Research have a negative impact on certain parties,

Research is usually done using human beings with feelings
and experiences. Method of data in some studies also touched confidential,
emotional, rights, personal things, and the truth of the subjects. Respondents
have secret or confidential information, which cannot be known by others. When
disclosed or announced will have a negative impact on certain parties,
researchers need to know the ethics of research before planning and conducting
research.

Ethics is derived from the Greek word meaning
“ethos” which means the common sense that is commonly matched by
systematic studies of the concept of ‘good’, ‘bad’, ‘right’ and ‘wrong’.
Ethical issues are the dilemmas and conflicts that may arise on a ‘suitable’
method for conducting research. Ethics determine what can be done by a
researcher and things cannot be done by the researchers.

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Based on ethics in research, a researcher must:

a)      
Research Participant Protection

b)     
Confidentiality of Research Participant
Information

c)      
Power Options for Engagement in Research / Issue
Coercion

d)     
Initial Explanation About Research / Informed
Consent

e)     
Avoiding Deceptive Practices

 

a)     
Research Participant Protection

During research, participating participants should be
protected against any negative effects that may be either physically or
mentally. Allow sufficient time for the respondent to answer questions and not
ask questions that embarrass, or cause emotional turmoil unpleasant experiences.
Hence, the researcher must fully inform the subject of any possible occurrence
during the research.

 

b)     
Confidentiality of Research Participant
Information

Any participant’s information should be protected from the
general public information unless the participants have given written consent
that allows the researcher to disclose such information to the public. For
example, in survey surveys, respondents’ names need not be stated. Researchers
should never disclose information about the sample of the study until it can
interfere with the safety or dignity of the respondents. Personal rights must
be protected and cannot be known

 

c)      
Power Options for Engagement in Research /
Issue

Participant
has the right to be involved in or not in research, without compulsion.
Although elected, the participant is entitled to withdraw from involvement in
the research at any time, with or without any reason.

 

d)     
Initial Explanation About Research /
Informed Consent

An initial explanation should be given to the participants
about the research they will participate in so they can choose whether to
engage or not in the research. One of the measures to ensure ethics in research
is through the use of an informed consent form. The form must be read and
signed by the participant or guardian/parent (if it involves a child).

 

e)     
Avoiding deceptive practices

Researchers must clearly disclose the data and findings, explaining the
procedure of the investigation and publishing status with honesty. Researchers
absolutely cannot falsify data or attempt to deceive colleagues or involved
agencies and the general public about them. It is unethical if a researcher
only refers to and reports the literature that is in agreement with the problem
and avoids any other study. For example, if a researcher enters financial aid
for his study it is likely that it will exaggerate the importance of his
research and wilfully does not refer to a study that does not support his
request. (Gay & Diehl, 1992:96; Forcese & Richer, 1973:5)

 

Good research features include scientific and ethical
perspectives. Issues become more pronounced in social research where the
subject is a human who has feelings, intellect and is influenced by social and
religious values. Research such as weapons is neutral but human beings
determine whether it is used to advance society or destroy it.

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