and Technical Feasibility of production of sand by washing soils
of Civil Engineering
OF MORATUWA – SRI LANKA
Significance of the research
Scope of the study
Aims and Objectives of the research
Time schedule/work plan
Budget/estimated cost built up
Sand is a major primary material
used in concrete construction. Due to increase of construction projects, the
demand for sand is also increased. Most of the times for the source of the sand,
river sand is used. River sand is required to be mined from natural sources.
There are many problems arise due to mining of river sand (Leeuw, et al., 2009). Excessive erosion
and lowered river bed are major problems. So, use of alternative sources to
produce sand are needed.
Some of alternative methods
are use of quarry dust (Mir, 2015)
and ocean sand (Jianzhuang, Chengbing, Antonio, & Kaijian, 2017). Each of these
sources have their own advantages and disadvantages.
Another of those alternative is production of sand by washing
soil. Soil contains more than 50% of sand and different soils contain different
types of sands. There are many methods
available to separate sand in soils from very large industrial washing systems
to simple methods. It is necessary to evaluate the feasibility of these sand
for technical and financial aspects.
With the development in construction
industry the demand for the construction materials is also increased. So the
amount of sand consumed by the construction industry is also increasing
exponentially. The main source of sand which is river sand arises many problems
(Thornton, et al., 2006) . So alternatives
are needed. One of those solutions is washing soil to produce sand. In this
study the technical and
of production of sand by soil washing is examined.
of the research
Researches were done on use of Sea
Sand (RATNAYAKE, PUSWEWALA, CHAMINDA, EKANAYAKA, &
, quarry dust and desert sand (Zhanga, Songb, Yangb, & Liua, 2006) as an alternative to
River Sand for Concrete Production. Most of these alternatives have some
problems compared to the river sand and additional measures are required to
overcome them. If producing sand from washing soil is more economical than
other sources like river sand or other alternatives like quarry dust it will
save lots of money. If will also prevent the harmful effects to the environment
from other methods to extract sand.
is focused on feasibility of washing soil to separate sand. Most of the
machinery available are for sand washing (Fu, et al., 2015) to improve sand
qualities (washing sea sand or quarry dust) rather than washing raw soil to
produce sand. In some machines soil are washed to separate important minerals
in soil but not to produce sand. In the world there are lots of large scale and
small scale raw soil washing also. But they are mainly concentrated on removing
contaminants from polluted soils rather than production of sand from washing
soil (Voglar & Lestan, 2013) . So a research on
feasibility of production of sand by soil washing is necessary.
of the study
The research will be conducted on
two fronts. One is the technical feasibility and the other is the financial
feasibility. Under the technical feasibility study it will find out that
production of sand in small scale and on large scale can be done with existing
technology and machinery. New machinery may be required to be built for the
specific purpose to extract sand with desirable characteristics. Also it is
needed to identify the materials, labor, transportation, shipping,
physical location and technology for soil washing.
financial feasibility it will be find out from the available technical aspect,
production of sand from soil is more economical than other sources of sand. It
will consider financial aspects such as start-up capital, expenses, revenues,
and investor income and disbursements. Expenses for technical requirements find out from technical feasibility
is also required. A financial comparison between different methods will be
carried out for this purpose.
and Objectives of the research
Aim of this research is to
find out the technical and financial feasibility of production of sand from
soil washing. Under technical feasibility, it will be examined that the
existing technology is suitable to carry out the soil washing to effectively
produce sand with required characteristics needed. And under financial
feasibility it will be checked, if that production process is economical when
compared with other sand production methods and market demand for sand produced
Adequate literature review on Soil washing mechanisms and production of
Carry out the technical feasibility of production of sand by soil
Analysis about different type of soils available and their sand content
Analysis about the soil washing machines available and their adequacy
Experimental analysis about small scale soil washing at laboratory
Carrying out the financial feasibility of production of sand by soil
Analysis of different type of
soils available and their sand content
Analysis about the soil washing
machines available and their adequacy
Experimental analysis about
small scale soil washing at laboratory
Carrying out the financial
feasibility of production of sand by soil washing
cost built up
Fu, Y.-f., Gong, J., Yang, Z.-m., Li, P.-w., Li,
S.-d., & Lv, M.-z. (2015). Reliability Analysis of Mechanical Sand Washing
System. International Conference on Advances in Energy, Environment and
Chemical Engineering (AEECE-2015) (pp. 533-536). Atlantis Press.
Jianzhuang, X., Chengbing, Q., Antonio, N., &
Kaijian, Z. (2017). Use of sea-sand and seawater in concrete construction:
Current status. Construction and Building Materials, 1101-1111.
Leeuw, J. d., Shankman, D., Wu, G., Boer, W. F.,
Burnham, J., He, Q., . . . Xiao, J. (2009). Strategic assessment of the
magnitude and impacts of sand mining in Poyang Lake, China. Springer-Verlag
Mir, A. H. (2015). Improved Concrete Properties Using
Quarry Dust as Replacement for Natural Sand. International Journal of
Engineering Research and Development, 46-52.
RATNAYAKE, N., PUSWEWALA, U., CHAMINDA, S., EKANAYAKA,
E., & JAYAWARDENE, M. (2014). EVALUATION OF THE POTENTIAL OF SEA SAND AS AN
ALTERNATIVE TO RIVER SAND FOR CONCRETE PRODUCTION IN SRI LANKA. Journal of
Geological Society of Sri Lanka Vol. 16, 109-117.
Thornton, E. B., Sallenger, A., Sesto, J. C., Egley,
L., McGee, T., & Parsons, R. (2006). Sand mining impacts on long-term dune
erosion in southern Monterey Bay. Marine Geology 229, 45–58.
Voglar, D., & Lestan, D. (2013). Pilot-scale
washing of Pb, Zn and Cd contaminated soil using EDTA and process water
recycling. Chemosphere 91, 76–82.
Zhanga, G., Songb, J., Yangb, J., & Liua, X.
(2006). Performance of mortar and concrete made with a fine aggregate of desert
sand. Building and Environment 41, 1478–1481.