Running head: LITERATURE REVIEW 1
Dotties M. Pope
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This paper is a review of the research that has been done on the effects of cooperative
learning activities on elementary school age children’s behavior and studies in the
classroom. Researchers have does studies to see how learning activities on a daily basis
affects children’s behavior and academic success in the classroom. The research has proven
that cooperative learning activities improves children’s behavior and academics. Throughout
each day students should participate in either recess, physical education class, or the teacher
should design some of their lesson plans to incorporate more learning activities. This will
help the students to stay focused and succeed in school. . A synthesis of teacher perceptions
and effectiveness suggests teachers rely on a variety of means to build trust and to purposely
communicate and connect with students. Demographic information collected concerning
teachers points implies teachers tend to be highly qualified, with, on average, more years
teaching experience than their brick and mortar peers, and oftentimes more advanced degrees
Keywords: cooperative learning, students, and classroom
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Quantitative studies are contingent upon quantitative research. Literature reviews aid
in providing careful analyses of the sources for the purpose of hypothesis support as well as
answering and research questions related to the thesis. This literature review addresses,
analyzes, and summarizes content to be used to complete a research study. The review will
look into findings on, the “Effects of Cooperative learning”, for the social development of
adolescents throughout the school periods. The area of human development refers to thought
processes and their complex.. This phase occurs throughout life,so to really understand this
we looked at different ways to educate our students with different methods of teaching, as
teachers we should be able to reach across the board to have a better understanding of the
kids were dealing with. Some points that were looked at were, how does cooperative
learning helps in the development of a students learning ability? What researchers found in
studies to show the positive effect cooperative learning has on students? How students differ
in informal cooperative learning than in formal cooperative learning?.
The review shows results of studies done to evaluate elementary students in a
science program; therefore, the true intent of the study was not revealed to participants until
all data were collected and analysed. The articles presented a systematic review of research
on the achievement outcomes of all types of approaches to teaching in elementary schools.
This analysis demonstrates the range of student reflection and highlights the possibilities for
transfer among students who reach reflection and critical reflection ( Cooper, J. L., ;
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Robinson, P. 2014). One can deduce that the authors used an ANOVA, analysis of variance,
to find their results as the independent variable was categorical and the dependent variable
was continuous and standard errors were calculated.
The purpose of the studies were done to look at students over a period of time
through use of triangulated data collection techniques in an ethnographic analysis,
employing all three primary/principal methods for data collection during the course of the
research, namely: “observation, interviewing and data analysis.”(Cooper, J. L., ; Robinson,
Discussion of Key Terms
Cooperative learning is an educational approach which aims to organize classroom
activities into academic and social learning experience s. More specifically the articles
explored during this literature review refers to cooperative learning a way students must
work in groups to complete tasks collectively toward academic goals.
The term students was used throughout the research in this area, with more research
concentrated at the high school level, literature points toward a need for further research in K
– 8 schools, specifically in the areas of effective practices, the effect of prior teacher
experience, and appropriate training.
A classroom is a learning space, a room in which both children and adults learn.
Classrooms are found in educational institutions of all kinds, from preschools to universities,
and may also be found in other places where education or training is provided, such as
corporations and religious and humanitarian organizations. The classroom attempts to
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provide a space where learning can take place uninterrupted by outside distractions.
Review of the Literature
“Engaged time, or time on task, the number of minutes actually spent learning, is the
time measure that is most frequently found to contribute to learning” (Slavin, 2012, p. 317).
Throughout the literature reviewed, there were several connections between what the
teacher’s role is with the integration of cooperative learning.The article presented a
systematic review of research on the achievement outcomes of all types of approaches to
teaching cooperative learning in elementary schools. Study inclusion criteria included use of
randomized or matched control groups, a study duration of at least 4 weeks, and use of
achievement measures independent of the experimental treatment. A total of 23 studies met
these criteria. Among studies evaluating inquiry?based teaching approaches, programs that
used science kits did not show positive outcomes on science achievement measures
(weighted ES?=?+0.02 in 7 studies), but inquiry?based programs that emphasized professional
development but not kits did show positive outcomes (weighted ES?=?+0.36 in 10 studies).
The article talk about the use of population, which these statistics courses represent
is a targeted population. It fits this criterion because the students enrolled in these courses
were required to fit the needs of this study. Due to this, the research design can be
determined as quasi-experimental. In addition, this study is a quasi-experimental design since
it’s foundation a replicated Latin Square. The variables of this study were the type of
instruction being given (independent variable) and the amount of understanding of the
students (dependent variable) while the controls were the class types, material taught,
instructors, and student. The implications of this research are that students in a university
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statistics class generally work better with a teacher-centered classroom, learn better with
PowerPoint presentations and hard copies, and achieve understanding more when observing
examples instead of figuring them out for themselves.
The study incorporated three units of analysis: (a) the program, (b) the general
participants, and (c) the focus participants. The focus cases were used to generate detailed
observations and interviews intended to confirm themes that arose during the broader data
collection. These participants were placed in various elementary schools that served a broad
range of culturally, linguistically, and economically diverse student populations.
Furthermore, the schools varied considerably in their academic accomplishments, and
reflection journals that were used to describe their learning and methodological shifts.
Qualitative data analysis was conducted in an ongoing fashion during the course of the
study. Participant observations and personal interviews were coded and analyzed according
to the recurring key themes, which in turn refined subsequent observations and tailored the
topics for personal interviews.This process involved reading the notes numerous times,
coding them by topic and theme, studying, comparing, and contrasting the notes classified
under any given code, and finally looking for patterns and themes that integrated separate
codes. . Reflective journals could be a helpful tool for students to document their learning
from peers and to consider the ways in which peer interactions changed and contributed to
their achievement and accomplishments. The finding from this research will fit in the
published literature for sure because the researchers made some important statements such as
we can recommend the use of reflective journaling to facilitate student learning and
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I do not believe there were any important data ignored by the researchers because they
mentioned all the results they found even though there were some differences in the
reactions. They mentioned that the participants had different feelings, reactions, and opinions
about qualitative data analysis. Some of them described it as ‘terrifying’ others said ‘great.
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There are two major themes in the literature reviewed concerning cooperative learning:
qualitative and quantitative research. These themes are interconnected and influence the
effectiveness of cooperative learning. Research indicate researchers and practice on
cooperative learning, and to reflect on the overall factors that help to explain its success. It
clearly should be evident, there is no one best way to teach. In addition to providing
feedback on group and individual performance, it is also useful to provide a structure for
groups to reflect on what worked well in their group and what could be improved. The
review also shows research was a very good example of a qualitative research. Many
positive points in it which will help research, come in handy for any researcher who wants to
do a qualitative research. The researchers provided a sufficient evidence to present their
conclusion because the reactions that they got from the participants were so clear. The
articles showed how researchers helped to build their conclusion clearly.Students with
experience in structured cooperative learning in a particular academic discipline will be
enabled to participate in problem-based learning and collaborative learning in that discipline.
There are many benefits that can result from using cooperative learning strategies. Here are
benefits you might notice after implementing cooperative learning tasks in your classroom.
Finally cooperative learning is fun, so students enjoy it and are more motivated.
Cooperative learning is interactive, so students are engaged, active participants in the
learning.Cooperative learning allows discussion and critical thinking, so students learn more
and remember what they've learned for a longer period of time.Cooperative learning requires
students to learn to work together, which is an important skill for their futures.
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Brame, C.J. and Biel, R. (2015). Setting up and facilitating group work:Using cooperative
learning groups effectively. Retrieved todaysdate from http://cft.vanderbilt.edu/guides-
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Gillies, R. (2014). Cooperative learning: Developments in research. International Journal of
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Johnson, D.W., Johnson, R.T., and Smith, K.A. (2014). Cooperative learning: Improving
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Johnson, D., R. Johnson, C. Roseth, and T. Shin. 2014. “The Relationship Between
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Love, A. G., Dietrich, A., Fitzgerald, J., & Gordon, D. (2014). Integrating collaborative
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Slavin, R., Lake, C., Hanley, P. & Thurston, A. (2014). Experimental evaluations of
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