that support mentoring and articles that necessarily did not support mentoring will be analyzed. Recommendations from the reviewed articles will be presented.
Literature Review
A literature search was conducted using the Chamberlain College of Nursing (CCN) super search engine. Multiple databases was searched beyond CINANHAL for best result. MEDLINE, Web science, Science Direct and PUB MED and Google Scholar were searched beyond CCN super searches provided variety of findings. The CCN search was limited to peer-review articles. Results were also limited to English journal articles published from 2013-2018. The following search terms were included: Nurse, turnover, retention, mentoring in the title or abstract. Search terms were connected and the Boolean operator AND was used. Initial super search yelled over 1,055 results. Abstract of 20 articles were reviewed and 10 articles appropriate to the topic of mentoring, retention and newly hired nurse turnover were selected. Among the 10 articles selected, 3 articles did not attribute retention of nurses to one particular intervention.
Retention in LTC facilities is likened to the nurses workload. Tummers, Groeneveld and Lankhaar (2013) asserted that the workload in most nursing homes is enough to scare any newly hired nurse even with a mentor. The mentor program could be effective if the mentor has a workload that would allow time to answer a mentee’s questions or explaining a new situation the mentee has not dealt with before. Tummers, Groeneveld and Lankhaar (2013) argued that mentoring in LTC facilities doesn’t necessarily lead to retention and did not support the idea that mentoring alone would produce a high retention rate. Edwards, Hawker, Carrier and Rees (2015) noted that a number of initiatives, such as internship programs, transition programs, preceptorship and mentorship have been introduced in LTC facilities to try and ease the newly hired nurse transition experiences. It was noted that no one single program was able to improve retention. A combination of these programs have been seen to be more effective in LTC facilities. A reason given why some of these models or programs do not work in LTC is the simple fact that all LTC facilities are not created or established the same and there is too many insufficient staffing levels (Black, 2015). The concept of LTC regardless of how it was established is to provide care. One size does not fit all for LTC facilities. For example, some homes or facilities are small with few staff and resources while some homes are big and belong to an organization with few resources. Regardless of the size of the LTC facility, mentoring is found to depend on the resources made available to nurses and how the workload affects how nurses perform their daily routine (Edwards, Hawker, Carrier ; Rees, 2015).
Even though mentoring alone would not improve retention rate in LTC facilities, nurse leaders still need to have strategies for low turnover and increased retention rate. According to the NSI (2015), many LTC facilities do not have comprehensive retention strategy despite noting such a strategy is crucial for retention. Mentoring as a strategy has well been documented in literature as an effective way healthcare facility could improve employee morale, job satisfaction, reduce turnover and improve on patient outcomes. When nurses are well prepared, retention rate tends to be low (Trossman, 2013). Trossman (2013) noted that mentoring newly hired nurses is an effective way to boost confidence of the nurse in his or her new role. As newly hired nurses shadow their mentors, they are integrally involved in gaining and learning new experiences. McGilton, Tourangeau, Kavcic and Wodchis (2013) found that nurses who intend to leave their job are LTC facility nurses and retention of these nursing staff in these facilities is essential. Given the right tools, like mentoring, nurses could stay longer in LTC. The limitation to the study conducted by McGilton, Tourangeau, Kavcic and Wodchis (2013) was that the sample of the study was limited in size and geographic location. Despite this limitation, they concluded that imploring mentorship is an effective strategy to keep nurses in LTC facilities.
In the context of LTC, mentors are expert or experience nurses that volunteer to coach, support, and educate newly hired nurses to develop confidence and skills (Marsh, 2015). Marsh (2015) noted that by supporting and mentoring newly hired nurses their clinical skills improve, and the mentorship programs may indirectly improve patient care outcomes by retaining both mentee and mentor nurses. Newly hired nurses exposed to the demanding nature of a LTC environment without proper training may become dissatisfied and leave the LTC setting. Current research supports the idea that mentoring offers a sense of belonging to a team that persuades newly hired nurses to stay in the profession (Marsh, 2015).
Transitioning to a new role can be very overwhelming and exhausting. According Schroyer, Zellers and Abraham (2016), newly hired nurses described feeling unsupported and overwhelmed when transitioning to their new role. In the literature review conducted by Schroyer, Zellers and Abraham (2016) they noted that the feelings of newly hired nurses being overwhelmed could be high in a stressful LTC environment. They found a mentoring program to be very beneficial as it provides new experiences for both the mentor and the mentee. The study limitation include not adding exit interview reasons why newly hired nurses left LTC despite the mentoring program and the study during period was not up to the 6 month periods initially set aside for the study. Schroyer, Zellers and Abraham (2016) suggested having a study that would extend past a 6-month period and they recommend combining mentoring programs with nurse residency programs and education classes for transitioning nurses.
In their literature review study, Chen and Lou (2014) noted that the implementation of mentorship programs is a crucial strategy adopted by LTC facilities to retain newly hired nurses. They found that newly hired nurses have limited experience and skills to provide quality care for LTC residents, therefore, newly hired nurses require the guidance of experienced nurses to assist them in understanding nursing and apply their theoretical knowledge to actual nursing situations. Chen and Lou (2014) found newly hired nurses heavily rely on the mentorship programs and guidance to accomplish the transitioning to a new role. The limitation of Chen and Lou (2014) study included an incomplete selection of studies and publications biases as the study was limited to electronic databases. They recommended one to one interpersonal relationships to could go beyond a year so that retention of nurses could be more sustained.

Conclusion
The aging population needs care and most of them need professional care and require stay in LTC facility. This translates to the need to provide care in LTC facilities. Newly hired nurses require assistance in developing relevant skills and staying on the job. Most literature reviewed concluded that the primary objective of mentorship programs is to reduce the high turnover rates and increase retention among newly hired nurses in LTC facilities. It is accurate to conclude that mentorship alone cannot increase retention rates without LTC facilities leadership providing the necessary resources for the nurses’ growth and development. It is also important to note that for a mentorship program to be productive the workload needs to be appropriate.

References
Black, P. (2015). Developing an Enhanced Perspective Of Turnover and Retention of Nurses and Health Care Aides in Long-Term Care Homes. Perspectives: The Journal of The Gerontological Nursing Association, 38(2), 25-30.
Chen, C., & Lou, M. (2014). The Effectiveness and Application of Mentorship Programs for Recently Registered Nurses: A Systematic Review. Journal of Nursing Management, 22(4), 433. doi:10.1111/jonm.12102
Edwards, D., Hawker, C., Carrier, J., & Rees, C. (2015). A Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Strategies and Interventions to Improve the Transition from Student to Newly Qualified Nurse. International Journal Of Nursing Studies, 52(7), 1254-1268. doi:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2015.03.007
Halter, M., Boiko, O., Pelone, F., Beighton, C., Harris, R., Gale, J., & … Drennan, V. (2017). The Determinants and Consequences of Adult Nursing Staff Turnover: A Systematic Review. BMC Health Services Research, 171-20. doi:10.1186/s12913-017-2707-0
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