Running head: CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE1Coronary Artery Disease; a Case StudyJosephine JohnsonKaplan UniversityHS200: Diseases of the Human BodyNicole HeimMarch 8, 2018CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE2Coronary Artery Disease; a Case StudyEric is a 47 year old male who has just been diagnosed with Coronary Artery Disease. He is aconstruction worker and spends a great deal of time away from his wife and three children. Eric smokes approximately 1 1/2 packs of cigarettes a day and enjoys drinking a 6-pack after a long day at work.
Coronary artery disease also known as CAD is a major cause of death in men and women. This occurs when your coronary arteries become damaged. Fat, cholesterol, collagen, inflammatory cells, and substances builds up in the blood which in turn adheres to the artery walls, this is known as atherosclerosis..
When this occurs the coronary arteries become blocked restricting blood flow. CAD advances over decades and you may have no until symptoms start. Signs and symptoms of coronary artery disease may not occur in some people and others may have chest pain (angina) or a heart attack, which could be a sign of a blockage in the arteries of the heart. Narrowing or blockage of the arteries can lead to a heart attack this can happen when plaque burts the artery and a clot will set. Symptoms in men and women differ, men usually have chest pain,, pain in one or both of their arms, radiation of pain to the neck, jaw, and back. They may also have dyspnea (shortness of breath).
Women may also have chest pain or discomfort, pain in one or both arms, pain that radiates to the neck, jaw, and back. Dyspnea or difficulty breathing when doing activities (weeks leading up to a heart attack), nausea and vomiting and feeling faint. The damage of arteries and the cause of coronary artery disease may include smoking,stress, alcohol consumption, high blood pressure (hypertension), high cholesterol (hypercholesterolemia), dibetes, overweight, not having an active lifestyle, consuming a high fat diet, and a family history of early heart disease (first degree male and female relative that hadCORONARY ARTERY DISEASE3heart disease before 65 years of age). Risk factors that cannot be controled is age, gender and heredity including your race. According to Medscape (2016), even medical conditions can contribute to CAD such as lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, HIV, end stage renal failure and Xanthelasmata.
Women who have had a hysterectomy at or before the age of 50 also have a risk of CAD. Diagnosin coronary artery disease may require various tests. The physician will get your medical history, ask you what symptoms you are experiencing, and listen to your heart sounds with a stethoscope. The physician may order laboratory testing on your blood to check your fat, cholesterol, sugar, and protein levels. The physician may also order an electrocardiogram (EKG) to be done so that he or she can check how fast or even your heart is beating. An echocardiogram can be done to look at the shape and activity of your heart. A stress test, which uses a treadmill to evaluate your heart for blocked arteries.
If you are not able to be active a medicine to stimulate exercising (chemical stress test), can be taken. Cheat x-ray may be done to check your heart and lungs for abnornormalities. A CT scan is used to see if there is plaque build up in the arteries of the heart, it can determine if there is plaque in the heart arteries in the early stages. Coronary angiography which is done in the cardiac cath lab, can be used to check your heart arteries for blockage by inserting a thin catheter into an artery your wrist or leg up to the heart.
This test is done if the non-invasive tests results are abnormal or unusual and if your symptoms aims toward CAD. According to CardioSmart (2016), there are degrees of CAD. Mild is less than 49% blockage, moderate is 50%-70% of blockage, and severe is more than 70% blockage.Treatment options includes eating heart healthy meals, exercising, maintaining a healthy body weight, cease smoking, and learning to manage or control your stress. Medications that treat high cholesterol (Crestor, Lipitor, or Zocor), high blood pressure (Clonidine, Labetolol, orCORONARY ARTERY DISEASE4Bystolic), diabetes (Metformin, Glucophage, or Actos), chest pains (Nitrostat, Aspirin or Nitroglycerin) is recommended .
Aspirin and other thinnners (Xarelto or Warfarin) keeps the blood thin and keeps clots from forming. Severely narrow coronary arteries may be helped by procedures or surgeries. Stents can be inserted to keep an artery open. Coronary artery bypass (CABG) may be done by placing sections of veins or arteries close to the obstruction to bypass the blockages. Treatments usually depend on your sysmptoms, age, the amount of narrowing, the location of the narrowing, how many arteries impacted and your preferences.
A cardiac rehabilitation program may be beneficial to patients that experience chest pains, heart attack, heart surgery, heart procedures or heart failure. The 12-week program is comprised of education on nutrition, stress management, smoking cessation, exercise and tools to improve patients lives.According to a recent study that was published by the American Heart Association, titled Cardiovascular Disease Costs Will Exceed $1 Trillion by 2035, Warns the American Heart Association (2017), if cardiovascular disease is left untreated it will be detrimental to the nations financial and healthcare system. The amount of people in America that have cardiovascular disease will be 131.2 million that is 45% the sum of the U.S.
population and it is predicted to cost $1.1 trillion, by 2035 123.2 million Americans will have hypertension, 24 million will have CAD, 11.
2 million will suffer from strokes, 7.2 million Americans will have afib, by age 45 our cardiovascular disease risk rises to 50 percent and at age 65 it increases to 80 percent, and by 2035 African Americans are going to have the highest rate, coming in second will be Hispanics. Men will be afflicted by cardiovascular disease more than women by 2035. The cost of cardiovascular disease in America had reached $555 billion in 2016, making it the costliest disease in the U.S.
The cost on the family unit when for example the husband has a heart attack but is unable to return to his job. The wife will have to become the primary wageCORONARY ARTERY DISEASE5earner if she is already employed she is going to be put under a huge amount of pressure to keep the family afloat and if there are kids in the home the kids may become the caregivers of the dad while mom is at work. A patient who is affected by CAD will need a good support system.CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE6ReferencesAmerican College of Cardiology. (2016). Coronary Artery Disease; Understand Your Condition.
Retrieved from http://www.cardiosmart.org/Heart-Conditions/Coronary-Artery- Disease/Understand-Your-ConditionAmerican Heart Association. (2017). Cardiovascular Disease Costs Will Exceed $1 Trillion by 2035, Warns the American Heart Association.
Retrieved from http://newsroom.heart.org/news/cardiovascular-disease-costs-will-exceed-1-trillion-by- 2035-warns-the-american-heart-associationCompton, S. J., Talavera, F., Ali, Y.
S., Ahsan, C. H., & Boudi, F. B. (2016).
Risk Factors for Coronary Artery Disease. Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/164163-overview