Research Unit Table of Contents Triangulation Analysis.

ResearchMethodologyAssignmentTRIANGULATIONIN RESEARCH    GCUniversity, LahoreClinicalPsychology UnitWetrain professionals                                      Name:            YousafRaza                                     Session:          2017-2018                                     MSTop Up Clinical Psychology             Department:              ClinicalPsychology Unit                                                                 Table of Contents Triangulation Analysis. 3 What is Triangulation?. 3 Types of Triangulation. 3 Data triangulation. 3 Researcher triangulation.

4 Theoretical triangulation. 4 Methodological triangulation. 4 Between-method triangulation. 5 Reasons for Triangulation. 5 Usefulness of Triangulation. 6 Research Bias. 6 Measurement bias.

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6 Sampling bias. 6 Procedural bias. 6 Conclusion. 7 References. 8    Triangulation Analysis What isTriangulation?Triangulation is the process of verifying thevalidity through incorporating different viewpoints and methodologies. Inpsychology and other social sciences disciplines, it refers to the mixture oftwo or more theories, data sources, methods or investigators in one study of asingle phenomenon to meet on a single construct, and can be applied in bothquantitative and qualitative studies. The methods for validation in qualitativestudy may include the use of survey, in-depth interview, focus groups,participant observation etc.

(Blaikie, 1991). Triangulationsimplifies justification of data by cross verification from more than twosources. It assesses the stability of findings acquired from different toolsand upturns the chance to control, or at least measure threats or multiple reasonsmanipulating the outcomes. Besides the validation, triangulation is aboutexpanding and spreading of understanding in a conceptual manner. It is widelyused to obtain improvement and may lead to multi perspective interpretations(Cohen & Manion, 1989). Types ofTriangulationThere are four basic typesof triangulation: Data triangulation Researcher triangulation Theoretical triangulation Methodological triangulationData triangulation.Data triangulationvalidates the data and research by verifying the same information through crosschecking by different sources.

The triangulation of data strengthens theresearch paper because the data has increased the credibility and validity. Thetriangulation of data occurs when numerous theories, resources or approachesare used. The data triangulation gathers the data through different samplingstrategies such as collecting data at different times, in different contextsand through different people (Barnes & Vidgen, 2006). Venkatesh (2009) was ableto make sense of certain forms of behavior and experience of being black andpoor. He conducted a study in way that had never been possible if he had notbeen living in among those who were black and poor. He gathered the data fromboth those who were involved and their understanding of what it meant to beblack and poor and from the experience of living in their world.

Researcher triangulationInthe studies which depend completely on researcher’s understanding to generatethe data, the best way is to use different researchers. If differentresearchers are using the same research technique that can arrive the sameresults, this can help to confirm the reliability. The researchers fromdifferent ethnic groups, ages, gender and class groups can be used to check forthings such as observer and interview bias (Jick, 2006). Theoretical triangulationInthis type of triangulation, the researcher involves the different methodologies,theories and hypotheses to validate the data and to improve the reliability ofthe research. The methodologies of quantitative and qualitative both can beimprovised and different research designs may be involved for validating thestudy (Kushner & Morrow, 2003). MethodologicaltriangulationItis the most widely used type of triangulation the researcher focuses on the flaws of one methodwith the assets of another as a meansof improving the reliability and validity of his research. A mixture of methods can give a more roundedpicture of someone’s life and behavior; a researcher could, for example, observe a respondent’s behavior using participant observation and also question them aboutwhy they did something.

Alternatively the researcher could comparethe resultsfrom two different methods used on the same people such as a semi-structured interview and a focusgroup and if the conclusions drawn are broadly the same this helpsconfirm the reliability and validity of the data (Denzin, 2012). Methodological triangulation can be further more dividedinto two types:1.       Within-method triangulation2.       Between-method triangulationWithin-methodtriangulationAccordingto Bryman (2001), the use of varieties of the same kind of method to explore aresearch issue. Example of this can be of the researcher using both open andclosed ended questions of the same questionnaire.

The general weakness ofquestionnaires might involve the researcher to assume that the participant orrespondent is telling the truth. However the researcher could use anobservational approach along to check if the respondent does what he claims todo. Hugheset al. (1997) examined that perception of expensive drinks to young people byusing two methods which are contrasting to each other i.

e focus groups andstructured interviews. The data collected from one method was used tocross-check and confirm data from the other such as each showing a strongpattern of age-related differences in attitudes to expensive drinks. Between-methodtriangulationThismethod is also known as contrasting research methods. This can be simplydescribed as involving a structured interview with some kind of observationalstudy.

  Reasons for Triangulation Denzin (2012) has proposed fourreasons for undertaking triangulation:·        Enriching: The outputs of differentinformal and formal instruments add value to each other by explaining differentaspects of a particular issue.·        Refuting: Whereone set of options disproves a hypothesis generated by another set of options.·        Confirming: Whereone set of options confirms a hypothesis generated by another set of options·        Explaining: Where one set ofoptions sheds light on unexpected findings derived from another set of options.Usefulness ofTriangulationTriangulationprovides researchers with several important opportunities. First itallows researchers to be more confident of their results and this can play many otherconstructive roles as well. It can motivate the creation of inventive methods,new ways of capturing a problem to balance with conventional data collection methods.This may help to uncover the deviant dimension of a phenomenon.

This may also serve as the critical test, by virtue of its comprehensiveness,for competing theories. Triangulation minimizes the inadequaciesof single-source research. Two sources complement and verify oneanother, which reduces the impact of bias. This provides richer and more comprehensiveinformation because humans share more truthfully with an independentthird party than they do with someone they know or think they know.Using several methods together also helps to rule out rival explanations(Annells, 2006). Research BiasThe problem with relying onjust one option is to do with bias. There are several types of bias encounteredin research, and triangulation can help with most of them.

Measurement biasMeasurement bias is caused by the way inwhich data is collected. Triangulation allows to combine individual and groupresearch options to help reduce bias such as peer pressure on focus groupparticipants.Sampling biasSampling bias is when all the population is not covered(omission bias) or only cover some parts because it’s more convenient(inclusion bias). Triangulation combines the different strengths of theseoptions to ensure that one is getting sufficient coverage.

Procedural biasProcedural bias occurs when participants areput under some kind of pressure to provide information. For example, doing “voxpop” style interrupt polls might catch the participants unaware and thus affecttheir answers. Triangulation allows us to combine short engagements with longerengagements where participants have more time to give considered responses.Conclusion Triangulationis possible and a good way to reap the benefits of both qualitative andquantitative methods.

The use of ‘triangulation’, however, will depend on theresearcher’s philosophical position. It is not aimed merely at validation butat deepening and widening one’s understanding. It tends to supportinterdisciplinary research rather than restricted within social sciences. Infact, ‘triangulation’ can, indeed, increase credibility of scientific knowledgeby improving both internal consistency and generalizability through combiningboth quantitative and qualitative methods in the same study. However, effective’triangulation’ depends on coordination and collaboration; particularly thosewho are actively involved in collecting data and response.Reviewing literature it isseen that there some importance of triangulations that can be categorized intothe following points (Cohen and Manion 1989).1.

      Triangulartechniques are suitable when a more holistic view is sought in research. Mostresearch of this kind looks at an achievement or skill outcome rather than thedevelopment of attitudes.2.

       Triangulation has special relevance where acomplex phenomenon requires clarification because of the complementaryphilosophies, objectives and practices in the two classes, single methodprovides limited value, but the adaptation of multi-method approach would givevery different feature. 3.      Itis appropriate when different methods of learning are to be evaluated andskills criteria can be found here.4.

      Itis suitable for controversial aspect of research where needed to be evaluatedmore fully. Here these could measure and investigate factors such achievement,teaching methods, practical skills, cultural interests, social skills,interpersonal skills, community spirit and so on and validity could be thenincreased.5.

      Itis useful when a recognized approach gives a limited and frequently distortedpicture.6.      Itcan be useful technique where a researcher is engaged in case studyparticularly examining a complex phenomenon. ReferencesAnnells, M.

(2006). Triangulation ofqualitative approaches: hermeneutical phenomenology and grounded theory. Journalof advanced nursing, 56(1), 55-61.Barnes, S. J., & Vidgen, R. T.

(2006). Datatriangulation and web quality metrics: A case study in e-government. Information& Management, 43(6), 767-777.Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K.(2004). A guide to teaching practice.

Psychology Press.Creswell, J. W.

, & Clark, V. L. P. (2007).Designing and conducting mixed methods research.

Denzin, N. K. (2012). Triangulation 2.0. Journalof Mixed Methods Research, 6(2), 80-88.Hughes, J.

A., & Sharrock, W. W. (1997).The philosophy of social research.Jick, T. D.

(2006). Mixing qualitative andquantitative methods: Triangulation in action. Administrative sciencequarterly, 24(4), 602-611.

Kushner, K. E., & Morrow, R. (2003).

Grounded theory, feminist theory, critical theory: Toward theoreticaltriangulation. Advances in Nursing Science, 26(1),30-43.Mugenda, O. M. (1999). Researchmethods: Quantitative and qualitative approaches.

African Centre forTechnology Studies.Patton, M. Q. (1990). Qualitativeevaluation and research methods. SAGE Publications, inc.

Seedhouse, P. (2005). Conversation analysis asresearch methodology. In Applying conversation analysis (pp.251-266).

Palgrave Macmillan UK.


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