Research is usually done using human beings with feelingsand experiences. Method of data in some studies also touched confidential,emotional, rights, personal things, and the truth of the subjects. Respondentshave secret or confidential information, which cannot be known by others. Whendisclosed or announced will have a negative impact on certain parties,researchers need to know the ethics of research before planning and conductingresearch.
Ethics is derived from the Greek word meaning”ethos” which means the common sense that is commonly matched bysystematic studies of the concept of ‘good’, ‘bad’, ‘right’ and ‘wrong’.Ethical issues are the dilemmas and conflicts that may arise on a ‘suitable’method for conducting research. Ethics determine what can be done by aresearcher and things cannot be done by the researchers.Based on ethics in research, a researcher must:a) Research Participant Protectionb) Confidentiality of Research ParticipantInformationc) Power Options for Engagement in Research / IssueCoerciond) Initial Explanation About Research / InformedConsente) Avoiding Deceptive Practices a) Research Participant ProtectionDuring research, participating participants should beprotected against any negative effects that may be either physically ormentally. Allow sufficient time for the respondent to answer questions and notask questions that embarrass, or cause emotional turmoil unpleasant experiences.Hence, the researcher must fully inform the subject of any possible occurrenceduring the research.
b) Confidentiality of Research ParticipantInformationAny participant’s information should be protected from thegeneral public information unless the participants have given written consentthat allows the researcher to disclose such information to the public. Forexample, in survey surveys, respondents’ names need not be stated. Researchersshould never disclose information about the sample of the study until it caninterfere with the safety or dignity of the respondents. Personal rights mustbe protected and cannot be known c) Power Options for Engagement in Research /IssueParticipanthas the right to be involved in or not in research, without compulsion.Although elected, the participant is entitled to withdraw from involvement inthe research at any time, with or without any reason.
d) Initial Explanation About Research /Informed ConsentAn initial explanation should be given to the participantsabout the research they will participate in so they can choose whether toengage or not in the research. One of the measures to ensure ethics in researchis through the use of an informed consent form. The form must be read andsigned by the participant or guardian/parent (if it involves a child).
e) Avoiding deceptive practicesResearchers must clearly disclose the data and findings, explaining theprocedure of the investigation and publishing status with honesty. Researchersabsolutely cannot falsify data or attempt to deceive colleagues or involvedagencies and the general public about them. It is unethical if a researcheronly refers to and reports the literature that is in agreement with the problemand avoids any other study. For example, if a researcher enters financial aidfor his study it is likely that it will exaggerate the importance of hisresearch and wilfully does not refer to a study that does not support hisrequest. (Gay & Diehl, 1992:96; Forcese & Richer, 1973:5) Good research features include scientific and ethicalperspectives.
Issues become more pronounced in social research where thesubject is a human who has feelings, intellect and is influenced by social andreligious values. Research such as weapons is neutral but human beingsdetermine whether it is used to advance society or destroy it.